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The  euliglitened  benevolence  with  which  the  author  of 
the  following  lectures  advocated  measures  for  the  relief, 
present  and  future,  of  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem,  has 
within  the  last  year  made  his  name  almost  as  familiar 
to  their  co-religionists  of  Great  Britain,  as  it  has  long 
been  rendered  by  his  able  editorship  of  the  ^  Allgemeine 
Zeitung  des  Judenthums' ,  to  the  Israelites  of  Germany. 

Two  years  since,  a  German  acquaintance  called  my 
attention  to  the  work,  and  kindly  sent  it  to  me  for 
perusal.  From  that  perusal  I  rose,  with  a  strong  desire 
that  its  contents  should  be  placed  within  reach  of  all 
the  educated  minds  of  the  community  to  which  I 
belong.  The  Avriter,  it  appeared  to  me,  supplied  a 
long-existing  void  and  very  urgent  want,  in  the  Jewish 
polemical  literature  of  the  age.  Though  not  wholly 
concurring  with  him  on  some  few  points,  his  general 
deductions  were,  I  thought  and  felt,  as  sound  and  true, 
as  the  elaboration  of  the  arguments  that  led  to  them  was 
patient  and  logical.     So  the  wish  deepened  into  a  sense 


of  a  duty  to  be  accomplished, — the  duty  of  placing  an 
English  version  before  all  my  co-religionists,  for  whom 
their  non-acquaintance  with  German  renders  the 
original  a  sealed  book.  To  you  then,  ray  dear  brothers 
and  sisters  in  faith  and  of  race,  members  of  all  syna- 
gogues, natives  of  all  lands  spread  over  the  wide  surface 
of  our  globe,  in  which  the  English  is  the  language  first 
lisped  by  infant  lips,  I  dedicate  these  pages.  Accept 
them  as  a  labour  of  good-will  and  love.  To  you  all, 
— whether  you  be  of  those  who  by  honest  reverence 
for  ancient  forms,  are  induced  to  cling  to  the  exegesis 
of  the  Talmud;  or  whether  of  such,  as  a  reverence 
equally  honest,  leads  back  to  the  yet  more  ancient 
phase  of  our  common  faith,  the  one  presented  in  the 
Torah  of  our  inspired  legislator,  Moses ;  or  whether, 
perchance,  of  those  finally,  who  while  unendowed  with 
strength  of  intellect  sufficient  to  enable  them  to  resist 
the  pressure  of  the  time  present,  that  forces  them  into 
the  path  of  rationalism,  are  yet  strong  enough  of  heart, 
to  cling  to  the  ties  of  race,  blood  and  afifection ; — to  all, 
I  believe,  a  patient  examination  of  the  views  presented 
to  us  by  Dr.  Philippsohn  '  On  the  Development  of  the 
Religious  Idea'  will  not  be  imfruitful  in  good.  To  this 
inquiry  I  would  also  invite  my  coimtrymen  of  other 
creeds,  in  the  confident  hope,  that  by  it  they  would 
attain  to  a  truer  knowledge  of  the  broad  and  firm  basis 


on  which  the  religion  of  the  Jews  rests,  and  would  learn 
from  it,  more  clearly  to  comprehend,  more  duly  to 
respect,  the  solemn  convictions  which  lie  at  the  root  of 
the  Hebrew's  enduring  fidelity  to  his  God-revealed 

It  will  teach  us  all,  as  many  as  we  are,  Talmudists, 
Mosaists,  Rationalists,  Christians,  better  to  understand 
ourselves  and  others — better  to  know  and  to  appreciate, 
all  which  we  severally  and  respectively  reject,  all  to 
which  we  adhere,  more  wisely  to  direct  the  spiritual 
tendencies  of  those,  who  by  circumstances  of  age  or 
position,  are  committed  to  our  guidance.  Yet  more ! 
It  will  teach  us  a  deeper  reverence  for  that  Eternal 
Wisdom,  which  out  of  present  evil  prepareth  future 
good.  The  present  evil  we  shall  outlive, — we  are  out- 
living. May  the  asperities  to  which  I  allude,  as  having 
so  long  marked  the  relation  of  Christian  to  Jew,  and 
as  having  arisen  frequently  within  our  own  communi- 
ties, when  practical  outward  reforms  were  attempted, 
be  likened  with  justice  to  the  passing  of  the  harrow 
over  the  ground !  May  they  have  prepared  the  mental 
soil  of  that  community  and  of  all  mankind,  for  the 
seeds  of  truth, — the  grain  which  the  Almighty  has 
garnered  up  in  unmeasured  abundance,  and  which  it  is 
the  mission,  first  of  the  Jews,  then  of  all  the  human 
race,  graduallv,  during  countless  coming  ages,  to  scatter 


over  the  eartli.  May  all  men,  while  sowing  in  weariness 
and  conflict  of  body  and  spirit,  reap  in  gentleness  and 
peace,  a  rich  and  holy  harvest  of  love,  happiness,  and 
truth,  '  Here/  and  of  bliss  eternal,  *  Hereafter !' 

A.  M.  G. 

Sr  John's  Lodge,  Rkgent's  Park. 
February   1855. 


The  following  Lectures  were  delivered  here  last  winter, 
in  the  presence  of  an  audience  composed  of  persons  of 
all  religious  denominations.  I  had  the  satisfaction  to 
find  their  numbers  not  only  sustained  but  increased 
as  the  course  proceeded,  in  a  town  whose  inhabitants 
have  long  made  freedom  of  belief,  thought,  and  speech, 
an  object  of  their  especial  and  fostering  care,  and  have 
thus  secured  to  themselves  a  distinguished  name  in  the 
amials  of  civilisation. 

Many  of  my  hearers  have  expressed  a  wish  that 
these  Lectures  should  appear  in  print.  In  preparing  to 
comply  with  this  desire,  the  question  suggested  itself  to 
me,  whether  1  could  advantageously  develop  much,  of 
which  only  a  slight  sketch  had  been  presented,  illus- 
trate by  notes  much,  upon  which  I  had  but  cursorily 
remarked.     But  I  speedily  came  to  the  conviction,  that 


the  work  would  thereby  be  too  much  extended,  perhaps 
well-nigh  doubled,  and  that  the  aim  I  had  in  view  might 
thus  be  prejudiced.  Spoken  utterances  have  a  manifest 
advantage ;  the  speaker  can  facilitate  by  the  manner, 
the  comprehension  of  the  matter, — he  can  infuse  into 
his  accents  the  living  voice  of  his  heart.  He  and  his 
words  stand  in  direct  relation  with  the  listener.  Written 
utterance  fails  of  this,  and  has  only  the  compensating 
capability  of  operating,  with  less  force  it  is  true,  but 
with  more  enduring  effect  on  the  reader,  long  after  the 
echo  of  the  spoken  word  has  died  away.  Each  Lecture 
must  necessarily  have  its  own  exclusive  theme,  which  it 
must  examine  to  its  close ;  and  thus  confined  within 
certain  limits,  a  subject  requiring  elaborate  discussion 
can  extend  no  further  than  another  demanding  briefer 
consideration.  But  for  these  disadvantages,  the  author 
finds  abundant  compensation  in  the  adaptation  of  the 
form,  and  in  the  pleasure  he  experiences  in  placing 
before  an  enlightened  public,  the  results  of  the  laborious 
investigations  of  years. 

In  the  following  Lectures,  the  path  of  history  has 
been  followed.  History,  while  delineating  the  future 
of  each,  attaches  itself  to  no  one  party.  Whoever, 
therefore,  seeks  to  reason  on  strictly  historical  premises 
only,  without  belonging  to  any  one  party,  will  arrive 

author's  preface.  ix 

at  conclusions  that  some  will  deny,  others  accept  as 
their  own.  But  entire  acceptance  from  any  one  party, 
must  he  the  less  expect  to  enjoy. 

Without  having  originated  much  that  is  new,  I  am 
conscious  that  I  may  claim  to  have  struck  out  a  new  path. 
My  especial  aim  and  endeavour  have  been,  to  remove 
religion  from  the  ideal  station  assigned  to  it,  into  the 
position  to  which  it  belongs — into  life.  Religion  has 
so  long  abandoned  society,  that  it  is  scarcely  a  matter 
of  surprise  if  society  has  in  its  turn  abandoned  religion. 
The  two  thus  parted  must  be  re-united.  Religion  must 
come  to  understand  that  it  can  exercise  no  true  and 
beneficent  influence  on  the  individual,  until  society 
collectively  shall  have  become  religious.  Society  must 
come  to  comprehend,  that  it  cannot  raise  itself  from 
its  present  prostrate  condition,  until  it  shall  have 
realised  the  principles  which  were  long  ago  enunciated 
by  religion,  but  of  which  the  removal  of  religion  from  the 
actual  world,  its  taking  refuge  exclusively  in  the  celestial 
'  Hereafter,'  have  caused  the  loss  for  actual  life. 

I  shall  seek  an  opportunity  of  resuming  and  am- 
plifying my  examination  of  this  important  branch  of 
my  inquiry  (only  touched  upon  in  Lectui'cs  III.  and 
XII.)  in  a  future  course,  at  a  fitting  moment. 


If  these  printed  words  share  the  kindly  reception 
accorded  to  their  spoken  utterance,  I  may  feel  perfectly 
tranquil  as  to  the  destiny  awaiting  them. 


Magdeuurg,  March  \bth,  1847. 





ANTIQUITY    AND    MOSAISM      .  .  .  .23 


ON   THE    SOCIAL    MORALITY    OF    MOSAISM       .      51 





THE    HAGIOGRAPHA  ....    105 


THE    SECOND      TEMPLE,    THE     ORIGIN     OF 




JUDAISM  ......    145 






THE    JEWS    IN    THEIR    DISPERSIONS         .  .184 


THE   CONTENTS   OF    THE   TALMUD  .  .    203 





THE    FUTURE    OF    RELIGION  .  .  .    247 



Page  159,  line  18         .     .     for  was  read  were  {his). 
200     „      2    .     .     .    for  meteors  read  matters. 

The  Religious  Idea  sprang  from  Judaism^  and  has  de- 
veloped itself  from  Judaism^  as  from  its  parent  stem. 
Komid  that  stem  its  branches  yet  cling  unwithered. 

A  history  of  the  development  of  the  Religious  or 
Divine  1(1  ea,  must  be  therefore  necessarily  and  essentially, 
a  history  of  Judaism.  Again,  the  latter  must  resolve 
itself  into  the  former,  if  we  desire,  neither  to  narrow 
the  history  of  Judaism  into  a  history  of  Jewtlom,'^  nor 
to  consider  Judaism  in  respect  of  its  own  integral  nature 

*  This  term  is  employed  as  the  nearest  api^roach  to  the 
German  word  '3utient}eit/ and  analogous  to  the  English  Christen- 
dom., in  signification. — T. 




THE   JEWS   IN    THEIR   DISPERSIONS         .  .184 


THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD  .  .    203 







The  Religious  or  Divine  Idea  (a  term  we  shall  employ  in 
contradistinction  to  the  human  Idea,  or  Heathenism) 
has  its  origin  in  Judaism.  Of  the  truth  of  this  asser- 
tion, though  involving  a  fact  in  many  periods  designedly 
ignored  or  forgotten,  not  Idstory  alone  furnishes  ample 
evidence.  Christianity  and  Moslemism  alike  testify 
thereto,  by  their  equal  recognition  of  the  religious 
authority  of  the  Judaic  biblical  writings. 

The  Religious  Idea  sprang  from  Judaism,  and  has  de- 
veloped itself  from  Judaism,  as  from  its  parent  stem. 
Round  that  stem  its  branches  yet  cling  unwithered, 

A  history  of  the  development  of  the  Religious  or 
Divine  Idea,  mi^st  be  therefore  necessarily  and  essentially, 
a  history  of  Judaism.  Again,  the  latter  must  resolve 
itself  into  the  former,  if  we  desire,  neither  to  narrow 
the  history  of  Judaism  into  a  history  of  Jewdom,^  nor 
to  consider  Judaism  in  respect  of  its  own  integral  nature 

*  This  term  is  employed  as  the  nearest  approach  to  the 
German  word  '3ubent)cit/ and  analogous  to  the  English  Christen- 
dom, in  signification. —  T. 



only,  but  also  to  comprehend  it  iu  its  relation  to  sur- 
rounding antagonisms.  From  tlie  present  lectures  will 
be  deduced,  as  I  proceed  with  my  course,  the  confirma- 
tion of  these  propositions.  I  submit  them  to  you  in 
this  place,  in  order  to  justify  myself  in  the  presumption, 
that  I  present  virtually  an  outline  of  the  history  of  the 
development  of  the  Religious  Idea  among  mankind 
generally,  while  keeping  the  history  of  Judaism  espe- 
cially in  view,  and  taking  Judaism  from  its  commence- 
ment for  the  guiding  thread  of  my  reflections. 

What,  it  may  be  asked,  induces,  wdiat  emboldens 
me  to  treat  such  a  subject  in  public  lectures?  I  an- 
swer, the  tendency  of  the  age :  I  should  say  rather, 
the  subject  itself  is  a  groAvth  of  the  age.  Whatever 
opinion  may  be  held  as  to  the  time  in  which  w^e  live, 
whether  its  general  characteristics  be  deemed  worthy  of 
praise  or  condemnation,  on  one  point  all  will  be  agreed. 
In  this  its  true  glory  consists;  the  tendency  which 
marks  it,  is  the  striving  to  receive  all  things  spiritual 
into  its  own  consciousness.  In  it,  the  barriers  have 
been  thrown  down,  behind  Avhich  each  domain  of 
thought  and  belief  was  wont  to  entrench  itself,  Avithin 
which  each  withdrew  from  his  neighbour's  ken,  partly 
from  holding,  that  to  inform  himself  of  the  thoughts 
and  convictions  of  his  fellow  man  Avas  to  desecrate 
his  ow^n  sanctuary,  and  partly  from  arrogance  and 
contempt,  conceiving  such  knowledge  to  be  valueless. 

As  each  believed  he  owned  the  highest,  the  intellec- 
tual possessions  of  another  lay  at,  or  rather  under,  his 
feet.  This  period  of  separation  and  isolation  has  passed. 
All  presses  onward,  and  is  pressed  onward,  into  the 
full  light  of  intercommunion  and  mutual  recognition. 
That  Avhich  claims  continued  existence  is  subjected  to 


close  investigation  as  to  its  origin  and  significance,  and 
the  validity  of  that  claim.  Arbitrary  dismissal  is  no 
longer  possible;  equally  impossible  is  voluntary  Avith- 
drawal.  Retirement  into  solitude  and  silence,  whether 
induced  by  exaggerated  self-estimation,  or  the  self-con- 
sciousness of  weakness,  is  now  wholly  infeasible. 

In  like  manner,  Judaism,  roused  from  her  lethargy 
by  the  mighty  upheavings  of  the  age,  has  at  length 
arisen,  and  steps  forth  out  of  her  long  obscurity,  into 
the  broad  su.nlight  of  general  consciousness.  Urged  by 
the  agitation  around  her,  she  breaks "  the  silence  to 
which  she  has  been,  during  thousands  of  years,  alike 
sentenced  from  without,  and  self-condemned  from 
within.  Favored  by  the  tendency  of  the  time,  her 
voice,  so  long  mute,  obtains  full  hearing.  Judaism 
exists,  must,  Avill  eternally  endure.  Judaism  must, 
therefore,  make  it  clearly  manifest,  both  to  believers 
and  non-believers,  why  she  now  exists,  and  unto  what 
end  she  will  continue  to  exist,  Judaism  claims  for 
herself  a  permanent,  wide,  and  important  place  among 
men — a  deep  and  significant  voice  in  the  counsels  of 
men.  It  behoves  her,  therefore,  to  prove  her  worthiness, 
licr  dignity,  her  indispensability.  The  whole  domain 
of  human  thought  lies  now  open  to  the  mental  vision, 
as  much  of  every  Jew  as  of  every  Christian,  of  every 
one  in  fact,  who  partakes  of  the  blessing  of  civilization. 
No  one  can  longer  refuse  to  contemplate  the  attain- 
ments, spiritual  and  intellectual  of  another,  to  test  his 
own  thereby,  and  to  subject  them  to  the  full  light  of 
investigation,  for  his  own  and  the  general  good. 

On  entering  upon  our  subject,  my  hearers,  the  first 
question  that  forces  itself  upon  our  attention  is  this : 
Of  what  have  we  to  treat,  in  treating  of  Judaism  ?     Of 

B   2 

4  LECTURE    I. 

a  phenomenon  that  arose  in  the  very  earliest  ages,  that 
existed  through  antiquity,  outlived  the  middle  ages, 
that  held  on  its  course  during  later  centuries,  and  has 
manifested,  in  the  more  recent  periods,  unexpected 
vitalitjr,  renewed  activit}^,  positive  and  true  rejuvenes- 

Assuredly,  this  sufficiently  testifies  to  the  potency  of 
this  phenomenon.  Were  it  our  task  to  examine  a 
monument  of  antiquity — to  gather  up  the  venerable 
remains  of  an  age  long  by-gone — to  linger  amid  the 
time-worn  relics  of  a  life  long  buried  beneath  them — 
how  great,  how  intense  would  be  the  interest  they 
would  awaken  within  us.  But  this  it  is  not.  We  here 
pass  into  a  presence,  that  coeval  with  the  earliest  ages 
of  the  race  of  man,  has  been  his  companion  on  all  his 
wanderings,  has  followed  him,  step  by  step,  and  pre- 
pares anew  to  follow  him  on  his  future  course ; — a 
presence,  whose  human  embodiments  may  not  only  be 
enumerated  among  the  generations  of  the  past,  but  are 
now  to  be  found  in  the  midst  of  all  nations,  weaving 
their  due  portion  at  the  great  loom  of  the  web  of  human 
destiny ;  a  presence  which  not  alone  ruled  the  spirits  of 
the  past,  but  even  at  this  day  fills  and  forms  the  mental 
being  of  millions. 

It  stands  alone,  single  of  its  kijid.  All  historical 
facts  pertain  to  the  periods  which  they  have  produced, 
or  by  which  they  have  been  produced.  One  only 
phenomenon  has  lived  through  all  ages  of  man's 
history,  until  this  day;  one  alone  has  moved,  a  living 
presence,  in  and  through  all  times.  That  one  is 

Wlience  has  Judaism  derived  this  capacity?  This 
question  has  been  variously  answered.     By  some  it  has 


been  said,  "  Judaism  is  a  muminy ;  it  resembles  the 
skilfully  embalmed  corpse  of  aii  Egyptian,  wliicli 
remains  entire  after  dissolution."  Surely,  this  comparison 
can  hardly  be  made  in  all  seriousness ;  for  the  lifeless 
body  may  lie  undisturbed  for  a  time  amid  the  ashes  of 
earthly  things;  but  from  the  domain  of  the  spirit,  all 
death  is  excluded,  as  from  a  living  organization.  It  is 
not  given  to  a  mummy  to  combat  and  be  combated ; 
nor  to  a  corpse  to  act  and  be  reacted  upon.  Judaism, 
therefore,  must  still  be  regarded  as  an  Idea,  bequeathed 
to  us  by  the  past. 

By  others  again,  the  blindness  and  obstinacy  of  its 
followers  have  been  assigned  as  the  cause  of  the  con- 
tinued existence  of  Judaism.  We  are  truly  justified  in 
the  assumption,  that  the  blindness  and  obstinacy  dwell 
with  those  who  thus  dispose  of  the  question.  It  were 
possible  that  one  or  two  generations  of  men,  having  the 
bitter  memory  of  inflicted  wrong  yet  fresh  within  them, 
might  be  swayed  by  such  feelings ;  but  that  men  should 
be  thus  acted  upon  and  enslaved,  generation  after 
generation,  amid  the  mutations  of  ages,  and  under  cir- 
cumstances the  most  varied  and  adverse,  by  low,  narrow, 
and  selfish  passions,  is  wholly  inconceivable.  No  !  En- 
tire conviction,  unbounded  resignation,  and  a  love  that 
knows  nought  beside,  coidd  alone  have  had  poT\  er  to 
produce  such  a  result. 

If  these  premises  be  admitted,  then  the  natural  and 
evident  deduction  is  this  : — The  inward  stream  of  life  it 
is,  flowing  continuously,  though  often  silently  and  im- 
perceptibly, through  the  veins  of  Judaism,  which  has 
nourished  the  root,  invigorated  the  stem,  and  imparted 
the  verdant  hue  of  life  to  the  leafy  crown,  of  the 
primeval   palm-tree.     Well    may    it    be,    that    from   a 

G  LECTUllK    1. 

growth  that  has  outlived  ages,  a  decayed  bough  may 
sometimes  fall — a  withered  leaf  float  gently  earth- 
wards. But  within,  in  the  giant  tree's  core,  the  creative 
sap  of  life  mounts  in  full  tide  heavenwards,  keeping 
it  healthful  and  verdant,  and  powerful  to  resist,  alike 
the  mouldering  eflbct  of  time,  the  blasting  of  the 
storm,  and  the  stroke  of  the  lightning. 

Again  then  we  ask,  what  is  Judaism  ?  The  reply 
that  we  can  here  give  by  anticipation,  at  the  very  outset 
of  our  proposed  enquiry,  is  in  truth  comprised  in  what 
we  have  just  advanced. 

Had  Judaism  been  from  its  commencement  an  in- 
herent isolated  fact,  had  it  been  delivered  to  us,  with  a 
limitation  of  its  activity  within  its  original  narrow  do- 
main, as  its  distinctive  element — it  would  have  been 
necessary,  ere  we  entered  upon  our  proposed  investiga- 
tion, that  I  should  have  laid  before  you,  my  hearers,  a 
clear  definition  of  Judaism.  In  it,  on  the  contrary, 
we  have  recognized  a  living  presence  that  has  existed 
through  all  the  great  periods  of  the  history  of  man — a 
presence  which,  though  in  its  inmost  being  a  unity,  has 
passed  through  many  diflerent  phases,  and  assumed 
very  varying  forms.  The  history  of  all  these  forms 
and  phases,  and  not  that  of  any  one  of  them  only, 
constitutes  therefore,  the  history  of  Judaism.  In  and 
from  their  collected  history  alone,  is  the  real  omnipre- 
sent essential  unity  of  Judaism  clearly  demonstrable. 
The  solitary  ark  of  the  covenant  in  the  wilderness, 
is  not  the  golden  temple  of  Jerusalem,  nor  is  this  the 
ol)scure  synagogue  in  the  ghetto  of  the  middle  ages. 
The  rigidly  simple  law  of  Moses  in  the  wilds  of  Arabia, 
is  not  identical  with  the  glowing  denunciations  of  the 
proj[)hets  against  the  idolatrous  and  degenerate  race  of 


Israel.  Different  again  are  the  hair-splitting,  sophistical 
acumen  of  the  Talmudistj  and  the  all-weighing  gene- 
ralizing judgment  of  the  philosophical  thinker.  Juda- 
ism then  consists,  not  of  any  one  of  these  items  alone, 
but  of  all  of  them  collectively.  And  though  we  are 
well  aware  that  of  all  these  phases,  the  subject,  end, 
and  aim  are  the  same,  their  purport  the  same,  yet  have 
we  no  right  to  pronounce  determinately  on  the  latter, 
until  we  shall  have  more  closely  examined  the  former. 

Although  certain  marked  features  are  at  once  clearly 
perceptible,  any  anticipation  on  this  subject  would  be 
an  assumption  of  that,  in  respect  of  which  an  appeal  to 
history  can  alone  produce  conviction. 

We  must  next  enquire,  what  is  the  true  sphere  of 
action  of  Judaism?  The  answer  would  be  easy,  if  it 
were  true — that  of  religion.  From  early  times,  a  dis- 
tinction, it  is  well  known,  has  been  made  between  man 
in  his  religious,  and  man  in  his  social  character.  In  his 
relation  to  that  higher  Power,  whose  creature  he  is,  to 
the  Divinity,  he  is  the  religious  man ;  in  his  relation  to 
society,  the  social  man.  In  the  latter,  there  is  again 
a  distinction  between  the  individual  man,  in  his  relation 
to  his  individual  fellow  man,  and  man  in  his  relation 
as  a  responsible  moral  being,  a  member  of  society  and 
of  the  state,  to  society  in  general  and  to  tlie  state. 
As  however  general  morality  rests  wholly  on  the  re- 
lation of  man  to  his  God,  general  morality  has  come  to 
be  considered  (ag  it  virtually  is)  an  integral  part  of 
religion;  so  that  the  moral  and  religious  elements, 
though  they  may  sometimes  be  placed  in  contrast,  must 
co-exist  in  the  human  being. 

Notwithstanding  its  antiquity,  its  historical  develop- 
ment, and  its  present  general  acceptance,  this  distinction 

8  LECTUUK    i. 

between  the  religious  and  the  moral  man^  i.  e.,  bctwceu 
man  in  his  relation  to  the  Divinity^  and  man  in  his  re- 
lation to  society,  is  after  all,  niy  hearers,  a  purely  fac- 
titious distinction.  It  is  neither  natural,  since  every 
man^  inasmuch  as  he  exists,  is  a  unity  in  which  mind 
and  spirit,  reason  and  soul,  in  all  their  operations, 
have  one  concuiTcnt  mode  of  action ; — nor  is  it  an 
original  distinction,  since  history  teaches  us  that  in 
all  countries  religion  and  state  were  originally  one. 
Judaism  having  been  a  primary,  and  not,  as  are  other 
and  more  recent  religions,  a  secondary  creation  (by 
secondary,  I  understand  such  as  have  arisen  subsequently 
to  the  governmental  formation  of  the  states  in  which 
they  respectively  prevail),  Judaism  necessarily  considers 
the  social  as  well  as  the  religious  man — man  in  fact,  as 
an  individual  whole.  The  separating  the  religious  from 
the  social  being,  could  not  by  possibility  originally  ob- 
tain in  Judaism,  but  was  necessarily  received  into  it, 
when  outward  circumstances  compelled  its  admission : 
that  is,  when  Judaism  ceased  to  possess  its  own  state, 
and  to  rule  over  its  own  society. 

Judaism  must  therefore  include,  among  its  hopes  and 
aspirations  for  the  future,  and  its  future  achievements,  be 
that  future  ever  so  remote,  the  rendering  universal  the 
recognition  of  the  great  principle — the  unity  of  the  social 
and  the  religious  man — a  principle  which  ought  to  be 
now  considered,  as  in  fact  it  is,  an  article,  an  inherent 
part  of  the  '  Israelite's  confession  of  faith.'  As  we  are 
considering,  not  the  Judaism  of  any  one  period,  but  that 
of  all  periods,  we  must  direct  our  attention  as  well  to 
its  action  as  a  religion,  as  to  its  social  influence. 

I  state  my  proposition  simply  thus  : — '  Judaism  con- 
siders man  to  be,  in  all  his  relations,  a  unitv.' 


Hence  results  another  peculiarity.  Judaism  must 
contain  certain  elements  wholly  opposed  to  all  else  that 
time  has  produced  and  destroyed.  Had  Judaism 
been  of  like  nature  with  all  things  that  successive 
centuries  have  engendered,  transmuted,  and  annihi- 
lated, it  must  have  passed  through  the  same  vicis- 
situdes and  have  undergone  the  same  mutations  as  they 
have,  and  have  at  length  passed  away  as  they  have 
passed  away.  Judaism  would  now,  in  that  case,  be 
merely  remembered  as  a  form  of  thovight  that  had 
achieved  its  appointed  work,  had  been  worn  out  and 
cast  wholly  aside.  Yet  more  :  Judaism  must  still  in 
the  present,  contain  those  indwelling  contrasts  to  all  that 
is  around,  or  it  would  long  ere  this  have  been  absorbed 
by,  or  amalgamated  with,  all  its  surroundings.  In  fine, 
it  must 'stand  security  for  its  own  continuance,  so  long 
as  its  tenor  and  purport  have  not  found  general  accept- 
ance ;  I  should  say  rather,  so  long  as  all  men  shall  not 
have  been  so  thoroughly  imbued  with  its  tenor  and 
purport,  as  to  render  these  a  part  of  their  mental  being. 
We  learn  from  these  deductions,  that  the  contrast  of 
which  we  treat  has  ever  existed,  as  it  still  exists,  not  in 
the  form  alone,  but  in  the  essence.  A  contrast  in  form 
disappears  with  the  thing  of  which  it  is  the  form, 
while  the  same  contrast  in  the  essence  may  obtain  so 
long  as  tiie  thing  continues,  even  though  each  form 
under  whicli  it  successively  appears,  be  completely 
different  from   the  one  it  previously  assumed. 

I  have  been  compelled,  my  hearers,  to  press  these 
observations  thus  early  on  your  attention,  because  they 
determine  the  course  to  be  followed  in  these  lectures 
Avhich  range  themselves  under  three  heads : — 

First.  The  close  examination  of  each  single  phase  of 

10  LECTURE    I. 

Judaism ,  in  order  tliat  Judaism  may  be  ftilly  compre- 
liendcd  as  a  unity — a  living  historical  presence. 

Secondlj^  Judaism  presenting  this  contrast,  the  ex- 
ternal things  and  circumstances  among  which  it  was 
horn,  has  lived,  and  those  in  the  midst  of  which  it  now 
exists  must  be  considered ;  and, 

Thirdly.  It  must  be  shown  that  Judaism  was  not  and  is 
not,  the  mere  idea  or  theory  alone ;  but  that  to  the  Jewish 
race,  as  its  certain  appointed  depositar}-,  Avas  committed 
its  realization,  material  and  spiritual — to  Jewdom. 

Of  necessity  therefore,  Judaism  itself  has  been  much 
and  variously  influenced  by  these,  its  recipients  or 
bearers,  and  by  the  changes  of  destiny  and  cii-cumstance 
which  they  have  sustained.  And  again,  the  destinies  of 
Jewdom  must  in  their  turn,  have  received  from  the  gene- 
ral design  of  Judaism,  their  direction,  tendencies,  and 
mutations.  There  have  been  consequently,  a  powerful 
and  continuous  action  and  re-action  between  Jewdom  and 
Judaism;  and  the  tendencies  and  character  assumed  by 
each,  must  have  been  alternately  determined  by  the  other. 
Let  us  not  deem  that  this  was  prejudicial  to  Judaism, 
that  the  idea  has  suffered  under  the  action  of  matter, 
and  would  have  attained  to  a  fuller  and  purer  develop- 
ment, if  it  had  not  been  subjected  to  this  material  action 
from  without.  In  looking  aromid  us  in  nature,  we 
perceive  that  throughout  the  creation  of  God,  there 
prevails  this  connection  between  mind  and  matter — be- 
tween the  inward  essence  and  the  outward  form.  Out 
of  that  connection  only,  are  perfectly  organized 
beings  evolved.  Did  the  idea  exist  independentl}^  of 
matter,  it  would  never  reach  many  stages  of  develop- 
ment to  which  it  is  impelled  by  matter  and  its  trans- 
formations.    Thorough  acquaintance  with  the  destinies 


of  Jewdom^  is  therefore  wliolly  indispensable  to  the  full 
comprehension  of  Judaism. 

In  taking  a  general  view  of  the  life  of  Judaism,  we 
at  once  perceive  that  four  great  epochs  have  therein 
arisen — Mosaism,  Prophetism,  Talmudism,  and  lastly, 
the  Judaism  of  recent  times.  Permit  me  briefly  to 
sketch  these  four  epochs,  of  which  I  can  here  present 
but  a  shadowy*  outline,  reserving  to  myself  the  oppor- 
tunit}''  of  filling  up,  as  I  proceed,  the  details  of  the 
picture,  and  of  adding  distinctness  and  fixedness  to  the 

Mosaism  sprang  up  in  the  very  midst  of  Heathenism; 
to  this  it  presented  a  complete  and  powerful  contrast. 
The  first  was,  of  its  very  nature,  a  whole,  an  entire 
unity ;  while  the  second  was  even  then,  complicated  in 
its  forms,  and  had  developed  a  low  and  depraved  moral 
condition  in  mankind  generally,  and  the  political  de- 
generacy which  thence  universally  ensues,  in  the  states 
where  it  prevailed.  Mosaism  is  the  ground- work  of 
Judaism,  on  which  not  only  the  superstructure  was 
erected,  but  in  which  was  laid  the  very  key-stone  of  the 
arch  that  has  supported  all  the  subsequent  stages  of 
its  development.  The  main-spring  of  Mosaism,  giving 
movement  to  its  whole  machinery,  is  the  unity  of 
the  social  and  the  religious  man — the  unity  of  the 
doctrine  and  the  life.  Mosaism  recognizes  no  difference 
between  the  idea  and  its  realization.  By  it,  the  latter 
is  understood  to  be,  the  passing  into  tangible  being  of 
the  former — the  incorporation  of  the  idea.  As  in  all 
organized  beings,  the  conception  and  the  creation  are 
one,  so  that  they  are  that,  which  it  was  designed 
they    should   be ;    so   in   Mosaism,    the   doctrine    and 

12  LECTURE    1. 

tlic  life  arc  to  be  one  and  the  same — a  perfect  con- 
gruity.  In  Mosaism  consequently,  the  dogmas  are  not 
presented  as  an  isolation,  but  as  the  law,  as  the  life. 
Mosaism  therefore  controls  the  whole  life  of  man, 
and  considers  it  not  as  a  reflection,  an  image  of  the 
doctrine — but  as  the  doctrine  itself.  Mosaism  does 
not  separate  soul  and  body — the  spiritual  and  corporeal 
existence.  On  the  contrary,  Mosaism  makes  the  law 
of  the  spiritual,  the  law  of  the  material  life  also,  and 
comprehends  man  herein  likewise  as  a  unity. 

So  soon  as  Mosaism  was  promulgated,  the  conflict 
between  the  idea  and  its  material  reality  began ;  this 
reality,  being,  the  people  to  whom  it  was  delivered. 
The  question  was,  how  far  that  people  could  achieve 
the  fulfilment  of  Mosaism. 

After  brief  periods  of  prosperity,  the  Jewish  nation 
declined  and  fell,  as  all  peoples  decline  and  fall.  At 
one  time  they  abandoned  IMosaism,  and  plunged  into 
that  most  opposed  to  the  teachings  of  Moses — Heathen- 
ism; at  another,  the  form,  the  worship,  the  sacrifices, 
were  retained,  and  Mosaism  was  thus  transformed  into 
an  empty  soulless  ceremonial.  Prophctism  then  arose. 
Its  aim  was  to  bring  back  to  Mosaism  the  Jewish 
race,  that  had  for  the  most  part  lapsed  into  idolatry. 
But  Prophctism  was  powerless  to  save  the  life,  and  its 
efforts  were  directed  to  the  preservation  of  the  idea. 
Thence  Prophctism  itself  was  at  once  led  to  sever  the  idea 
from  the  life — the  doctrine  from  the  law ;  while  in  true 
pure  Mosaism,  they  formed,  I  repeat,  the  strictest  unity. 
Prophctism  treats  of  the  doctrine,  and  is  silent  upon 
the  law.  Prophctism  therefore,  is  a  development  of 
Mosaism,  but  of  only  one  portion  thereof,  viz.,  of  the 
doctrine  of  a  God  and  of  general  morality. 


Talmudism,  tlie  third  phase  of  Judaism,  took  a  directly- 
opposite  course. 

Of  the  people  who  had  passed  into  captivity,  in 
Assyria  and  Babylon,  some  only  returned;  these  being, in 
respect  of  their  faithful  adherence  to  the  teachings  of 
Moses,  the  choicest  portion  of  the  population.  Sorrow 
and  adversity  had  deepened  their  fidelity;  but  the 
genius  of  the  national  life  had  vanished.  It  was  a 
second  phase  of  that  existence,  from  which  the  vigour  of 
adolescence  Avas  gone.  The  spirit,  if  not  the  Avill,  was 
feeble.  Of  this,  the  writings  of  that  period,  and  the 
long  silence  of  many  subsequent  centuries,  furnish  equal 
and  abundant  proof; — centuries,  of  which  the  annals 
of  the  Hebrew  race  contain  no  record.  Well  nigh  four 
centuries  of  lethargy  terminated  at  last  by  the  waking 
up  of  the  people  to  new  life,  at  the  trumpet-call  of  the 

Then  again  the  severance  of  the  life  from  the  idea 
became  the  sign  of  the  time ;  but  the  idea  was  now 
thrust  aside,  and  all  the  vigour  and  energy  left,  manifested 
themselves  in  the  regulation  of  material  life. 

Thus  Talmudism  had  regard  to  that  portion  only  of 
Mosaism,  which  Prophetism  disregarded.  The  law  was 
enlarged  upon  and  held  to  be  the  absolute  rule  of  life, 
but  not  to  be  the  fulfilment  of  the  idea.  So  the  carrying 
out  of  the  true  Mosaic  thought  was  often  surrcptitiouslj^ 
evaded.  For  example,  the  ordinance  for  the  remission 
of  all  debts  at  the  end  of  every  seventh  year  was  ab- 
rogated; while  it  was  determined  by  rigorous  enact- 
ments, what  fruits  were  to  be  used  in  these,  the  years 
of  release. 

Meantime,  the  second  great  epoch  in  Jewdom 
drew  to  its  close.     The  dispersion  of  the  people  took 

14  LKCTURE    I. 

place;  but  they  carried  every  where  with  them^  the 
mental  direction  then  recently  imparted  to  them.  Out 
of  these  elements  was  Talmudism  evolved.  It  had  three 
component  parts: — 1st.  The  unconditional  authority  of 
the  law  of  Moses ;  2nd.  The  national  habits  and  man- 
ners traditionally  conveyed  and  developed;  3rd.  The 
impediments  arising  to  the  complete  observance  of 
Jewish  life,  from  the  removal  of  the  people  from 
Palestine.  By  the  exercise  of  singular  power  of  in- 
tellect, of  a  capacity  perhaps  unique  of  its  kind, 
Talmudism  combined  these  three  elements.  Talmud- 
ism comprehends  accordingly  : — 1st.  The  elaboration 
of  the  Mosaic  code,  in  respect  of  its  material  form, 
pursued  to  its  most  extreme  results,  and  most  casu- 
istical deductions;  2nd.  The  embodiment  with  the  very 
text  of  the  Mosaic  code  (which  text  it  subsequently 
obscured),  of  much  extraneous  matter  that  had  origi- 
nated with  the  people  themselves,  and  in  the  manners 
and  customs  of  daily  life;  3rd.  The  removal  of  the 
obstacles  created  by  the  exodus  of  the  people  from 
Palestine,  by  the  substitution  of  things  analogous  to  the 
]Mosaic  code.  Talmudism  goes  far  beyond  the  aim  and 
scope  of  the  Talmud  itself,  because  it  partially  received 
the  final  development  of  Rabbinism. 

These  then  are  the  three  grand  and  distinct  epochs  of 
Judaism.  Nevertheless,  the  life  of  Judaism  was  not 
wholly  restricted  to  the  exact  forms  it  received  from 
them ;  for  to  Prophctism,  to  which  they  bear  a  close 
affinity,  being  probably  a  growth  of  the  same  age,  im- 
mediately succeeded  the  so  called  hagiographical  writings. 
In  like  manner,  the  Midrash  and  Cabala  were  ofi'shoots 
of  Talmudism,  as  was  the  Aristotelian- Arabian-Judaic 
philosophy,    of    Rabbinism.      To    these    three    great 


divisions  may  now  be  superadded  a  fourth  —  the 
Judaism  of  modern  times.  You  Avill  at  once  presume, 
that  being  thus  designated,  it  has  no  specific  appella- 
tion. You  will  with  equal  justice  conclude,  that  it 
is  devoid  of  any  marked  characteristics.  Assuredly 
this  is  far  from  being  a  cause  for  regret,  or  a  ground 
of  reproach  to  modern  Judaism.  In  truth,  the  some- 
thing that  we  have  now  to  analyse,  is  but  in  progress 
of  formation — of  self-development — of  self- regeneration. 
It  would  be  unwise  in  us  to  predetermine  what  will 
issue  out  of  this  period  of  transition,  through  which 
we  are  now  passing.  One  thing  only  is  clearly  shown. 
From  the  present  struggle,  Judaism  must  come  forth 
renewed,  invigorated,  Avith  veins  transfused  with  health 
and  hope.  For  on  the  one  hand,  we  see  that  Rabbinism 
has  become  wholly  inoperative,  if  indeed  it  is  not 
virtually  defunct;  while,  on  the  other,  we  perceive 
that  throughout  its  domain,  Judaism  is  every  where 
quickening  into  active  life.  We  see  besides,  that 
numerous  bodies  of  Jews,  with  the  full  consciousness 
of  being,  and  the  fixed  purpose  of  continuing  to  be, 
Jews,  have  yet  placed  themselves  without  the  pale  of 
Talmudic  law.  We  see  moreover,  that  those  Jews 
who  still  rigorously  enforce  the  authority  of  the  Tal- 
mud and  of  the  Rabbins,  recognize  non-Taimudists 
to  be  Jev/s,  so  that  intermarriage  and  a  common 
worship  nov/  obtain — a  fact  in  itself  sufficient  to  in- 
dicate the  approach,  if  not  the  presence,  of  a  new 
combination.  But  irrespective  of  this  tangible  proof, 
the  causes  actually  in  operation  must  inevitably  produce 
a  new  phase  of  Judaism, 

In  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  the  Jews  began  to 

16  LECTURE    I. 

quit  the  intellectual  solitude  in  which,  Avith  hut  small 
exception,  they  had  dwelt  for  five  hundred  years,  and 
to  participate  in  the  general  mental  culture  and  growing 
intelligence  of  the  age.  Towards  the  end  of  the  last 
century,  the  portals  of  social  life  were  half  opened 
to  the  Jews;  and  in  some  states,  entire,  in  others, 
partial,  civil  equality  was  legally  accorded  them.  In  both 
positions  (the  brief  space  of  time  that  has  elapsed 
being  duly  remembered),  the  Jews  have  advanced  with 
giant  strides.  They  have  pressed  on  over  as  much 
ground  in  fifty  years,  as  other  races  have  employed  five 
hundred  to  traverse.  All  these  circumstances  must 
necessarily  operate  to  produce  the  solution  of  the  Tal- 
mudic-rabbinical  question,  as  it  affected  and  affects  the 
then  and  the  present  religious  condition  of  the  Jews. 

Citizenship,  its  rights  and  obligations,  wholly  altered 
the  character  of  their  daily  life,  calling,  and  labour.  Con- 
sequently, the  forms  of  religious  life  came  into  constant 
collision  with  the  duties  of  the  citizen  and  the  artizan. 
A  freer  and  more  extended  intellectual  development 
undermined  the  belief  in,  and  reverence  for,  human 
authorities,  and  suggested  inquiry  into  the  validity  and 
object  of  that,  which  had  till  then  found  full  and  un- 
conditional acceptance. 

It  cannot  indeed  be  othcr-ndse,  but  that  these  new  and 
hitherto  unknown  conditions  of  being,  shoidd  foreshadow 
the  approach  of  alike  new,  and  hitherto  unknown  phase 
of  Judaism.  For  the  Jews  existed  first  as  a  nation, 
then  among  other  nations ;  while  now  they  live  with, 
and  have  entered  into  the  municipal,  civil,  and  political 
life  of  these  other  nations.  The  Jewish  race  has  never 
passed  through  any  historical  period  resembling   the 


present  age.*  The  mutations  of  form  wliich  await  Ju- 
daism, can  at  this  time  be  matter  of  speculation  alone. 
Purposing  to  resume,  on  some  future  occasion,  the 
consideration  of  this  point,  I  shall  here  detain  you  onh^ 
while  I  present  a  few  remarks  on  the  course  which  it 
has  hitherto  jiursued.  These  remarks  I  would  preface 
hy  briefly  asserting,  that  the  Judaism  of  modern  times 
has  followed,  inversely,  the  same  path  previously  taken 
by  Judaism  in  general.  It  began  with  Talmudism, 
accepting  it  as  the  standard  by  which  life  was  to  be 
measured,  though  simultaneously  recognizing  the  neces- 
sity of  a  future  development  of  the  idea.  Such  was 
the  theory  of  Mendelssohn.  He  maintained  that  full 
and  free  self-consciousness  was  a  part  of  Judaism — 
that  it  was  not  a  religion  dependent  on  belief,  but  that 
it  addressed  itself  especially  to  the  understanding. 
Yet  he  held  the  traditional,  or  oral  law,  to  be  the  guide 
and  rule  of  daily  life.  So  great  an  inconsistency  could 
not  long  prevail ;  for  a  theory  always  tends  to  produce  its 
own  realization,  and  admits  of  no  permanent  discrepancy 
with  itself  in  practice.  To  represent  the  idea  as  free, 
and  the  life  as  fettered,  was  wholly  arbitrary.  Hence 
Rabbinism  was  speedilj^  superseded  by  the  imperfect  and 
partial  adoption  of  Prophetism.  Strict  adherence  was  pro- 
fessed to  the  doctrine  of  a  God,  and  to  the  precepts  of 
general  morality,  while  all  that  Prophetism  presented, 
which  could  be  considered  as  applicable  to  the  par- 
ticular period  of  its  promulgation,  and  as  referable  to 
its  then  relation  to  the  children  of  Israel,  was  solicitously 
discarded.  The  whole  of  Judaism  was  thus  reduced 
to  a  few    general  principles    of  manners    and   morals. 

*  A  brief  period  in  the  Roman  empire,  and  contemporaneous 
with  that  of  its  dechne,  excepted. 


18  LECTURE    II. 

This  doubtless  was  a  complete  system  of  self-delusion, 
since  the  retention  of  all  that  was  positive  in  principle 
was  enforced,  yet  was  not  one  item  carried  into  prac- 
tice. Even  the  very  idea  which  forms  the  basis  on 
which  prophecy  wholly  rests, — that  of  revelation,  was 
allowed  to  sink  into  twilight.*  Again  it  became 
clearly  manifest,  that  a  complete  contradiction  had 
been  introduced  into  Judaism.  The  conception  offered 
thus  a  direct  contrast  to  its  practical  fulfilment.  The 
first  was  a  theory,  not  reducible  to  practice ;  the 
second  was  a  system,  devoid  of  all  logical  theory. 
The  introduction  of  some  reforms  was,  it  is  true, 
attempted ;  and  the  first  material  into  which  they  were 
so  introduced,  as  it  offered  a  neutral  and  public  ground, 
was  divine  service.  Much  that  was  beneficial  was 
thereby  effected ;  for  it  is  impossible  that  by  the  de- 
velopment of  religious  feeling,  piety  and  devotion 
should  not  be  awakened  and  fostered  in  the  indivi- 
dual. To  their  promotion,  schools  and  synagogues  offer, 
doubtless,  powerful  aids.  Yet  all  this  failed  to  re- 
concile actual  and  accepted  systematic  discrepancies. 
So  another  step  has  been  recently  taken,  in  the  direc- 
tion of  return  to  Mosaism.  It  has  at  length  come 
to  be  fully  understood  and  acknowledged,  that  on  this 
foundation  alone,  where  the  Idea  and  the  life  meet 
and  are  one,  are  the  re-edification  and  regeneration 
of  Judaism  possible.  Let  us  be  well  understood.  To 
return  to  the  fvill  and  entire  letter  of  Mosaism  is  a 
manifest  impossibility,  because  its  necessary  conditions 

•  It  may  here  be  observed,  that  the  Jews  in  England  have  not, 
as  a  body,  passed  through  this  phase  of  Judaism,  of  which  Ger- 
many has  been,  and  is,  tlie  special  theatre. — T. 


no  longer  obtain.  Three  thousand  years,  with  their 
mutations,  lie  between  us  and  the  circumstances  of  its 
then  existence. 

By  these  changes,  the  fulfilment  of  three-fourths  of 
the  law  of  Moses,*  which  Avere  subsequently  superseded 
even  by  the  Talmud  (such  as  the  laws  of  sacrifice,  those 
regulating  the  physical  and  sanitary  condition  of  the 
people,  of  the  agricultural  and  statistical  distribution 
of  the  soil),  was  rendered  materially  impossible.  But 
I  repeat,  in  Mosaism  alone  are  contained  the  real 
significance,  the  vital  principle  of  Judaism.  Our  pre- 
sent task  is  therefore — "To  work  out  within  us  into  clear 
consciousness,  fixed  and  definite  ideas  of  Mosaism,  and 
to  determine  how  far  it  is  possible,  under  the  conditions 
of  our  present  existence,  to  give  those  ideas  life  and 
form,  and  to  make  them  actual  and  active  in  us  and 
among  us."  Thus  far,  my  hearers,  we  have  considered 
Judaism  as  an  isolated  existence,  having  its  own  sphere 
of  development  on  earth.  But  amid  mankind  nothing 
can  dwell  wholly  apart,  nothing  in  the  circle  of  hu- 
manity can  live  for  itself  alone.  It  would  be  as  though 
each  member  of  our  physical  frame,  head,  arm,  and 
eye,  sought  independent  action.  All  mankind  is,  in 
truth,  but  one  organism,  undivided  and  entire.  In 
whatsoever  truth  dwells,  in  whatsoever  truth  is,  thence 
must  truth  come  forth  amongst  men,  and  make  its 
value  current  in  the  world  of  men.  From  the  nature 
of  Judaism  itself  we  have  already  deduced,  that  it 
presents   a  distinct  contrast    to    all  that  is  around   it 

*  For  whose  suspension  tlie  divinely  inspired  legislator  him- 
self provided,  by  the  stringent  and  reiterated  limitation  of  their 
fulfilment  to  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem  and  the  soil  of  Judea- 
Deut.  xii.  11, 13, 14, 17,  18,  26.     Ibid  xvi.  6.     Ibid  xxvi.  2.— T. 



LECTURE    1. 

— and  that  this  antagonism  miist  of  necessitj^  act  on 
the  surrounding  world  and  have  a  tendency,  whether 
successful  or  not,  to  overspread  the  earth  and  to  win  it 
to  itself.  And  this  has  ever  been  the  genius  of  Ju- 
daism. That  it  was  the  religion  of  the  future,  was  the 
leading  thought  of  Prophetism,  to  whose  realization  all 
history  amply  testifies.  It  is  universally  admitted  that 
in  Judaism  Christianity  had  its  origin;  and  both  these 
form  the  combined  source  in  which  Mahomedanism 
takes  its  rise.  The  idea,  or  rather  ideal  significance 
of  Judaism,  sought  in  the  first  stage  to  break  ground 
and  wear  for  itself  a  channel  throughout  the  Avorld  of 
men.  But  thence  a  two-fold  conclusion  may  be  drawn. 
First  j — Judaism  had  then  capacity  to  retain  for  and 
Avithin  itself,  but  not  to  disseminate,  such  of  its  compo- 
nent parts  as  were  necessary  for  its  individual  continu- 
ance. And  secondly; — mankind  could  receive  from 
Judaism  so  much  only  as  was  suited  to  their  then 
requirements,  and  must  develop  for  and  within  them- 
selves, and  independently  of  Judaism,  that  which  they 
so  received.  Judaism  kept  therefore  all  that  specifically 
appertained  to  itself,  as  also  a  large  portion  of  its  moral 
import,  which  it  was  not  able  then,  but  which  it  is 
destined  in  coming  years,  to  share  Avith  all  humanity. 
The  influence  exercised  by  Judaism  in  the  Avorld  Avas 
not  then  suspended ;  nor  has  it  ceased  even  now,  for 
the  cessation  of  that  influence  and  the  extinction  of 
Judaism   Avould  be  cocA'al. 

To  Judaism,  therefore,  was  confided  a  double  charge: 
to  reserve  a  portion  of  its  indwelling  truth  for  the 
future  of  the  human  race;  to  deliver  over  another 
portion  of  that  truth  to  the  then  existing  world.  Both 
tasks  involve  a  double  conflict :  one  with  the  world,  as  a 


destroying,  the  other  as  a  resisting  power.  And  this 
forms,  in  fact,  the  real  character  of  tlie  history  of 
Judaism,  and  especially  of  that  of  Jewdom, — of  the 
Jewish  race.  The  "  conflict  of  the  idea  with  the  reality.^' 
This  people  had  first  to  fight  out  this  battle  within 
itself,  and  afterwards  with  the  whole  world.  The  He- 
brews were  called  upon,  as  recipients  and  bearers  of 
Judaism,  first  to  comljat  with  themselves  as  a  meails  of 
preparation  for  entire  self-devotion  to  their  appointed 
task ;  then  with  all  peoples  by  whom  this  their  mission 
is  not  acknowledged,  and  by  whom,  in  consequence  of 
the  general  contrast  to  themselves  therein  presented, 
their  claim  thereto  must  necessarily  be  rejected.  But 
this  struggle,  notwithstanding  the  hard  destiny  it  pre- 
pared for  them,  proved  to  be  the  very  means  by  which 
the  perpetuation  of  the  Jewish  race  was  to  be  eff'ected. 
Viewed  in  this  light,  the  history  of  Jewdom  assumes 
an  aspect  totally  different,  from  that  which  it  has  hither- 
to borne.  The  objects  which  have  usually  first  presented 
themselves  to  the  mental  vision  of  its  adherents,  have 
been,  the  blood  that  has  flowed,  the  stripes  that  have 
been  received,  the  wounds  inflicted,  the  funeral  pyres 
that  have  been  heaped  and  kindled,  during  the  long 
long  struggle.  Its  opponents,  on  the  other  hand,  have 
had  regard  to  nought,  save  the  defects  and  infirmities 
engendered  in  Jewdom  by  a  world's  oppression.  A 
totally  altered  mien  has  this  picture  now  assumed. 
It  may  be  truly  said  to  furnish  the  subject,  most 
honourable,  most  glorious  in  the  annals  of  mankind. 
Jewdom  has  fought  the  battle  of  the  divine  idea  with 
the  material.  In  this  she  has  suffered,  in  this  she  has 
conquered.  Every  drop  of  blood  is  a  victory,  every 
funeral  pyre,  a  torch  of  triumph.     A  race  of  men,  the 

.22  LECTUUE    II. 

smallest  of  the  peoples  of  the  earth,  have  stood  arrayed 
against  a  world,  with  '  the  idea/  for  *  the  idea/  on  be- 
half of  '  the  idea/  and  failed  not.  Surely  this  is  the 
thought  most  elevating,  most  glorious,  most  sublime  in 
the  world  of  man  ! 

And  from  this  point,  we  now  proceed  to  contemplate 
the  history  of  Jewdom.  Having  thus  unban'ed  the 
portal,  we  pass  over  the  threshold  into  the  interior  of 
the  edifice. 



The  records  of  liistoiy  and  the  statements  of  travellers 
bearing  concnrrent  testimony  to  the  fact^  that  by  all 
the  peoples  of  the  earth,  even  by  those  lowest  in  the 
scale  of  humanity,  a  deity  is  acknowledged,  many  and 
various  are  the  hypotheses  which  have  been  advanced, 
in  order  to  account  for  this  great  phenomenon.  What 
course  ought  we  to  take  that  we  may  arrive  at  a  truth- 
ful conclusion  respecting  it?  It  will  be  necessary,  in 
the  first  place,  to  keep  out  of  view  all  developed  con- 
ditions of  the  human  mind,  or  the  conception  of  a 
divinity  would  appear  to  be  reached  by  a  developed 
intelligence  only.  We  must  in  like  manner,  pass  over 
all  ingenious  conjectures  not  admitting  of  direct  proof, 
such  as  the  pre-supposition  of  an  original  people,  a 
primeval  revelation,  a  mystic  age,  etc., — otherwise  we 
shall  have  assumed,  but  we  shall  not  have  explained. 
Let  us  then  trace  the  human  mind  back,  to  its  simplest 
and  most  uncivilized  state,  and  there  find  the  necessity 
for  the  conception  of  a  deity.  In  this  way  alone  can  the 
universality  of  the  idea  be  explained. 

Personal  identity — the  feeling  of  himself — is  natural 
to  man.  He  is  conscious  of  differing  from  all  things 
else  :  he  feels  his  individuality,   i.  e.,  that  he  is  distinct 

24'  LKCTLKE    II. 

from  the  things  external  to  him.  So  strong  is  this 
innate  perception,  that  man  in  a  state  of  nature  ex- 
periences childish  wonder  when  first  he  learns,  that  in  his 
physical  organization  he  resembles  a  vast  series  of 
other  beings.  Having  the  instinctive  feeling  of  his 
separateness  from  every  thing  external  to  himself,  his 
existence  suffices  to  satisfy  him  that  he  exists. 

Man  is  self-conscious ;  he  pre-eminently  is.  Other 
things  surrounding  him,  however,  act  upon  him  :  he  is 
sensible  of  their  salutary  or  injurious  influences ;  they 
satisfy  or  they  oppose,  either  his  necessities  or  desires ; 
and  their  tendencies  may  even  be  inimical  to  his  ex- 
istence. Thus  he  recognises  in  them  properties  favor- 
able or  adverse  to  himself,  which  he  must  respectively 
win  and  repel,  or  against  which  he  must  defend  himself. 
He  observes  further,  that  in  the  contest  between  these 
influences  and  himself,  he  is  generally  insufficient  to  win 
their  favor,  or  to  divert  their  hostility.  Lastly,  he  per- 
ceives their  mutability  ;  he  is  to-day  benefited  by  that 
which  injured  him  yesterday,  and  vice  versa;  whence 
again,  his  own  impotence  in  comparison  with  the  might 
dwelling  in  other  things,  forcibly  impresses  him.  Thus 
is  he  compelled  to  acknowledge  a  power  in  external 
things,  which  is  in  opposition  to  him,  because  he  feels 
it  has  the  ascendancy  over  him — it  towers  above  the 
reach  of  his  perceptions.  This  power  in  things  external 
to  himself  is  to  him  Deity  ;  the  absolute  acknowledg- 
ment of  the  former,  is  the  conception  of  the  latter,  as  it 
necessarily  must  have  arisen  in  every  people. 

This  method  of  elucidation  is  to  be  preferred  for  two 
reasons :  first,  because  it  rejects  all  conjectures  of  mys- 
tical and  psychological  ingenuity,  presupposes  nothing 
in  the  rude  child  of  nature  but  that  which  is  necessarily 


inherent  in  his  mental  constitution;  and  also  because 
in  fact  the  development  of  the  idea  of  a  divinity  com- 
mences historically  from  this  point. 

And  at  this  point,  all  antiquity  remained,  and  a  great 
part  of  mankind  still  remains,  (of  course  with  certain 
modifications)  viz.,  the  seeking  the  conception  of  the 
Deity,  in  things  external  to  man  and  in  their  governing- 

The  lowest  stage*  of  this  conception  is  Fetishism, 
or  Shamanism.  The  crude  perception  of  the  Fetish 
worshipper  recognizes  in  external  things  the  hostile 
only,  that  which  puts  obstacles  to  his  existence,  or  to 
the  gratification  of  his  wants.  Here,  all  is  exclu- 
sively personal;  the  man  still  refers,  child-like,  every 
thing  to  himself :  whatever  is  agreeable  and  useful  he 
tacitly  accepts  as  a  matter  of  course,  but  what  is  an- 
tagonistic and  hostile  excites  his  attention.  He  seeks 
to  propitiate  the  adversary  by  sacrifices,  and  thus  to 
interest  him  in  his  well-being  ;  or,  he  tries  to  overcome 
him  by  means  of  exorcisms,  contortions,  dances,  etc. 
In  order  to  provide  himself  with  a  visible  sign  of  this 
hostile  power,  the  Shaman  selects  the  first  obstacle  he  en- 
counters,— a  stone,  a  block  of  wood,  or  the  like.  So  soon 
however  as  an  insuperable  difficulty  again  arises,  he 
acknowledges  the  first  symbol  to  be  ineflectual,  deposes 
it,  and  selects  another.  Throughout  Central  Africa 
and  in  Upper  Asia,  this  is  the  grade  of  intelligence  that 
exists  at  the  present  day  amongst  an  enormous,  an 
untold  population. 

But  so  soon  as  man  has  begun  to  observe  nature 
external  to  himself,  so  soon  as  his  mind  has  learned  to 

*  The  Religious-Philosophy  of  the  Jews.  By  Dr.  S.  Hirsch. 
Leipsic,  1842. 


26  LECTURE    TT. 

look  beyond  the  present^  and  to  embrace  a  longer  period 
of  time,  lie  becomes  cognizant,  not  only  of  a  destructive, 
but  also  of  a  beneficent  influence.  He  beliolds  division 
in  this  outward  nature — life  and  death,  growth  and 
decay — antagonisms,  therefore,  in  perpetual  conflict. 
Thence  it  follows,  that  the  world  and  life  are  no  longer 
to  him  an  unknown  entity,  but  a  mystery  of  which  he 
seeks  the  solution.  This  is  the  second  stage  at  which 
the  peoples  of  Asia,  as  also  Egypt,  have  remained. 
And  where  was  the  explanation  sought  of  the  mystery 
of  these  two  warring  powers?  First,  in  the  external 
forms  of  nature.  Men  saw  that  beneficent  and  hostile 
influences  alternately  prevail,  that  the  operations  of  na- 
ture begin,  cease,  and  return,  according  to  fixed  laws ; 
and  that  consequently,  self-preservation  is  possible 
through  this  order  alone,  since  according  to  these 
laws,  at  fixed  periods,  these  hostile  influences  are  in- 
variably suspended.  Thus  order  or  measure  appears 
as  the  controller  of  the  destructive  powers,  bringing 
them  into  balance  with  the  beneficent  influences, — 
therefore,  as  divine.  This  is  the  religion  of  Fohi,  pro- 
fessed by  the  Chinese  and  Japanese.  They  acknow- 
ledge a  trinomial  godhead — Sanzai ;  the  first,  Zai  is  the 
firmament  and  stars,  the  fructifier ;  the  second,  the  earth, 
with  fire,  air,  water,  the  fructified ;  the  third  is  humanity, 
which  subsists  by  reason  of  the  order  in  these  two,  and 
has  its  personification  in  the  Emperor,  as  the  head  of 
this  order.  Every  thing  must  contribute  to  the  pre- 
servation of  order  and  of  a  due  balance  of  power ;  man, 
therefore,  "forms  the  third  of  these  co-operating  powers. 

But  as  this  order  illustrates  only  the  outward  form 
or  expression  of  nature,  but  not  the  inner  essence,  the 
more  developed  mind  must  conceive  the  beneficent  and 


hostile  influences  to  be  separate  antagonistic  powers, 
which  are  of  necessity  adjusted  by  a  third  and  higher 
agency.  This  view  accordingly  followed,  at  first  in  a 
concrete  form.  Light  was  believed  by  the  Persians  to  be 
the  concrete  essence  of  life,  increase,  and  good ;  darkness, 
that  of  death,  annihilation,  and  evil :  two  equi-potent, 
ever-warring  powers,  Ormuzt  and  Ahriman.  As  in 
consequence  of  their  equality  there  could  be  no  other 
result  from  their  conflict  than  their  reciprocal  destruc- 
tion, a  third  poAver  was  sought,  superior  to  them — 
Zeruane-Akrene,  or  unknown  destiny,  who,  with  in- 
conceivable absoluteness,  keeps  both  at  war  and  suffers 
neither  to  achieve  the  victory.  It  is  the  duty  of  man 
to  promote  the  kingdom  of  Ormuzt,  by  the  reproduc- 
tion of  life,  planting,  sowing,  etc.,  and  also  by  external 
purity ;  as  after  the  lapse  of  a  certain  period  of  time, 
the  light  will  yet  conquer. 

Among  intellectual  nations,  this  concrete  view  would 
naturally  give  place  to  an  abstract  one.  The  Indians 
conceived  this  world  of  mutability,  of  alternating  birth 
and  death,  that  in  itself  bears  no  solution  of  its  purpose, 
to  be  a  subordinate  state — a  Here,  beyond  which  there 
is  a  Hereafter,  the  real  positive  world,  to  which  the 
world  visible  is  but  the  evil  antithesis.  Above  mutable 
existence,*  they  place  existence  absolute.f  This  they 
imagine  as  an  infinite  unoccupied  space — an  indefinite 
yonder — Brahm.  Man  can  attain  to  this  state  of 
blessedness,  on  the  condition  of  a  complete  renunciation 
of  the  life  natural.  To  effect  this,  he  must  mortify 
and  extinguish  his  natural  appetites,  and  reduce  his 
wants  to  the  utmost ;  he  must  dwell  alone  and  motion- 
less in  profound  obliviousness   of   all  other  matter  of 

*  £)a6  ©cienbe.  t  S'aS  ©cin. 

28  LECTURE    II. 

thought,  lost  in  the  contemplation  of  the  sacred  word, 
Aoum.  But  how  did  the  visible  Here,  come  out  of 
this  immaterial  Infinite  ?  The  Hereafter,  the  Indian 
knows  not.  He  says,  merely,  that  in  Brahm  there 
arose  a  thought  to  create  a  world  in  contrast  to  itself, 
and  this  thought  evolved  itself  into  three  ruling  powers  : 
Brahma,  the  creator ;  Siva,  the  destroyer  ;  Vishnu, 
symbolized  by  water  the  preserver. 

The  means  by  which  the  material  imiverse  could  evolve 
itself  out  of  a  nonentity  remains,  notwithstanding  the 
above  theorem,  a  riddle  unsolved.  Amongst  the  Egyp- 
tians, the  inscrutability  of  this  question  was  a  chief 
article  of  faith.  This  inscrutable  original  being,  they 
called  Neitha :  she  is  that  which  was,  is,  and  is  to  come; 
but  to  no  mortal  has  it  been  granted  to  raise  her  mystic 
veil.  Neitha,  therefore,  is  the  inscrutable  primal  essence, 
from  whom,  they  averred,  successive  trinities  emanated ; 
and  from  the  last  of  these,  viz.,  Osiris,  Isis,  and  Horus, 
the  visible  world  received  being.  This  Neitha,  or  primal 
essence,  has  impressed  her  image  on  the  emanated 
world,  upon  every  speciality  thereof,  but  more  parti- 
cularly on  the  animal  kingdom.  The  animals  represent 
individual  features  of  the  Deity  ;  therefore  they,  such 
as  cats,  crocodiles,  ibexes,  etc.,  are  worthy  of  human 

To  all  the  above-named  religions,  which  conceive  an- 
tagonism in  nature  under  the  form  of  a  dual  god- 
head, resolving  itself  into  a  third  and  higher  power, 
Sabeanism  offered  a  marked  difference.  It  prevailed 
throughout  Asia  Minor,  from  Assyria  to  Phoenicia  and 
Arabia.  According  to  its  system,  existence  rested,  not 
in  the  above-mentioned  antagonisms,  but  in  the  union 
and  amalgamation  of  the  naturally  antagonistic  elements. 


Heat  and  cold,  drought  and  moisture,  separately,  would 
be  destructive ;  their  combination  only  produces  life. 
All  is  therefore  necessary ;  and  the  necessity  of  nature 
is  the  highest,  the  dominant  principle  in  the  universe. 
This  necessity  of  nature  is  shown  forth  most  manifestly 
in  the  stars,  especially  in  the  seven  planets  known  to 
antiquity — the  Sun,  Moon,  Mars,  Mercury,  Jupiter, 
Venus,  and  Saturn — which  are  severally  inhabited  by 
the  dominant  forces  of  nature.  It  is  the  duty  of  man 
to  resign  himself  entirely  to  this  necessity.  The  highest 
expression  of  that  resignation  is  offering  human  sacri- 
fices to  Moloch,  the  Sun,  the  greatest  of  the  gods. 

Though  all  these  religions  emanated,  as  we  have  seen, 
from  one  profound  thought,  sublimating  the  mysteries 
of  being  into  the  certainty  of  divine  agency,  yet  in 
attempting  to  unravel  nature  in  her  separate  forms,  they 
lowered  that  first  thought,  and  gave  fancy  free  play. 
Man  in  the  infancy  of  civilization,  does  not  distinguish 
between  things  animate  and  inanimate,  but  ascribes  life 
to  every  natural  object.  His  wonder  is  especially  ex- 
cited by  such  as  are  lifeless  in  themselves,  yet  present 
the  appearance  of  activity.  To  these  he  is  ever  prone 
to  attribute  an  extraordinary,  supernatural,  or  even 
divine  power.  Therefore  the  primary  difiiculty  was, 
how  man,  under  the  action  of  these  conflicting  influ- 
ences on  himself,  should  first  arrive  at  the  idea  of  a 
divinity,  to  whom  the  thought  of  creation  should  be 
ascribed.  This  accomplished,  he  could  give  free  scope 
to  his  imagination,  in  making  to  himself,  in  conformity 
with  his  observations,  gods  and  spirits  out  of  natural  and 
human  objects.  Thus  in  every  misfortune  the  Shaman 
sees  the  interference  of  evil  spirits.  The  Chinese  sets 
Genii,  whose  duty  is  the  preservation  of  order,  over 

30  LECTURE    II. 

every  individual^  over  every  province  and  state^  over 
every  mountain  and  river.  He  worships  these  Genii, 
in  the  most  hideously  shaped  idols  ;  but  deposes  them 
when  any  thing  disturbs  this  law  of  general  order,  i.  e., 
when  any  mischance  occurs  to  himself.  The  Indian 
theory  teaches,  that  out  of  three  supreme  powers, 
there  emanated  eight  subordinate  divinities,  among 
whom  are  Suria,  the  sun,  and  Indra,  the  ruler  of 
the  air.  Under  the  dominion  of  Indra  there  are 
thirty -three  good  spirits,  who  are  opposed  by  Jacksha 
and  Rackshasa,  the  spirits  of  evil.  But  every  thing 
-in  nature  is  finally  an  emanation  from  God.  The 
Ganges  and  the  Himalaya  are  actually  God,  as  the  ape 
and  cow  are  actual  prototypes  of  the  Deity.  Again,  the 
Persian  places  under  Ormuzt,  the  pure  spirits  of  life, 
the  Fervers,  six  Amshaspands,  and  innumerable  Izeds, 
ever  present,  ever  active,  ever  honoured  agencies,  in- 
dwelling all  things.  In  the  realm  of  Sabeanism,  every 
tribe,  every  city,  had  its  own  particular  star,  which  it 
worshipped  as  its  god,  its  Baal.  All  these  rehgions 
have  a  uniform  characteristic.  The  basis  on  which  their 
whole  system  rests,  is  to  ascribe  divinity  to  that  which 
lies  especially  under  the  notice  of  their  votaries,  in 
India,  to  the  Ganges ;  in  Egypt,  to  the  Nile ;  to  light, 
in  the  bright  gorgeous  land  of  Persia ;  in  Asia  Minor, 
where  heat  and  drought  are  often  injurious,  to  combi- 
nation, etc. 

If  we  turn  from  the  peoples  of  the  East,  to  those  of 
the  West,  we  observe  a  distinctly  new  phase,  the  thh-d 
grade  in  our  classification.  Whereas  the  former  deified 
nature,  on  account  of  her  ever-varying  action  on  man, 
the  peoples  of  the  West, — Greeks,  Romans,  and  Ger- 
mans, deify,  within  the  realm  of  nature,  humanity  itself. 


They  identify  nature  and  humanity.  The  sensations 
which  external  influences  produce  in  man,  they  trans- 
fer to  nature  herself.  The  efifects  experienced  by 
the  Eastern,  are  received  by  him  as  the  natural 
action  of  these  phenomena;  the  Greek,  on  the  con- 
trary, attributes  to  them  the  will  to  produce  this 
effect,  the  will  being  consequent  upon  a  feeling  per- 
taining to  them.  The  Oriental  regarded  only  the 
permanent  qualities  of  things ;  the  Greeks,  their  tem- 
porary influences ;  for  example, — the  same  sea  which 
to-day  brings  the  mariner  into  the  desired  haven,  may 
to-morrow  dash  him  lifeless  on  desert  shores :  the  same 
sun  which  this  year  brings  forth  nature's  richest  gifts, 
may,  in  the  next,  scorch  up  the  ground  into  a  barren 
pestilential  waste.  A  changing  will  must  therefore 
dwell  in  the  things  of  nature  ;  and  this  will  must  spring 
from  sentiments  similar  to  those  in  the  breast  of  man : 
from  passions  such  as  love,  hatred,  revenge,  or  forgive- 
ness. From  this  view,  two  several  consequences  are 
found  to  result :  first,  every  natural  object  has  a  god  in 
itself,  and  this  divinity  is  swayed  by  human  passions; 
secondly,  every  human  passion  has  its  own  god.  There 
is  a  god  of  heaven — Jove — who  now  loves,  now  rages. 
Love  itself  has  a  god,  nay  difierent  gods,  according  to 
the  various  kinds  of  love.  There  is  a  god  of  peace, 
and  a  god  of  war;  and  every  god  lives  sometimes  in 
peace,  sometimes  at  war.  Hence,  not  the  world,  but  the 
gods  first  came  into  existence.  Fancy  then  exercised  un- 
limited sway  in  the  realm  of  natural  and  psychological 
discovery.  The  line  of  demarcation  between  the  gods 
and  men,  must,  according  to  the  Grecian  system,  neces- 
sarily and  wholly  disappear ;  and  thus  we  find  all  men 
around  whose  brows  the  halo  of  antiquity  rests,  trans- 

32  LECTURE    II. 

lated  to  the  sphere  of  the  gods.  The  Roman  and  north- 
ern mythologies  have  similar  tendencies^  and  only  vary 
in  accordance  with  their  respective  national  idiosyn- 
crasies. The  practical  and  egotistical  Roman  aimed,  by 
means  of  his  gods  and  their  worship,  chiefly  at  the 
useful,  the  German,  at  personal  bravery. 

In  order  to  complete  the  portraiture  of  the  religious 
spiritual  life  of  the  ancients,  it  is  necessary  to  glance  at 
their  philosophy,  which  is  however  the  especial  product 
of  the  Grecian  mind  alone.  A  modern  writer  says, 
'  An  unfounded  and  prejudiced  notion  it  is,  to  maintain 
that  the  philosophers  of  paganism  had  truth  in  their 
lives,  although  the  religions  of  paganism  were  false. 
To  prove  the  necessity  of  revelation,  recourse  is  often 
had  to  the  assertion,  that  by  means  of  philosophy,  indi- 
viduals and  the  philosophic  schools  only  arrived  at  a 
knowledge  of  truth,  but  that  through  revelation  the 
whole  world  is  brought  near  to  God.^  And  this  state- 
ment is  in  the  main  true ;  for  the  philosophy  of  the 
ancients  has  had  no  vocation  save  this ;  first,  to  over- 
throw the  religious  systems  of  antiquit}',  and  afterwards 
its  own.  Philosophy  began  as  did  religion,  by  trying  to 
discover  the  cause  of  all  causes,  the  first  principle  of 
creation.  Whilst  the  Ionic  school  conceived  a  particular 
element  to  be  that  first  principle,  the  Pythagorean,  num- 
ber and  harmony,  and  the  Eleatie  school  taught  that 
matter  had  no  substantial  existence  and  that  truth 
dwelt  in  the  'abstract'  alone;  whilst  Heraclit us  made 
destiny,  Empedocles  again  the  eternal  but  ever-changing 
combination  of  the  elements,  to  be  the  principle  of  crea- 
tion, they  had  successively  idealised  and  abnegated 
Fetishism,  and  the  religions  of  China,  India,  Persia  and 
Sabeanisra.      Anaxagoras  was  the    first   to    distinguish 


between  the  'visible'  and  'invisible/  matter  and  spirit, 
and  to  declare  the  spirit  to  be  that  M'hich  sets  matter 
in  motion.  The  Visible  is  at  first  a  'chaos'  combined 
of  infinitely  minute  eqnal  particles,  which  the  Invisible 
the  Nov<;,  intelligence,  sets  in  motion,  and  from  their 
alternate  dispersion  and  combination,  the  natural  world 
rose  into  existence.  This  idea  was  evidently  also  that 
of  the  Egyptian  religion.  Both  refer  to  an  inscrutable 
and  therefore  vague  'first  principle.'  This  theory 
was  fatal  to  the  religion  of  Greece,  for  if  intelli- 
gence was  the  supreme  principle  in  the  universe,  the 
claim  of  the  Grecian  gods  to  divine  powers  was 
nullified,  since  it  and  the  creations  of  the  unbridled 
imagination  could  not  co-exist.  As  this  '  intelligence ' 
of  Anaxagoras  was  still  indeterminate  and  vague,  the 
Sophists  transformed  it  into  a  purely  subjective  prin- 
ciple. Nothing  exists  save  that  which  is  perceptible 
by  the  intellect.  In  opposition  to  this  idea,  Socrates 
contended  that  if  nothing  was,  then  intelligence  or 
mind  was  not,  man  himself  was  not,  and  consequently 
man  can  know  nothing;  whereas  the  Sophists,  in 
holding  that  that  only  of  which  they  had  knowledge 
could  have  being,  presumed  they  knew  everything. 
Socrates^  therefore,  had  recourse  to  the  Life  Universal, 
of  which  he  took  the  following  external  view.  The 
world  is  conformable  to  a  fixed  purpose  and  design,  be- 
cause in  it  all  things  harmonize,  and  the  individual  is 
constantly  being  absorbed  by  the  general.  Therefore, 
in  the  subordination  of  the  individual  to  the  general, 
consists  virtue.  Plato  carried  this  theory  further. 
He  recognized  the  Universal  only  to  be  an  abstract 
idea ;  it  reached  its  ultimatum  in  the  aggregate  union 
of  all   specialities,  unity  in  multiplicity.       The  idea, 

34  LECTURE    II. 

however,  had  a  prc-existence,  and  the  creation  and 
apphcation  of  every  thing  perceptible  to  the  senses 
was  in  accordance  with  the  conception.  INIan  brings 
ideas  forth  out  of  himself;  he  has  previously  beheld 
them  in  a  former  state  of  being ;  and  as  every  idea 
also  presupposes  its  opposite,  the  result  of  the  whole 
is  unity  in  multiplicity.  Aristotle  takes  an  exactly 
opposite  course.  The  Universal  he  asserts,  is  not  a 
positive  reality,  but  real  only  in  reference  to  particular 
or  special  things ;  the  general  is  only  a  possibility ; 
the  design  dwelling  in  every  speciality  is  what  must 
be  sought  after.  Aristotle,  therefore,  pursues  speci- 
alities as  the  only  actual  esisteneies,  without  tracing 
them  back  to  the  Universal,  to  God  avIio  in  his  system 
is  a  possibility  and  no  more.  He  regards  nature  as 
an  assemblage  of  isolated  facts.  But  in  this  system  Avas 
involved  the  disorganization  of  the  philosophy,  as  well 
as  of  the  religion,  of  the  Greeks.  In  the  latter  the 
gods  appear  as  so  many  specific  divinities,  unaccom- 
panied by  the  conception  of  one  Omnipotent  Being; 
in  the  former  are  contained  some  isolated  truths,  but 
no  one  generalizing,  all  pervading,  absolute  truth.  The 
later  schools  eflFectually  carried  on  in  the  heart  of  the 
Roman  Empire,  the  work  of  self-dismemberment,  till  all 
the  comfortlessness  of  the  Pagan  religion  as  a  phi- 
losophy became  manifest  and  universally  acknowledged, 
inducing  as  its  final  result,  popular  and  philosophical 

Such,  my  hearers,  is  the  completed  picture  of  the 
whole  religious  mental  life  of  Antiquity,  as  also  of 
that  part  of  mankind  which  at  the  present  day,  yet 
lingers  in  this  stage  of  development.  Imperfect  as 
this  sketch  may  be,  it  is  sufficient  to  indicate  to  you 


the  basisj  the  purport,  and  the  result  of  the  Avhole.  The 
basis  is  egotism;  for  all  these  systems  sprang  only  from 
the  relation  of  external  nature  to  man ; — the  purport  is 
the  contradiction  involved  in  existence  and  non-existence, 
entity  and  non-entity,  life  and  death,  production  and 
decay,  and  in  their  continuous  alternation  the  union  of 
which  it  is  impossible  to  conceive, — the  result  is  despair, 
misery,  for  the  consciousness  of  man  cannot  extract 
the  truth,  and  exhausts  itself  in  the  attempt.  What 
is  God  in  man's  sight  ?  Either  a  voluntarily  accepted 
necessity,  whose  being  is  inexplicable,  or  a  voluntarily 
assumed  third  existence,  by  whose  omnipotent  decree 
the  antagonism  of  two  other  divinities  is  upheld ;  or 
an  unmeaning  empty  '  Yonder,'  whence  the  transit  to 
this  world,  the  '  Here,'  is  incomprehensible ;  or  the 
ingenuous  confession  of  the  Inscrutable — it  is,  but  we 
know  not  what  it  is.  Creations  of  the  fancy  fill  up  the 
gaps.  How  real  and  how  general  were  the  misery  and 
despair  reigning  in  the  consciousness  of  man,  in  the 
later  periods  of  the  Roman  empire,  history  clearly 
shows;  and  of  this  subject  we  purpose  at  a  fitting 
moment  to  resume  the  consideration. 

With  these  things  Mosaism  came  into  contact.  From 
its  earliest  growth  to  its  latest  stage,  it  remained  in 
distinct  contrast,  as  a  mental  system,  to  antiquity,  until 
that  antiquity  had  entirely  exhausted  its  own  vitality, 
and  had  proved,  even  to  self-conviction,  its  inability  to 
discover  truth.  Certain  truths  it  had  indeed  been  able 
to  bring  to  the  test  of  human  consciousness ;  yet  these 
were  but  of  secondary  value,  since  they  had  not  been 
resolvable  into  one  absolute  truth. 

What  then  is  the  essential  point  of  diff"erence  be- 
tween the   religions  and  philosophemes    of  Antiquity, 



and  Mosaism  ?  The  former  had  proceeded  from  mail, 
from  the  apparently  antagonistic  relation  of  outward 
nature  to  man.  In  the  presence  of  the  mystery,  the 
antagonism  of  life  and  deaths  being  and  non-being, 
which  he  could  not  solve,  man  assumed  them  to  be 
divine.  But  Mosaism  went  forth  from  God.  The 
former  said — '  The  world  is,  therefore  is  there  a  God'; 
but  the  latter  declared, — '  God  is,  therefore  the  world 

Starting  from  this  one  proposition,  all  becomes  clear 
to  our  view.  Antiquity  saw  mankind  and  the  world, 
and  sought  as  their  originator  a  Deity.  Mosaism 
found  God,  or  rather  possesses  Him,  and  proceeding 
from  God,  comes  to  the  world  and  mankind.  The 
Deity  of  the  religious  and  philosophic  systems  of  an- 
tiquity, could  not  possibly  be  aught  save  the  personifi- 
cation of  their  own  view  of  nature :  therefore  the 
antagonism  visible  in  its  external  phenomena,  they 
asci'ibed  to  the  cause  of  that  phenomena.  In  Mosaism 
this  antagonism  did  not  exist,  for  no  such  principle  of 
division  could  spring  from  the  Divine  Unity.  While 
the  mind  of  Paganism  could  not  advance  beyond 
the  idea  of  production  and  dissolution,  being  and  non- 
being — to  the  mental  perception  of  Mosaism,  the  con- 
ception and  existence  of  God  presented  no  difficulty; 
it  realized  God  Himself,  and  the  resolution  of  all  exist- 
ence in  Him.  The  human  idea  repeatedly  relapsed  into, 
and  clothed  itself  in  Polytheism,  while  Mosaism  in  its 
recognition  of  the  anity  of  God  as  the  basis  of  its 
faith,  ensured  its  OAvn  everlasting  endurance. 

But  laying  aside  antithesis,  let  us  consider  the  indi- 
vidual purport  of  Mosaism.  What  I  have  just  ad- 
vanced is  confirmed  by  tho  first  words  of  Scripture. 


"  In  the  beginning  God  created  tlie  Heaven  and  the 
Karth."  God  was,  and  created  the  world.  God  is,  and 
the  world  is  the  consequence  of  His  being ;  it  has  in 
Him  its  existence.  It  receives  from  Him  its  origin. 
God  suffered  it  to  be  at  first  Tohu  Vabohu,  chaos,  and 
then  He  developed  in  order  and  time  the  grand  pheno- 
mena of  nature ;  first  its  universal  phenomenon,  light ; 
then  the  special  elemental  phenomena,  expansion,  water, 
earth ;  then  the  specific  terrestrial  phenomena  of  the 
vegetable  and  animal  kingdoms,  etc.;  and  lastly,  the 
highest  and  most  perfect  speciality,  Man.  The  great 
doctrines  of  Mosaism  are  therefore  : — 

1.  God  is  absolute  Being. 

2.  The  Universe  is  His  work,  in  that  He  operates 
the  continual  transformation  of  the  general  into  the 

3.  God  is  beyond  and  superior  to,  or  rather  above, 
the  Universe.  God  and  nature  are  not  identical ;  the 
latter  is  only  His  world,  a  combination  of  specialities, 
and  not  God,  who  is  absolute. 

4.  God  as  absolute  essence  is  Unity, 

5.  The  world  is  a  Unity;  in  it  everything  harmo- 
nizes, all  is  necessary,  all  is  good. 

In  the  above  established  dogma,  all  the  questions  of 
antiquity  are  either  precluded  or  answered.  As  the 
world  is  contemplated,  not  from  the  standard  of  man's 
egotism,  but  from  the  Universality  of  the  Divine 
Author,  the  question  as  to  salutary  and  pernicious  in- 
fluences can  no  longer  be  entertained.  For  these  are 
relative  terms,  indicative  of  the  egotistical  standard  of 
judgment  erected  by  man,  according  to  which  the  infinite 
consequences  of  the  designs  of  a  Divine  Providence  are 
made  referable  to  man,  his  desires,  and  their  gi'atification. 

38  LECTURE    II. 

(That  which  in  itself  is  good,  may  be  hurtful  to  me  : 
the  wind  which  purifies  the  atmosphere  of  an  entire  pro- 
vincCj  may  be  to  me  an  agent  of  destruction) .  Even  in 
production  and  dissolution  there  dwells  no  antagonism  ; 
since  both  are  resolvable  into  general  existence.  They 
occur  in  a  speciality  only,  that  is  but  a  link  severed 
from,  and  then  re-united  to,  the  great  chain  of  the 
Universe.  In  accordance  with  the  spirit  of  Mosaism, 
we  find  that  the  same  word  expresses  both  the  world 
and  eternity  D7iy.*  Neither  can  the  question  how  the 
world,  the  '  Here',  proceeded  from  the  world  'Beyond', 
again  arise,  for  the  world  is  not  out  of  God,  but  by  means 
of  God,  whose  appointment  it  is,  that  the  general  being 
shall  ever  develop  itself  into  special  existences. 

Thus  Mosaism  teaches  that  God  is  an  absolute  Being 
n^nX  "IS^'X  (ITIJ^,  consequently  one  and  alone ;  above 
the  world ;  Creator  of  the  world ;  the  unity  of  all 
specialities.  God  cannot  therefore  be  a  speciality, 
therefore  is  He  incorporeal,  and  therefore  He  cannot 
be  represented  either  in  one  of  His  works,  or  by  a 
"  likeness"  the  work  of  man's  hands.  For  the  same 
reason,  because  God  is  no  speciality,  is  He  holy,  z.e.,  in 
Him  all  special  properties  resolve  into  one  Universality, 
therefore  also  is  He  perfect.  As  God  is  absolute  Being, 
He  is  of  no  time ;  He  is  eternal :  a  speciality  only  is 
bom  and  dies.  In  like  manner.  He  is  unlimited  in  His 
being  and  power,  Omnipresent  and  Omnipotent  (HJi^). 

Thus  by  means  of  a  comprehensive  and  intelligible 
agnition  of  the  Divinity,  Mosaism  dismissed  the  vacant 
Yonder  of  the  Indian,  the  Inscrutable  of  the  Egyptian, 
the  Necessity  of  the  Sabean,  the  inexplicable  Destiny 
of  the  Persian,  and  all  the  phases  of  philosophy  to 
*  1  Mos.  21—33. 


which  these  correspoiid;  and  became,  thereby,  the 
most  inflexible  opponent  of  the  corrupt  refuge  of  these 
religions,  Polytheism  and  Idolatry.  Whatever  truths 
had  been  discovered  by  these  religions  and  philosphemes, 
were  now  resolvable  into  that  'truth'  enunciated  in 
Mosaism,  which,  while  condemning  their  error^  sub- 
stituted for  their  want  of  consolation  the  strongest  and 
deepest  confidence  and  trust.  At  this  point  only,  where 
the  action  of  the  philosophic  religious  systems  of  an- 
tiquity closes,  does  the  mission  of  Mosaism  in  reality 

The  history  of  creation,  as  given  in  Scripture,  must 
by  no  means  be  taken  in  a  literal  sense.  It  imparts 
to  us  only  the  great  ideas,  by  which  the  creation  is 
conceivable  to  our  faculties.  We  learn  that  universal 
existence  became  gradually  more  special,  and  in  this 
manner  the  whole  progress  of  creation  is  rendered  in- 

First  there  was  chaos,  then  light,  then  expansion, 
etc.  We  are  told  how  in  process  of  time  the  Creation 
regularly  developed  itself  : — that  therefore  God  had 
thus  set  it  forth  from  the  beginning  on  certain  fixed 
laws,  from  which,  after  different  revolutions,  a  settled 
order,  a  cycle  of  life,  proceeded.  By  the  '  world,' 
Mosaism  understands  the  aggregate  of  all  specialities, 
existing  by  reason  of  the  laws  of  nature  established 
by  God.  At  the  head  of  these  specialities,  as  the 
most  perfect  speciality,  stands  man.  The  perfection 
of  speciality  in  him  consists  in  this;  that  he  is 
on  one  hand  alone,  in  connection  with  the  material 
Universality,  consisting  of  the  aggregate  of  all  speciali- 
ties, the  world ;  while,  on  the  other  he  returns  to  the 
absolute  Universality — to  God. 

40  LECTURE    II. 

Mosaism  ascribes  to  man  a  dual  nature,  formed  of 
body  and  soul ;  but  this  duality  is  again  a  higher  unity, 
as  we  shall  have  occasion  to  show  hereafter.  With 
reference  to  the  creation  of  the  lower  animals,  the 
scriptural  phrase  is,  '  God  created  it/  but  in  the 
creation  of  man  a  two-fold  act  is  announced :  He 
formed  him  out  of  the  dust  of  the  earth,  as  a  speciality 
of  the  material  world,  and  breathed  into  his  nostrils 
the  breath  of  life ;  gave  him  His  '  Spirit,'  as  it  is  said 
previously  to  the  flood;  'my  Spirit  in  men  shall  not 
always  succumb.'*  By  this  Spirit  man  is  related  to 
the  absolute  Universality — to  God:  'Created  in  His 
image.'  t  It  follows,  from  the  nature  of  Mosaism,  that 
the  image  of  the  Deity  in  man  can  relate  to  the  Spirit 
alone,  as  the  repeated  assertion  that  God  is  "  God  of 
the  spirits  of  ail  flesh  "  clearly  demonstrates. 

This,  my  respected  hearers,  is  the  most  important  of 
all  the  teachings  of  Mosaism  in  reference  to  man,  and 
the  basis  on  which  the  whole  fabric  is  erected,  and  by 
which  its  symmetry  becomes  most  manifest :  God's 
likeness  to  dualistic  man,  on  the  side  of  the  Spirit.  As 
the  chief  featiure  of  this  Divine  likeness,  Mosaism 
points  to  freedom  and  free  agenc3^  Man  shall  have 
dominion  over  all  creatures  around  him  :  he  assigns  to 
them  their  names  :  Adam  can  eat  of  the  forbidden  fruit, 
but  he  can  also  abstain ;  Cain  can  act  righteously,  but 
also  wickedly;  again  when  the  entire  law  was  promul- 
gated, the  words  ran,  "  Behold  !  I  have  put  before  thee 
Life  and  Death,  choose  Life."  J  There  is  nowhere  in 
Mosaism  a  trace  of  the  invincible  Necessity  of  the 
Sabeans,  who  believed  the  destiny  of  man  to  be  influ- 

*  1  Mos.  6,  3.  t  1  Mo8.  1,  27  ;    5, 1. 

X  5  Mos.  11,  2(j ;  Ibid.  3—15,  19. 


enced  by  the  stars,  nor  of  the  inscruta])lc  Destiny  of  the 
Persians,  nor  of  the  irrevocable  Fate  of  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  to  which  even  Jupiter  and  all  the  gods  were 
subject.  Mosaism  declares  man  to  be  free  and  self- 
determining,  for  he  bears  the  image  of  God. 

But  if  the  nature  of  man  is  dual,  connected  on  one 
hand  with  the  material  world,  and  on  the  other  with 
God;  if  his  spirit  is  created  in  the  likeness  of  God, 
and  therefore  free  and  self-determining,  then  it  follows, 
that  the  aim  and  purport  of  his  life  must  be  to  strive 
after  a  still  greater  resemblance  to  God,  to  promote  the 
egress  of  the  spirit  from  the  bodily  speciality,  and  make 
it  approximate  to  the  universal ;  to  control  the  egotism 
of  his  physical  nature ;  not  like  the  Indian,  to  destroy  it 
and  place  in  its  stead  the  egotism  of  a  passive  intellectual 
life  ; — to  command  and  to  regulate  it,  and  to  resolve  it 
into  the  universal  by  the  practice  of  love  and  justice. 
'  Be  thou  holy  as  the  Lord  tliy  God  is  holy.'  "^  '  Thou 
shalt  be  perfect  with  the  Lord  thy  God.'f  But  this 
very  freedom  of  man,  this  self-determining  power,  makes 
evil  possible  as  well  as  good.  He  can  give  himself  up 
to  the  egotism  of  his  material  nature ;  he  can  wantonly 
combat  those  influences  which  tend  to  stem  the  tide  of 
his  desires,  and  give  free  course  to  sensual  passions, 
to  anger,  or  to  avarice.  In  a  word,  he  can  commit  sin. 
Two  kinds  of  sin  are  represented  in  Scripture,  one 
showing  the  sensual  nature  of  man  in  itself,  and  the 
other,  the  obstacle  which  society  places  to  the  indul- 
gence of  individual  desires.  In  the  one  instance,  man 
deviates  from  the  destination  divinely  assigned  to  him, 
in  the  other  he  violates  the  right  of  his  fellow-creature. 
These  two  phases  of  transgression  are  illustrated  in  the 
*  3  Mos.  19,  2  ;  20,  7.  t  5  Moa.  18,  13. 

43  LECTURE    II. 

history  of  Paradise  and  the  fratricide  of  Cain.  In  both 
instances,  in  the  violation  of  God's  command  and  of 
the  right  of  his  brother,  man  commits  sin.  The  object 
of  these  narratives  is  to  proclaim,  not  the  origin  of  here- 
ditary sin,  in  which  the  nullification  of  man's  freedom 
and  self-determining  power  would  be  involved,  but  the 
inherent  possibility  of  sin  in  man.  This  possibility  of 
sin  is  a  consequence  of  man's  dual  nature,  and  of  his 
freedom.  Thus  the  question,  '  How  can  sin  exist  in 
God's  perfect  world?'  is  answered  in  Mosaism  by 
anticipation.  Sin  is  not  a  universal,  an  absolute  ex- 
istence, but  a  condition  of  the  individual  in  relation  to 
himself,  of  which  the  effect  is  limited  to  that  individual, 
and  extends  not  to  the  universal.  Indeed  sin,  as  an 
attestation  of  the  freedom  and  self-determining  faculty 
of  man,  is  considered  from  a  general  point  of  view, 
good.  For  the  Persian,  sin  is  a  furtherance  of  the 
power  of  darkness,  of  the  god  of  evil,  Ahriman,  and 
therefore  of  general  import.  In  Mosaism,  sin  is  merely 
a  circumstance  pertaining  to  the  individual  sinner,  and 
entirely  without  general  bearing.  Sin  is  not  the 
nature  of  man,  but  a  possibility  in  the  nature  of  man. 
Mosaism  recognises  man  as  the  unity  of  body  and 
spirit ;  by  the  former,  linked  to  the  egotism  of  material 
nature  ;  in  the  latter,  godlike,  free  and  self-deter- 
mining, consequently  having  the  destination  of  nearer 
approximation  to  God,  but  also  the  possibility  of  sin. 

Such  are  the  teachings  of  Mosaism  respecting  God, 
the  world  and  man.  What  is  the  relation  which  God 
holds  to  the  world  and  to  man  ? 

The  relation  of  God  to  the  visible  world  He  created, 
and  to  which  He  assigned  fixed  laws  and  order,  by 
means  of  which  it  endures,  is  not  identical  with  the 


relation  He  holds  to  man,  made  in  His  image,  having 
the  destination  granted  him  of  ever  nearer  approach 
to  his  Maker,  yet  possessing,  by  reason  of  his  free 
will,    the   power   of  pursuing   a   contrary   course. 

For  the  better  definition  of  our  meaning  we  will  make 
use  of  the  terms  direct  and  indirect.  The  Creator  is  in 
indirect  relation  with  the  world — it  exists  by  reason  of 
the  immutable  laws  He  established;  but  with  the 
human  soul,  formed  after  His  own  likeness.  He  is  in 
direct  relation  :  for  here  there  mvist  be  assumed  on  the 
part  of  the  human  mind  a  free  development,  and  on 
the  part  of  God  a  continual  operation.  That  such  a 
direct  relation  of  God  to  man  must  exist,  is  self  evident 
from  the  constitution  of  the  human  mind,  and  the 
thence  deducible  destination  of  man.  God  made  him 
in  His  own  image,  thus  in  direct  connection  with  Him- 
self. But  wherein  consists  this  direct  relation  of  God 
to  man?  1st.  In  the  continual  providential  guidance  of 
the  destiny  of  mankind.  God  having  created  man  with 
the  capability  of  realizing  a  certain  ultimate  destination. 
His  design  would  fail  were  this  destination  not  attained, 
and  this  seems  to  be  illustrated  in  the  record  we  have 
of  the  generation  living  at  the  time  of  the  Deluge. 
If  therefore  the  design  of  the  Creator  is  to  be  carried 
into  effect.  He  must  lead  man,  whose  freedom  of  action 
renders  a  contrary  result  possible,  in  the  way  of  its 
accomplishment.  This  principle  is  declared  in  every 
page  of  the  Mosaic  writings.  The  guidance  of  indi- 
vidual men,  the  divine  hand  in  their  destiny,  is  every- 
where averred  in  solemn,  striking,  words.  Here  also 
repeated  indications  are  found  of  the  divine  conduct 
of  all  the  people  of  the  earth  towards  religious  and 
social  perfection,  an  idea  of  which  the  final  enunciation 


LECTUllE    II. 

was  conveyed  by  the  prophets.  lu  the  pre-mosaic 
history,  however,  Mosaistn  makes  significant  allusions 
to  this  providential  gnidance,  in  the  narrative  of  the 
Tower  of  Babel  and  in  the  biography  of  Joseph.  Mow 
this  guidance  of  man's  destiny  accords  with  his  free- 
dom and  free  agency  as  arbiter  of  his  own  fate,  is  a 
question  answered  by  anticipation  in  Mosaism.  God 
ordains  the  outward  conditions  which  are  to  form  his 
sphere  of  action ;  his  birth,  family  and  possessions  are 
of  His  appointment;  within  that  sphere,  man's  course 
is  left  free;  by  reason  of  the  fore-knowledge  of  all 
human  actions,  which  is  an  unfailing  attribute  of  the 
Omniscient,  events  are  so  directed  that  they  reach 
their  appointed  end.  By  means  of  their  free  agency 
the  brethren  of  Joseph  sold  him  into  slavery;  but  God 
so  ordered  all  things  that  this  act  resulted  in  the  salva- 
tion, by  Joseph's  instrumentality,  of  an  entire  nation 
from  famine,  and  in  the  translation  of  Jacob's  family 
into  the  land  of  Egypt. 

The  second  condition  of  the  direct  relation  of  God 
toman  is  'that  God  is  the  Judge  of  the  actions  of 
men.'  Having  given  him  a  destination,  He  must 
provide,  that  on  the  furtherance  of  this,  His  work, 
as  on  every  interruption  of  the  same,  the  due  respective 
consequences  shall  follow.  Mosaism  teaches  this  in  the 
most  emphatic  language ;  and  here  again  we  must  revert 
to  the  view  of  sin  given  in  Mosaism.  Sin  is  a  quality 
that  relates  to  the  individual  himself,  and  is  without 
any  essential  existence  in  the  Universe  or  created 
world.  This  condition  therefore  can  be  changed  or 
altogether  removed.  The  sinner  can  return  to  virtue ; 
and  like  alternations  must  be  possible  in  respect  of  the 
*  1  Mos.  45.  5.     50.  20. 


effects  of  sin.  The  punislunent  must  take  place,  but 
the  sinner  must  be  forgiven  when  he  returns  to  virtue. 
God  is  Judge^  and  cannot  permit  sin  to  be  unpunished, 
but  He  is  also  merciful,  and  will  forgive  the  guilt  of  the 
penitent.  This  apparent  contradiction  is  in  Mosaism 
prominently  asserted,  and  beautifully  solved.  It  pro- 
claims, in  repeated  instances,  that  '  the  Everlasting  is 
a  merciful  and  gracious  God,  long  suffering,  and  of 
infinite  goodness  and  truth,  who  forgiveth  iniquity, 
transgression  and  sin,  yet  will  not  suffer  the  guilty  to 
go  unpunished,  and  remembereth  the  sins  of  the  fathers, 
on  the  children  and  children's  children.'  It  is  well 
known  that  a  sentiment  of  pseudo- charity  and  exag- 
gerated love  has  often  made  this  last  expression — 'Visit- 
ing the   sins,  etc shewing   mercy  unto  thousands  of 

them  that  love  him,  and  keep  his  commandments/ — the 
object  of  attack,  without  its  being  remembered  that  these 
words,  superficially  considered,  present  too  apparent  a  con- 
tradiction not  to  indicate  that  the  real  meaning  is  to  be 
sought  somewhat  deeper.  If  we  consider  real  life,  (and 
this,  it  will  be  admitted,  is  the  highest  test  of  the  truth 
of  a  doctrine),  do  we  not  at  once  perceive  numberless  cases 
where  the  descendants  suffer  from  the  material  conse- 
quences of  the  crimes  of  their  progenitors  ?  The  parents 
living  in  excess,  beget  a  race  that  brings  into  the  world 
the  seeds  of  debility  and  death.  The  dishonour  of  the 
father  presses  down  the  fortunes  of  the  son — the  spend- 
thrift makes  his  heir  a  beggar — Louis  XVI.,  a  kind 
and  good  man,  is  guillotined  for  the  sins  of  his  prede- 
cessors. Thus  we  see  that  reality  confirms  the  truth  of 
the  emphatic  assertion  of  Mosaism.  It  will  be  stated  in 
reply,  that  this  process  of  retribution  is  but  natural 
and  just  :    the   material   consequences  follow  directly 



upon  the  sin,  and  God,  in  His  conduct  of  man's 
destin}^,  permits  these  consequences  to  be  visible. 
Yes  :  this  is  the  solution.  As  Judge,  God  suffers  the 
natural  consequences  to  follow  upon  sin,  and  thus  leaves 
it  not  uncondemned.  But  sin  is  not  only  a  material 
act,  it  is  also  a  condition  of  the  soul  in  relation  to  God. 
It  has  interrupted  and  checked  the  soul  of  man  in  its 
approach  to  its  Maker ;  it  is  God's  mercy  that  calls  the 
penitent,  that  forgives  transgression,  removes  the  ob- 
stacles in  his  path,  and  brings  the  sinner's  soul  back  to 
Himself.  Such  is  the  doctrine  of  Mosaism  ;  it  declares 
that  God  as  Judge,  leaves  nothing  impunished,  and 
permits  sin  to  have  its  natural  result ;  but  that  in  His 
mercy  He  forgives  guilt  and  recalls  sinners  to  Himself. 
This  direct  relation  of  God  to  man,  finds  in  Mosaism 
its  truest  and  most  unequivocal  expression. 

3rdly.  '  God  hath  revealed  Himself.'  Revelation  is 
assumed  throughout  the  whole  of  the  Mosaic  writings. 
At  first  it  is  introduced  by  the  inspired  penman  with  a 
simple  affirmative  Tl  1t2^'')  'God  spake';  afterwards 
historically,  as  he  himself  is  taught.  Throughout  the 
whole  period  of  his  mission,  he  is  ever  conscious  of 
being  the  recipient  of  the  revelation,  for  not  alone  does 
Moses  remind  the  people  that  '  from  heaven  He  hath 
let  thee  hear  His  voice  in  order  to  teach  thee,'  but  in 
Num.  xii.,  he  fully  explains  the  diff'erent  kinds  of  di\ane 
revelation,  and  in  other  passages  he  enumerates  the 
conditions  of  true  revelation,  and  the  signs  by  which  it 
may  be  known  to  be  divine ;  namely,  that  it  contain 
nothing  which  shall  contradict  the  previously-revealed 
conception  of  the  Divine  Being ;  as,  for  instance,  the 
representation  of  the  Deity  in  any  form,  or  the  doctrine 
of  more  gods  than  one.     That  according  to  the  spirit  of 


Mosaism,  our  notion  of  revelation  be  neither  feeble  nor 
false^  is  provided  for  from  tlie  very  commencement. 
Mosaism  unquestionably  compreliends  under  this  head ; 
Istj  the  declaration  of  general  fixed  principles  to  the 
people ;  and^  2ndly ,  the  direct  agency  and  inspiration 
of  God  finding  utterance  in  the  representations  and 
convictions  of  certain  chosen  men.  The  essential 
quality^  however,  is,  that  divine  revelation  in  Mosaism 
is  neither  an  accidental  circumstance  nor  an  adopted 
costume,  a  garment  laid  aside  at  will,  without  the 
essence  clothed  being  thereby  aff'ected.  Men  are  too 
much  accustomed  to  look  on  revelation  in  Mosaism  as 
the  modus  rerum  narrandarum  only,  as  the  style  of  the 
report  having  no  relation  to  its  purport  and  its  truth. 
But  this  is  not  the  case.  Revelation  is  an  integral  part, 
the  corner-stone  of  Mosaism.  God  having  given  to 
man  a  spirit  after  His  own  likeness,  with  the  destination 
of  continual  approximation  to  his  Maker,  having  made 
man  free  and  self-determining,  and  as  a  necessary  con- 
sequence of  that  freedom,  exposed  to  the  possibility  of 
pursuing  a  course  opposite  to  his  true  destination;  a 
further  necessary  consequence  was,  that  God  should 
make  known  Truth  to  His  creatures,  as  without  it  they 
Avould  wander  in  constant  error,  fall  short  of  the  aim 
of  their  being,  and  at  length  come  to  misery  and  des- 
pair, as  the  history  of  an  antiquity  devoid  of  revelation 
has  shown. 

It  was  necessary  that  mankind  should  pass  through 
their  various  and  peculiar  phases  of  development,  attain 
whatever  their  nature  was  qualified  to  accomplish,  and 
in  order  generally  to  fit  them  for  the  acceptance  of  the 
truth,  that  their  development  should  be  wholly  un- 
fettered.    For  this  reason,  divine  revelation  did  not  go 

48  LECTURE    II. 

forth  at  once  to  the  whole  worhl,  but  was  entrusted  to 
a  small  people,  chosen  and  reared  for  this  purpose. 
Mosaism  then  considers  revelation  as  the  perfect  direct 
relation  of  God  to  Man.  God  were  but  partly  in 
direct  relation,  if  He  only  conducted  the  destinies  of 
men,  judged  their  actions  and  forgave  their  sins ;  for 
here,  as  with  the  government  of  other  creatures,  merely 
fixed  laws,  though  of  a  higher  order,  would  obtain. 
God  having,  however,  created  the  spirit  of  man  after 
His  own  image,  thereby  placed  man  in  direct  relation 
to  Himself,  and  must  in  as  direct  a  manner  unfold  the 
truth  to  his  view.  By  means  of,  and  in  revelation, 
God  is  in  direct  relation  to  man  ;  therefore  revelation 
is  not  a  modus  only,  but  an  integral  part  of  that  doc- 
trine, whose  very  essence  is  the  direct  relation  of  God 
to  man.  That  God  conducts  the  destinies  of  men 
and  judges  their  actions,  is  only  proved  and  shown  in 
His  having  also  directly  revealed  to  him  the  truth. 
But  for  revelation,  the  divine  government  of  human 
affairs  could  be  but  supposed  and  assumed. 

And  now,  at  the  conclusion,  we  must  revert  to  the 
beginning.  We  have  seen  that  Mosaism  went  forth 
from  God  to  the  world,  and  to  men.  How  did  it 
effect  this  ?  Because  the  God  of  Mosaism  is  a  re- 
vealed God.  The  knowledge  of  God  is  not  acquired 
by  means  of  speculation,  for  then  it  nmst  have  first 
arisen  in  man,  proceeded  from  him  to  the  world,  and 
thence  have  reached  to  God,  to  be  finally  lost  in  the 
phases  of  the  religions  and  philosophcmes  of  paganism. 
Mosaism  knows  God,  and  by  means  of  this  realized 
God,  it  receives  its  knowledge  of  the  world  and  of  men. 
Mosaism  knows  God,  because  God  has  made  Himself 
known  to  Mosaism.     Mosaism  demands  that  the  Divine 


Being  be  comprehended,  not  discovered,  by  the  intellect ; 
therefore  do  we  repeatedly  meet  with  the  injunction  to 
"know  God/'  Human  intelligence  did  not  first  find 
Him,  but  received  Him  by  means  of  revelation.  The 
whole  truth  of  Mosaism  thus  demands  a  divine  revelation, 
which  revelation  is  explained  previously  by  the  declara- 
tion of  the  creation  of  man  in  the  image  of  God,  In 
demanding  that  fact,  revelation  declares  its  possibility. 

Were  I  here,  my  friends,  to  give  not  only  a  history, 
but  arguments  in  proof  of  Judaism,  I  should  have  to 
answer  a  number  of  objections  to  which  the  so-called 
rational  view  of  the  subject  would  at  this  point  give 
rise.  But  I  have  to  adhere  strictly  to  history,  by  which, 
perhaps,  in  its  course,  these  unsolved  remaining  ques- 
tions will  be  best  answered.  In  this  place  I  desired 
only  to  prove  by  means  of  Mosaism  itself,  the  absolute 
necessity  of  Revelation  to  Mosaism. 

We  have  therefore  clearly  defined  the  doctrine  of 
God  as  declared  in  Mosaism,  in  contradistinction  to  the 
dualistic  systems  of  antiquity.    Mosaism  proclaimed : — 

1.  God  is  absolute  Being. 

2.  The  Avorld  is  His  creation,  in  which  the  universal 
by  degrees  becomes  special. 

3.  God  is  superior  to  and  beyond  the  world,  one  and 
alone,  incorporeal,  holy,  eternal,  omnipresent  and  om- 

4.  Man  is  the  unity  of  body  and  spirit ;  his  spirit 
created  in  the  image  of  God,  with  the  destination  of 
ever  nearer  approximation  to  God,  free  and  self- deter- 
mining, with  the  possibility  of  sin. 

5.  God  is  in  direct  relation  to  man,  in  that  He  con- 
ducts him  towards  perfection,  is  judge  of  his  actions, 
the  consequences  of  which  He  permits  to  appear ;    but 

50  LECTURE    II. 

cancels  the  guilt  of  the  penitent,  and  has  revealed  to 
him  the  truth. 

This  is  'the  religious  idea/  as  Mosaism  introduced 
it  into  the  world,  which,  notwithstanding  continued 
antagonism,  has  ever  since  been  extending  its  dominion 
over  mankind.  The  unity  of  God;  the  unity  of  the 
world ;  the  unity  of  man :  the  indirect  relation  of 
God  to  the  world  by  virtue  of  nature's  laws;  His  direct 
relation  to  man,  by  providence,  judgment,  and  reve- 




In  our  examination  of  the  morality  of  the  social  con- 
stitution of  Mosaism,  we  must  direct  oiu*  attention 
especially  to  two  points — 1st.  It  estabHshes  that  man, 
in  all  his  relations,  is  a  unity^  and  that  each  of  his 
component  parts^  having  one  and  the  same  point  of 
departure,  is  to  he  collaterally  and  equally  developed. 
Further,  the  ideal  in  Mosaism  differs  not  from  the  real, 
nor  the  doctrine  from  the  life,  nor  the  cultivation  of 
head  and  heart  from  the  line  of  action.  By  firmly 
establishing  these  first  principles,  Mosaism  clears  the 
road,  by  which  their  realisation  may  be  attempted  and 
achieved.  Therefore  all  extremes,  that  would  force  hu- 
man effort  beyond  the  limit  of  human  power  and  capa- 
city, are  foreign  to,  and  unknown  in,  Mosaism.  In  it 
rehgion  is  not  a  thing  apart  from  life  '  here,^  on  earth, 
an  ideal  world,  into  which  man  retires,  and  in  which  he 
abstracts  himself  for  an  hour's  brief  space,  and  whence 
he  emerges,  without  substantial  or  direct  guidance,  to 
re-enter  the  actual  world  of  men,  wherein  all  appears 
to  contradict  that  ideal  world  of  religion. 

On  the  contrary,  in  Mosaism  the  entire  life  is  religion, 
and  religion  is  the  entire  life  :  ovit   of  it,   a  religious 

E  2 


'Here'  is  to  issue ;  therefore  it  does  not  merely  treat 
of,  but  actually  develops  out  of  itself,  alike  morality  and 
the  law  of  society,  alike  virtue  and  right. 

2.  As  Mosaism  was  addressed  originally  to  one  par- 
ticular race,  under  particular  circumstances,  and  at  a 
certain  period  of  the  world's  history,  it  not  only  esta- 
blishes general  fixed  principles,  but  invests  them  in 
certain  specific  ordinances  (a  garb  suited  to  the  age  and 
people),  forming  a  comprehensive  code  of  national  laws, 
from  Avhich  we  have  to  extract  the  essential  general 
thoughts  and  purport.  For  the  attainment  of  this  end, 
we  must  now  often  depart  from  the  ISIosaic  letter,  in 
order  to  seize  the  Mosaic  spirit.  We  should  further 
lay  down  two  rules  for  our  guidance  in  the  performance 
of  our  task,  viz. — We  must  carefully  deduce  the  general 
design  from  the  specific  provisions  ;  and,  secondly,  time 
and  circumstances  being  duly  weighed,  we  must  discard 
that,  and  that  only,  Avhich  appertains  exclusively  to 
them — we  must  faithfully  adhere  to,  and  retain  that, 
which  appertains  equally  to  all  times  and  circumstances. 

What,  then,  is  the  leading  and  highest  principle  of 
morals  in  Mosaism  ?  It  declares  man  to  be  created  in 
the  image  of  God ;  therefore  is  the  deduction  manifest, 
that  the  command,  "  Ye  shall  be  holy,  for  I  the  Lord 
vour  God  am  holy,"  *  is  the  first  and  highest  principle 
of  Mosaic  morality.  From  this  first  principle  three 
conclusions  may  be  drawn— 

1.  Mosaism  places  the  ground-work  of  all  good,  not 
in  man,  but  in  God.  Hence  what  is  good  in  God  is 
good  in  man  also ;  and  man  shall  do  good,  because  it  is 
good  in  the  sight  of  God.  By  these  axioms  incalculably 
much  is  achieved.  In  the  first  place,  all  human  doubts 
*  3  Mos.  19.  2. 


and  uncertainty  are  dispelled.  By  these  means  alone, 
in  fact,  we  clearly  perceive  and  know  what  is  good,  since 
from  God  only  all  individuality  is  absent ;  in  Him  alone 
no  egotism  can  exist.  In  tlie  second  nlace,  the  aim  of 
the  good  is  fully  determined,  that  aim  being  declared 
to  be,  not  contentment  (after  all,  but  a  refined  egotism), 
but  approximation  to  God. 

2.  Formal,  external  sanctification  cannot  here  be  the 
matter  in  question,  the  holiness  of  man  being  referred 
to  the  holiness  of  God.  This  sanctification  is  not  to  be 
efifected  by  the  ceremonial  of  religion :  it  is  not  an  act 
of  di^^ne  worship,  but  the  life  practical  and  spiritual, 
since  in  the  sight  of  God,  in  no  forms,  but  in  attributes 
and  deeds,  consists  "holiness."  In  accordance  with 
this  principle,  the  sanctification  of  the  life  and  the 
spirit  constitutes  man's  ''  holiness." 

3.  This  principle  again  comprehends  that  of  the 
unity  of  man.  Religious  morality  and  social  life  are 
not  presented  to  us  in  Mosaism,  as  distinct  entities, 
having  an  ideal,  but  not  a  real  and  intimate  union ;  on 
the  contrary,  holiness  includes  them  all,  for  this  god- 
like holiness  admits  not  of  religion  without  morality, 
nor  of  morality  without  social  virtue,  but  requires  that 
the  same  character  prevail  throughout  all  these  phases 
of  life. 

Let  us  now  examine  this  Holiness  in  the  minutest 
details  in  which  it  has  reference  to  the  individual  rela- 
tions of  every  human  being,  and  we  shall  perceive  that 
in  Mosaism  man  is  universally  an  independent  self- 
determining  creature,  a  being  endued  with  independent 
natural  powers  and  rights.  Mosaism  in  no  wa^^  requires 
of  man  self-abnegation,  the  sacrifice  of  his  individuality ; 
on  the   contrary,  it    elevates  that  individuality  to  its 


highest  possible  position.  Throughout  Mosaism  conse- 
quently, this  Holiness  is  but  another  term  for  love,  with 
which  it  is  identical ;  for  love  is  not  self-sacrifice,  love 
is  self-devotion.  This  self-devotion  is  the  true  manifest- 
ation of  the  individuality  of,  as  the  bestowal  of  gifts 
presupposes  possession  in,  the  giver.  Of  man  subject  to 
the  law  of  love,  one  undivided  feehng  pervades  and 
permeates  the  whole  being,  and  inasmuch  as  he  thereby 
becomes  entirely  self-conscious  of  his  own  nature,  inso- 
much is  that  being  exalted  and  refined.  Mosaism 
therefore  declares  the  first  and  highest  principle  of 
man^s  relation  to  his  God  to  be, — *'Thou  shalt  love  the 
Lord  thy  God  with  all  thy  heart,  with  all  thy  soul,  and 
with  all  thy  might.'^^  The  individuality  of  man  under 
all  its  conditions  even  in  his  relation  to  his  God,  is,  in 
this  comprehensive  enumeration,  most  emphatically 
recognised,  (with  all  thy  heart,  with  all  thy  soul,  and 
with  all  thy  might),  while  it  at  the  same  time  demands 
that  such  individuality  should  merge  into  seK-devotion 
to  that  God. 

Just  so  is  it  with  the  relation  of  man  to  his  feUow- 
men, — ^Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself; '-}- 
here  again  the  individuality  of  the  individual  man  as 
thyself,  is  asserted  and  fully  justified,  but  the  love 
shall  in  like  manner  operate  as  self-devotion.  Man 
shall  self-devote  himself  to  his  neighbour,  as  he  does 
natiirally  to  himself.  Thus  while  all  self-inflicted  tor- 
ments and  all  self-denying  asceticism  are  opposed  to  the 
spirit,  and  unknown  in  the  letter  of  the  Mosaic  code, 
Mosaism  elevates  its  follower  to  the  loftiest  position  in 
which  man  is  still  man  endowed  with  all  the  rights  of 
man,  but  in  which  man,  for  the  attainment  of  the  end 

*  5  Mos.  6.  6.  t  3  Mos.  19.  18  ;  id.  34. 


and  aim  of  liis  being,  must  practise  not  self-annihila- 
tion, but  self-devotion.  At  the  option  of  the  individual 
therefore,  are  left  the  exercise  of  private  devotion,  and 
attendance  at  public  worship.  This  assertion  may, 
prima  facie,  appear  strange,  if  not  startling,  since  the 
law  of  Moses  contains  the  most  minute  and  stringent 
enactments  for  the  order  and  regulation  of  divine 
worship.  But  the  Mosaic  ordinances  for  the  sacrifices 
and  the  worship,  referred  to,  and  were  intended  for,  not 
the  individual,  but  the  whole  people  of  Israel.  There 
was  to  be  one  general  sanctuary  for  the  whole  nation, 
(in  a  country  500  square  miles  in  extent,  one  only)  in 
which  sacrifices  were  to  be  offered  in  the  name  of  all 
the  people.  No  sacrifice,  no  prayer,  is  prescribed  to 
the  individual  man.  He  c an  hxin^  free-will  oWexm^^* 
he  can  vow  vows,  but  he  is  not  compelled  so  to  do. 
Thus  the  Mosaic  worship  is  but  the  image  or  represen- 
tation of  the  intimate  general  religious  connection  of 
the  whole  people  of  Israel ;  and  the  circumstances  in 
which  the  individual  is  commanded  to  bring  a  sacrifice 
as  a  sin-offering,  are  in  fact  only  those  in  which  he  has 
committed  some  offence  against  the  above-named  gene- 
ral national  religious  union,  (its  object  not  being  to 
generate  by  means  of  observances,  a  religious  frame  of 
mind  and  spirit  in  the  individual);  or  (as  in  the 
instances  of  the  Paschal  lamb  and  the  firstlings  of  the 
flock)  it  is  done  as  a  public  recognition  by  the  indi- 
vidual, of  the  religious  connection  that  obtained  through- 
out the  community. 

A  new  light  f  is  shed  on  the  Mosaic  worship  when 

*  3  Mos.  22.  17,  18. 

t  I  here  venture  to  submit  to  the  reader  an  impression  early 
produced  by  a  general  view  of  the  Mosaic  sacrificial  system,  and 


viewed  from  this  point.     On  the  individual  it  is  impera- 
tive only,  to  love  God,  reverence  God,  to  serve  Him  and 

subsequently  wlaolly  confirmed  by  close  examination  of  its 
numerous,  ample,  and  detailed  enactments.  It  is  advanced, 
that  this  system  of  sacrifices  was  in  fact  in  Palestine,  theore- 
tically and  practically,  a  comprehensive  system  of  national 
charity,  a  grand  code  of  '  national  poor  laws,'  if  I  may  use  the 

First.  '  It  was  a  provision  for  one-twelfth  of  the  people, 
among  whose  numbers  were  the  priests,  physicians,  teachers,  and 
ministers  of  domestic  devotion,  who  had  ^no  portion  in  Israel. 
3  Secondly.  The  things  sacrificed  or  devoted  by  the  mass,  were  to 
be  apphed  to  the  sujjport  of  the  poor,  the  fatherless  and  the 
widow,  and  the  stranger  within  the  gates.  Thirdly.  *A  portion 
was  to  be  set  apart,  and  the  enjoyment  of  these  gifts  of  God  was 
to  be  an  especial  act  of  grateful  devotion  on  the  part  of  their 
possessor.  These  last-  mentioned  enactments  make  it  self-evident 
again,  that  with  the  'word  "  sacrifice"  is  connected  in  modern 
times  and  in  living  languages,  an  idea  totally  different  from  that 
which  Moses  intended  it  should  convey.  Its  recent  and  present 
acceptation  is  the  abandonment  of  something  either  physically 
or  mentally  agreeable,  of  a  pleasure  or  enjoyment  for  the  sake  of 
some  duty  to  God  or  man,  to  be  fulfilled  by  that  abandonment. 
In  the  law  contained  in  Deuteronomy,  xvii.  11  and  13;  also 
xxvi.  10,  11,  12,  13,  as  in  truth  in  the  whole  chapter,  sacrifice 
is  synonymous  with  enjoyment  for  the  sacrificer ;  enjoyment 
alike  material  and  spiritual ;  since  with  the  enjoyment  of 
that  which  satisfies  his  material  appetites  and  tastes,  are  asso- 
ciated the  two  highest  and  purest  of  all  spiritual  or  moral  enjoy- 
ments. It  brings  with  it  namely,  approximation  to  God,  as  the 
earthly  agent  and  distributor  of  His  rich  gifts  to  men,  and  indi- 
vidual gratitude  to  the  givei-  of  all  good,  whose  ex2)ression  is,  as 
the  ultimate  act  of  worshij),  not  pain  but  joy.  ^  "Ye  shall  rejoice 
befoi'e  your  God." 

In  order  to  avoid  if  possible  extending  these  remarks  beyond 
the  limits  of  a  foot-note,  I  have  abstained  from  textuaUy  quoting 

1  3  Mos.  10.  14;    5  Mos.  18,  1. 

2  4  Mos.  18.  20,  21 ;   Ibid  30-32. 

3  5  Mos.  If).  11—14 ,   Ibid  2G.  11,  12,  13. 

■•  5  Mos.  12.  6—12;    Ibid  17—21  ;  5  Mos.  14.  22—29. 
5  5  Mos.  26.  11,  12,  13. 


to  cling  to  Hinij  in  order  to  show  forth  holiness  in  the 
life  and  in  the  spirit ;  "^  but  by  what  manner  and  mode  of 
worship  and  prayer^  each  man  is  free  to  choose. 

The  falfilling  of  the  command^  to  love  your  fellow- 
man,  is  to  be  accomplished  in  our  two-fold  relation ; 
first,  in  that  to  the  individual,  and  secondly,  in  that  to 
the  aggregate  of  these  individuals  composing  the  com- 

In  the  first  relation,  this  love  negatives  its  antago- 
nisms, t  Hatred  and  revenge  must  be  banished,  even 
from  the  depths  of  the  heart.  True  Mosaism  eifects 
this  ;  it  tends  also  to  counteract  the  influence  exercised 
by  these  passions  on  human  actions,  and  gives  as  an 
example  thereof,  that,  "  J  If  thou  meetest  thine  enemy's 

the  passages  alluded  to.  I  bespeak  tlie  patience  of  the  reader 
for  their  verification  and  perusal.  He  will  find  that  in  no 
instance  has  their  teaching  been  inferred,  or  their  purport 
strained.  I  have  farther  to  adduce  as  confirmatory,  circum- 
stantial historical  evidence,  the  passage  of  the  1st  book  of  Samuel, 
chap.  ii.  from  the  12th  to  the  17th  ver.  Among  the  sinful 
dealings  of  the  sons  of  Eli,  there  is  set  forth  their  appropriating 
to  themselves  more  than  the  priests'  portion  of  the  sacrifices. 
This  clearly  shows  that  even  in  the  time  of  the  Judges,  and 
before  the  erection  of  the  temple  as  the  one  depot  for  the 
national  offerings,  adherence  to  the  benevolent  ordinances  of  the 
Mosaic  code  in  the  partition  of  such  offerings  was  enforced,  and 
their  infringement  by  the  officiating  priest,  regarded  as  a  heavy 
iniquity.  I  might  further  enlarge  upon  the  mercy  which  coun- 
teracted the  possible  action  of  selfishness  and  made  it  a  condition 
that  not  the  worst  but  the  best  should  be  selected  and  set  apart, 
in  common  parlance  sacrificed, — things  wholly  pure,  and  therefore 
fit  for  edible  purposes. — A.  M.  G. 

*  5  Mos.  10.  12. 

t  3  Mos.  19.  17,  18. — "  Thou  shaft  not  hate  thy  brother  in  thine 
heart ;  thou  shalt  in  anywise  rebuke  thy  neighbour  and  not 
suffer  sin  upon  him,'&c. 

X  2  Mos.  23.  4,  5  ;  5  Mos.  22.  1,  2. 


OX  or  his  ass  going  astray^  thou  shalt  siu'ely  bring  it 
back  again  to  him,  if  thou  seest  the  ass  of  him  that 
hateth  thee  lying  under  his  burden,  and  wouldest  for- 
bear to  help  him,  thou  shalt  surely  help  him/'  Justice 
and  compassion  are  the  positive  expressions  of  this  love. 
Thus  Mosaism  not  only  strictly  forbids  any  infringe- 
ment of  the  former,  but  insists  forcibly  on  an  inflexible 
and  strenuous  antagonism  to  all  manner  of  injustice, 
fraud,  oppression,  violence,  bribery,  false  testimony, 
respect  of  persons,  perjury,  false  Aveights  and  measures, 
and  the  like.  Yet  more,  it  does  not  merely  counsel  the 
exercise  of  mercy  and  compassion  in  a  set  of  well-turned, 
poetically  tender  precepts,  but  by  means  the  most  prac- 
tical and  direct,  it  elevates  charity  into  a  binding  legal 
obligation.  To  this  point,  my  hearers,  permit  me  now 
to  call  your  attention. 

The  ultimate  and  direct  relation,  established  by 
Mosaism  between  God  and  man,  which  leads  the  latter 
to  perceive  that  the  principle  of  all  that  is  good  dwells 
in  God,  must  also  make  it  manifest  that  God  is  the 
source  of  all  justice ;  and  that  by  the  fulfilment  of  the 
command,  "That  which  is  wholly  right  and  just  shall 
ye  do,"*  man  maintains  this  intimate  and  direct  con- 
nexion with  God.  In  His  law,  God  has  defined  what  is 
just.  God  is  ever  the  abstract  and  instrument  of  all 
good,  and  of  universal  morality.  Doing  what  is  right 
is  therefore  reverence  to  God ;  transgression  against  the 
right,  transgression  against  God,  of  which  God  takes 
cognizance,  and  Avhich  He  punishes.  Mosaism  also 
establishes  individual  freedom  and  self-dependence,  and 
gives  expression  to  their  validity  in  love.  God  has  also, 
by  means  of  His  law,  brought  the  knowledge  of  the 
*  f)  Mos.  16.  20. 


right  clearly  before  the  consciousness  of  mankind,  so 
that  they  know  how  to  distinguish  between  good  and 
evil.  The  laws  of  Moses  rest  upon,  and  result  from, 
the  conformity  of  these  two  propositions.  Justice 
dwells  in  God ;  injustice  is  an  infi'ingement  of  this 
divine  general  morality.  Man  is  called  upon,  as  God's 
agent,  to  enquire  into  and  punish  committed  wrong — 
"Ye  shall  remove  evil  from  the  midst  of  you,  that  the 
whole  land  be  not  accursed."'^"  In  Mosaism,  therefore, 
human  justice  is  administered  in  the  name  of  God ;  and 
the  judge,  fully  sensible  of  his  self-dependence,  is  equally 
self-conscious  that  he  knows,  and  is  bound  to  administer, 
the  justice  of  God.  Proof  must  be  obtained,  by  means 
of  human  witnesses,  in  order  that  the  judge  may  decide 
between  the  innocent  and  the  guilty.  The  chastise- 
ment, of  which  the  object  is,  not  to  produce  terror,  but 
to  re-establish  infringed  public  morality,  must  corre- 
spond with  the  offence.  Therefore,  Mosaism  nowhere 
permits  appeals  to  so-called  divine  intervention,  nor 
admits  into  its  code  supernatural  punishments  and 
ordeals.  Divine  judgments,  such  as  are  recorded  in  the 
annals  of  antiquity  and  the  middle  ages,  and  are  allowed 
by  the  Koran,  are  unknown  in  Mosaism.  The  rack  and 
torture,  that  disgraced  Europe  till  the  middle  of  the  last 
century,  and  ransoms  for  the  murderer,  accepted  among 
the  Greeks  and  Germans,  and  permitted  by  the  Koran, 
are  equally  forbidden.  By  it  are  expressly  denied  the 
right  of  the  parent  over  the  life  of  the  child,  of  the  master 
over  that  of  the  slave,  the  participation  of  the  chil- 
dren and  relatives  in  the  punishment  of  the  culprit.f 
The  tribunals  were  open  and  public,  the  judicial  pro- 
ceedings were  conducted  verbally,  in  presence  and  under 

*  5  Mos.  17.  7,  12.  t  5  Mos.  24.  16. 


the  presidency  of  the  elders  of  the  community.'^  Ive- 
gard  for  the  dignity  of  man  was  a  chief  clement  of 
Mosaic  justice.  "  The  body  of  him  who  had  been 
hanged  was  not  to  hang  until  the  morning." 

In  refemng  to  the  laws  respecting  charity,  compas- 
sion, and  benevolence,  we  find  that  Mosaism  declares, 
that  the  portion  of  the  produce  of  the  soil  it  adjudged 
to  the  poor,  belonged  to  them  as  a  right.  Man  receives 
the  ground  from  God;  through  the  blessing  of  that 
God,  his  labour  is  crowned  with  an  abundant  harvest. 
God  transfers  His  claim  to  a  portion  of  that  harvest  to 
the  poor.  To  them  Mosaism  distributes,  as  their  due, 
the  spontaneous  produce  of  every  seventh  year, — the 
fallow  or  Sabbatical  year, — the  second  tithe  of  every 
third  and  sixth  year,  all  that  grew  in  the  corners  of  the 
field,  all  that  fell  from  the  hand  of  the  reaper,  all  for- 
gotten sheaves  and  shocks,  the  gleaning  of  the  olive- 
tree  and  vineyard.f  This  selection  of  alms,  being  all 
of  the  "  fruit  of  the  ground,"  was  entirely  adapted  to 
the  then  constitution  of  the  people  of  Israel,  as  a  nation 
of  husbandmen.  But  according  to  the  spirit  of  the  law 
of  Moses,  the  form  of  those  gifts  must  everywhere  ac- 
commodate itself  to  the  altered  circumstances  of  the 
Israelites  in  other  lands,  and  the  laws  apply  equally  to 
the  fruits  of  industry  and  commerce.  It  may  be  ob- 
jected, that  a  charity,  legally  enacted,  is,  in  fact,  a 
forced  compuisory  benevolence.  In  reply,  the  •\\ell- 
known  truth  may  be  urged,  that  the  tone  and  habit 
of  thought  of  a  whole  people  are  not  unfrequently 
influenced,  if  not,  indeed,  wholly  generated,  by  the 
tendencies  of  the  laws  by  Avhich  they  are  governed. 
The  legal  regulation  of  the  distribution  of  alms  must 

*  4  Mos.  35.  24.  t  3  Mos.  25  ;  5  Mos.  24.  19,  20,  21. 


have  establislied  the  claim  of  the  poor  thereto,  and 
rendered  it  in  the  eyes  of  the  people,  not  an  abstract, 
but  a  real  and  positive  right,  whose  recognition  must 
have  been  far  more  permanently  beneficial  in  effect, 
than  could  have  been  any  mere  theoretical  precepts  of 

Besides,  some  only  of  these  enactments  fix  the  exact 
measure  of  contribution,  others  leave  it  free  to  be  de- 
termined by  the  benevolent  tendencies  of  iiidi\adual 

Finally,  works  of  mercy  and  charity  are  not  limited 
by  Mosaism  to  the  above-named.  It  is  made  an  especial 
dut}^*  to  lend  to  the  poor,  even  without  prospects  of  its 
restoration,  all  that  he  needs.  Eor  example,  Mosaism 
ordains  that  the  garment  of  the  poor  shall  not  be  kept 
over  night  as  a  pledge,  that  the  sun  shall  not  go  down 
on  the  hire  of  the  labourer  and  the  like. 

If  we  now  proceed  to  examine  the  social  constitution 
of  Mosaism,  we  shall  at  once  perceive  that  it  presents 
clear  general  outlines,  which  outlines  are  filled  in  with 
details  immediately  applicable  to  the  people  of  Israel. 
We  must  again  remember,  that  Mosaism  proceeds  from 
''  one  only  God,"  in  whose  image  man  is  created,  that 
its  first  moral  principle  is,  "  Thou  slialt  be  holy  for  the 
Lord  thy  God  is  holy  ;'^  and  in  man's  relation  to  his 
fellow-men,  "  Thou  shalt  love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself." 
A  necessary  consequence  is,  that  it  establishes  complete 
equality  among  all  members  of  the  body -politic.  This 
equality  is  carried  out,  first,  in  equality  of  civil  rights. 
In  Mosaism  there  exists  no  distinction  of  class,  order, 
rank,  or  property.  Moses  chose  from  among  the 
people,  it  is  true,  princes,  heads  of  houses,  chiefs  of  the 

•  5  Mos.  24.  10—15. 


tribes,  captains  over  thousands,  captains  over  hnndreds, 
and  over  tens,  elders  and  judges.  But  this  was  done 
solely  for  the  necessary  regulation  and  execution  of 
public  business.  These  appointments  were  strictly  and 
in  all  cases  individual,  and  in  no  instance  hereditary. 
This  is  everywhere  confirmed  in  the  Mosaic  annals. 
No  trace  of  the  sons  or  the  posterity  of  Moses  is  to  be 
found,  their  existence  being  lost  amidst  the  records  of 
the  tribes.  "  When  Moses  established  a  sanctuary^ 
he  received  from  each  one  of  the  people  half  a  shekel — 
the  rich  shall  not  give  more,  the  poor  shall  not  give 
less."  It  may  be  objected,  that  Moses  established  in 
one  tribe,t  and  in  one  family  of  that  tribe,  an  hereditary 
priesthood.  Admitted ;  but  of  '  political '  power  they 
were  deprived.  Their  sole  and  distinct  vocation  was, 
to  be  the  executive  of  the  national  worship,  the  ex- 
ponents of  the  doctrine  of  Moses  ;  and  this  was  a  late 
enactment,  adopted  only  when  an  attempt  to  commit 
the  fulfilment  of  these  duties  to  the  first-born  in  every 
family  had  proved  abortive.  Therefore  Moses  provided 
a  counteraction  to  the  acquisition  by  the  priesthood,  of 
undue  social  and  political  influence,  by  depriving  the 
whole  tribe  of  Levi,  "  of  any  portion  in  Israel,"  that  is, 
of  any  landed  property,  and  thus  making  them  to 
depend  for  their  very  subsistencet  on  the  favourable 
disposition  towards  them  of  the  mass  of  the  people. 
Mosaism  extends  the  equality  thus  established  among 
the  people  themselves,  to  all  who  dwelt  in  the  land. 
The  civil  rights  enjoyed  by  Israelites  were  shared  by 
all  strangers  who  inhabited  the  country.  The  very 
exceptions  provided  for  in  the  cases  of  the  eunuchs  and 
bastards  (which  grew  out  of  the  habits  of  the  age)  of 

*  2  Mos.  30.  1.5.  t  4  Mos.  18.  20  ;  5  Mos.  18.  1. 


the  Moabite  and  Ammonite,  prove  the  otherwise  uniform 
application  of  the  law. 

This  equality  of  civil  rights,  to  be  enjoyed  alike  by 
the  Israelites  and  the  strangers*  dwelling  among  them, 
is  again  and  again  solemnly  and  emphatically  declared 
in  the  law  of  Moses.  In  no  respect  did  a  distinction 
exist,  or  was  any  privilege  permitted  either  between 
Israelite  and  Israelite  (even  the  priests  were  amenable 
to  the  same  laws  as  the  laity,  and  no  altar  had  a  right 
of  sanctuary )t  or  between  the  Israelite  and  the  stranger 
or  refugee — the  latter  being  subjected  to  no  restriction 
or  civil  disabilities  whatever.  J  This  equality  was 
realized  in  the  personal  freedom  of  every  member  of  the 

Mosaism  again  solemnly  urges  §  "■  Ye  shall  be  free, 
ye  shall  not  be  bondsmen."  At  the  head  of  the  funda- 
mental laws,  the  Ten  Commandments,  personal  freedom 
is  especially  declared,  "  who  brought  thee  out  of  the 
house  of  bondage."  Doubtless,  to  the  development  of 
this  freedom,  the  slavery  which  was  an  institution 
common  to  all  antiquity,  presented  a  powerful  obstacle. 
But  Mosaism  sought,  by  the  introduction  of  laws  whose 
tendency  is  clearly  perceptible  to  us,  partly  to  mitigate 
this  system,  and  partly  to  remove  it  altogether.  It 
therefore  transforms  the  slaves  into  hirelings,  whose 
servitude  is  to  continue  for  a  certain  term  of  years,  || 
as  is  expressly  stated,  the  slave  is  to  be  manumitted  at 
the  beginning  of  the  seventh  year  from  his  purchase, 
and  likewise  in  the  year  of  jubilee,    without    ransom. 

*  3  Mos.  19.  34  ;  2  Mos.  12.  49  ;  4  Mos.  15.  15,  16,  29. 
t2Mos.21. 14.  It  3  Mos.  25.  47. 

§  3  Mos.  25,  54,  55.  ||  3  Mos.  25.  39,  40. 



He  is  to  go  free  and  to  be  furnished  liberally  with 
presents  of  sheep,  of  corn  and  of  wine.  The  exercise 
of  severit}'  towards  the  slave  is  strictly  forbidden,  and 
his  punishment  prevented  by  law.  Any  corporeal 
injury  received  by  the  slave  entitled  him  to  his  immediate 
freedom.  Nor  must  we  forget  to  state,  that  the  restora- 
tion of  a  runaway  slave  to  his  owner  was  not  allowed ; 
on  the  contrary,  he  was  to  dwell  where  it  seemed  unto 
him  good.*  Whatever  loss  of  personal  freedom  was 
involved  in  a  change  of  material  circumstances,  was 
rendered  temporary  by  the  restitution  'in  integrum,' 
of  the  year  of  jubilee,  when  all  were  restored  to  freedom. 
But  Mosaism  promotes  this  equality  by  its  constant 
tendency  to  produce  equality  of  possessions.  While 
legislating  only  on  the  property  of  the  community, 
Mosaism  was  far  removed  from  the  erroneous  notion 
that  individual  possession  was  to  be  superseded.  On 
the  contrary,  the  basis  on  which  the  structure  of  the 
national  life  was  erected,  was  the  equal  division  of  the 
soil.  It  sought  to  counteract  the  inordinate  accumula- 
tion by  individuals  of  wealth  and  landed  property,  to 
check  pauperism,  in  fine,  to  reach  the  ideal  of  securing 
the  rights  of  private  property,  of  leaving  its  acquisition 
free  to  all,  and  yet  at  the  same  time  of  protecting  it 
from  degenerating  into  the  two  extremes — of  riches  and 
poverty.  The  groundwork  of  this  IMoses  placed  in  the 
national  consciousness,  that  the  people  held  possession 
of  the  soil  as  a  tenure  from  God.  And  by  what  means 
did  he  endeavour  to  accomplish  this  ?     He  divided  the 

*  It  were  well  if  those  who  seek,  at  the  present  day,  to  justify 
their  tenure  of  slaves  by  the  sanction  of  Scripture,  were  to  im- 
plicitly obey  that  Scripture's  enactments  (see  5  Mos.  23.  15 — 16) : 
slavery  would  virtually  disappear,  without  the  passing  of  an  act  for 
its  abolition. — A.  M.  G. 


land  by  lot  into  inalienable  hereditary  portions,  first 
for  each  tribe,  then  into  subdivisions,  according  to  their 
generations  and  to  their  families.*  These  last  could 
be  alienatedf  but  only  for  a  term  of  years.  In  the 
year  of  jubilee  all  inheritances  were  gratuitously  re- 
stored and  the  hereditary  claimant  was  to  re-enter  into 
possession ;  and,  secondly,  the  seller,  or  one  of  his 
kin,  retained  the  right  of  redeeming  the  property  at 
any  period,  taking  due  account  of  the  years  yet  to 
elapse  before  the  year  of  jubilee.  Thus,  as  is  re- 
marked in  the  Bible  itself,  the  sale  was  only  a  lease 
granted  for  a  specific  term  of  years,  and  the  year  of 
jubilee  necessitated  the  restitution  in  integrum  to  the 
original  owners,  so  that  the  people  in  that  year  were 
replaced  in  a  condition  of  territorial  equality  of  property. 
But  Mosaism  did  yet  more,  it  ofl:ered  the  most  strenuous 
opposition  to  that  greatest,  that  fundamental  evil,  in 
all  civil  relationships,  the  system  of  debtor  and  creditor. 
It  started  on  the  presumption  that  aU  debt  was  occa- 
sioned by  need  on  the  part  of  the  borrower,  by  want  of 
some  necessary  of  life,  so  that  it  was,  in  fact,  a  duty 
enforced  by  the  love  of  his  fellow-men,  that  he  who 
possessed  should  give  freely  to  the  necessitous,  unless 
by  so  doing  he  should  become  equally  impoverished. 
The  Bible  expresses  this  almost  in  so  many  words. 
But  if  the  giver  retains  the  right  of  demanding  the 
restoration  of  what  he  has  given,  so  that  it  becomes  not 
a  gift  but  a  loan,  it  follows  from  the  presumption  above 
referred  to,  that  the  lender  is  to  derive  no  specific  pecu- 
niary advantage  from  the  transaction.  Thus  Mosaism 
forbids  all  kind  of  interest,  whether  in  money  or  in  kind. 
(It  is  self-evident  that  this  restriction  could  not  be  ex- 

*  4  Mos.34.  13.  t  3  Mos.  25.  50.  5i 


tended   to  foreigners,    for  such  extension  would  have 
rendered  impossible  all  commerce  with  other  nations). 

2.  At  the  end  of  every  seventh  year  all  debts  were 
to  be  cancelled  eo  ipso,  so  that  the  creditor  had  no  right 
to  restitution.  It  is  manifest  that  this  again  prevented 
any  one  incurring  pecuniary  obligations  of  vast  magni- 
tude, for  which,  moreover,  Mosaism  did  not  recognise 
the  necessity.*  It  was  consequently  impossible  that 
one  individual  should  inherit  enormous  landed  posses- 
sions to  be  his  for  ever,  or  that  a  family  should  finally 
lose  its  patrimonial  estates.  It  was  impossible  that  any 
one  should  enrich  himself  with  borrowed  money;  or 
should,  by  an  accumulation  of  debt,  by  interest  and 
dowry,  involve  himself  in  wholesale  and  entire  ruin. 
Thus  pauperism  and  overgrown  wealth  were  ahke 
entirely  obviated.  Let  it  not  be  objected,  that  the 
Israelites  themselves  failed  to  obey  these  laws.  As  in 
respect  of  the  doctrine  of  the  unity  of  God,  they  were 
not  ripe  either  to  understand  or  to  fulfil  them.  Mosaism 
confided  to  the  Israelites,  a  doctrine  and  a  law,  the  com- 
prehension of  which  in  all  their  purity  was  reserved  for 
later  times,  as  is  their  entire  fulfilment  in  practice,  for 
ages  yet  more  remote.  The  Israelites  were  to  be  their 
preservers  for  this  '  Future',  and  have  faithfully  per- 
formed this  mission  at  the  price  of  unspeakable  sacrifices. 
The  perplexities  and  confusion  that  at  present  prevail 
throughout  human  society,  w  ere  actually  generated  by  a 
system  directly  opposed  in  principle  to  Mosaism,  They, 
therefore,  offer  no  standard  whatever  by  which  Mosaic 
law  may  be  measured.  That  they,  on  the  contrary,  may 
be  duly  understood,  we  must  keep  the  fact  in  view,  that 
they  proceed  from  the  present  necessities  of  mankind, 
*  5  Mos.  1 5. 


and  can  be  remedied  only  by  a  process  of  gradual  slow 
development  and  improvement.  To  demonstrate  tins  is 
not  our  present  task.  It  is  enough  for  us  to  sliow,  that 
Mosaism  originates  the  principles  of  a  truly  religious 
municipal  society,  and  that  its  realisation  in  practice  is 
the  appointed  task  of  a  remote  future. 

You  will  be  desirous  of  ascertaining  what  form  of 
government  was  established  by  Mosaism.  It  here  again 
remained  true  to  its  leading  principle  of  freedom,  and 
dictated  no  specific  form.  It  correctly  distinguishes 
between  civil  society  as  the  essence,  and  the  constitution 
as  the  form,  which  latter  must  vary,  not  only  according 
to  the  requirements  of  different  nations,  but  according 
to  the  varying  exigencies  of  different  ages,  in  the  exist- 
ence of  one  and  the  same  nation.  In  the  Mosaic 
writings  we  seek  in  vain  for  a  specific  '  form  of  govern- 
ment '  —  a  constitution  for  the  state.  Certainly,  its 
governmental  and  social  principles  tend  rather  to  the 
production  of  a  republican  government  than  of  any  other, 
of  which  Mosaism  recognises  a  necessary  head  in  the 
person,  indifferently  of  a  judge  or  a  general,  or  a  high 
priest,  without  pronouncing  definitively  on  the  matter, 
since  it  places  the  priest*  andthe  judge  in  juxta-position, 
and  scarcely  adverts  to  their  mutual  relation. 

It  even  predicts  the  demand  arising  for  a  monarchical 
form  of  government,  thus — f  "  When  thou  art  come  unto 
the  land  which  the  Lord  thy  God  givetli  thee,  and  shalt 
dwell  therein,  and  shalt  say,  I  will  set  a  king  over  me, 
like  as  all  the  nations  that  are  about  me ;  thou  shalt  in 
any  wise  set  him  king  over  thee  wdiom  the  Lord  thy 
God  shall  choose :  one  from  among  thy  brethren  shalt 
thou  set  king  over  thee  :  thou  mayest  not  set  a  stranger 
•  5Mos.  17.  9.  t  Ibid,  17.  14,].0. 

F   2 


over  thee,  which  is  not  thy  brother,"*  etc.  As  Mosaism 
so  repeatedly  proscribes  the  laws  and  customs  of  the 
nations  "  that  are  around  thee "  in  all  other  matters, 
this  one  exception  is  worthy  of  all  note.  Moses  proceeds 
here  on  the  idea  that  the  people  either  live  in  strict  ac- 
cordance with  the  doctrine  and  the  law  that  have 
been  revealed  to  them,  or  else  forsake  them.  In  the 
first  case,  no  constitution  would  be  productive  to  them 
of  injury;  in  the  second,  none  could  benefit  them.  A 
fixed  form  of  government  would,  therefore,  have  been  a 
useless  restriction,  which  might  have  become,  subse- 
quently, highly  prejudicial  in  its  operation.  We  must 
here  clearly  distinguish  the  circumstances  obtaining  in 
the  time  of  Moses,  and  those  prevaihng  in  that  of 
Samuel,  and  not  attribute  to  the  former,  the  opinions  of 
the  latter.  In  short,  Mosaism  places  society,  by  means 
of  its  system  of  morals,  on  a  firm  basis,  and  leaves  the 
form  of  government  free,  while  presupposing  that  form 
to  be  republican.  It  divides  the  people  into  tribes, 
generations,  families;  further,  into  sections  of  10,  100, 
and  1000.  It  assumes  that  the  elders  and  priests  are 
to  be  the  judges  and  rulers  ;  but  it  bestows  the  right  to 
these  offices,  the  supremacy  over  the  people,  on  no  one 
family,  or  generation,  or  race.  The  best  qualified  for 
the  performance  of  these  public  duties  was  to  be  chosen 
'^  out  of  the  midst  of  the  people,^'  as  the  one  called  to 
the  superior  rule  or  presidency  over  the  people,  whether 
as  judge  or  king.     Nothing  more  specific  is  to  be  found. 

*  If  all  the,  crowned  kings  took  to  heart  the  simple  teaching 
of  the  king's  duty,  as  set  forth  in  the  closing  verses  of  the 
chapter,  would  not  the  conflicts  between  nation  and  nation,  and 
between  sovereigns  and  their  people,  which  up  to  this  hour  make 
the  world's  history  a  blood-stained  record,  be  among  the  things 
of  the  past  ?— A.  M.  G. 


It  need  scarcely  be  observed,  tliat  the  true  direction  of 
the  national  destinies  of  the  people  of  Israel  is  uniformly 
regarded  by  Moses  as  vested  in  God  alone, — as  all  cir- 
cumstances relating  to  the  people  are  referable  solely 
to  Him.  A  theocracy  which  should  form  a  part  of  the 
state,  or  executive  government,  was  the  ideal  creation 
of  Samuel,  and  was  not  instituted  by  Moses.  Nothing, 
be  it  here  remarked,  more  clearly  demonstrates  the  au- 
thenticity of  the  Pentateuch  than  this  apparent  omission, 
since  it  thereby  pro'vdded  for  the  mutations,  which  all 
subsequent  changes  of  material  and  political  circum- 
stances were  sure  to  induce. 

If  we  further  call  to  mind  that  Mosaism  especially 
regards  'the  family'  as  the  basis  of  its  society,  out  of 
which  it  springs,  and  on  which  it  is  to  flourish,  a  new 
and  peculiar  light  is  cast  over  our  entire  previous  state- 
ment. Mosaism  urges  repeatedly  on  the  attention  of 
the  people,  that  all  its  members  spring  from  one  an- 
cestor. 7{<'n2J''*  '>^'2  is  ^^6  national  appellation.  It 
carefully  preserves  the  division  into  tribes,  and  thus 
provides  against  the  passing  of  the  real  property  of  one, 
into  the  possession  of  any  other  tribe.  It  maintains 
the  sub-divisions  within  these  tribes  into  generations 
and  families.  The  above  fundamental  laws  become  the 
more  intelligible,  when  the  soil  on  which  they  are 
planted  is  remembered,  the  consciousness  of  the  people 
naturally  producing  equality  and  brotherly  aflfection.  Nor 
shall  we  be  surprised  to  find  that  Mosaism  zealously 
promotes  family  love.  It  regards  the  filial  and  conjugal 
relations  as  its  ground-work.  Both  are  sanctified  in 
the  Decalogue.  An  infringement  of  the  obedience  and 
reverence  due  to  parents,  is  a  capital  crime  ;  to  scoff  at 
and  blaspheme  them,  is  to  scofi"  at  and  blaspheme  God. 


LKCTUUE   in. 

Moses  teaches  that  marriage  is  an  institutiou  appointed 
directly  by  God  :  Adam  received  his  wife  as  a  creation 
direct  from  God.  The  merging  of  all  individual  into 
one  common  interest  in  marriage^,  is  exquisitely  ex- 
pressed.* The  inviolability  of  marriage  begins  from 
the  moment  of  betrothal,  and  its  violation  is  a  capital 
crime.  Marriages,  it  is  true,  can  be  annulled,  if  they 
do  not  fulfil  their  higher  design ;  but  divorce  requires  a 
legal  procedure,  while  the  marriage  promise  requires 
none,  to  render  it  binding. 

Mosaism,  therefore,  protected  the  marriage  relation 
Avith  laws  requiring  the  strictest  and  purest  chastity. 
It  opposed  the  moral  depravity  of  the  Asiatic  and 
African  nations  with  ardent  zeal.  It  strictly  forbade 
all  intercourse  without  the  pale  of  marriage,  and  un- 
compromisingly excluded  prostitution  from  among  the 
people.  It  re-asserted  the  deep  and  significant  natural 
character  of  the  conjugal  tie,  by  prohibiting  marriage 
between  persons  who  spring,  whether  contemporaneously 
or  successively,  from  the  same  stock.  It  promoted  fra- 
ternal and  family  ties  of  afl'ection,  and  enforced  the 
duty  of  redeeming  from  sale  both  the  persons  and  the 
property  of  kindi'ed. 

In  a  system  that  considered  the  entire  nation  as  a 
unity,  and  human  morality  as  a  whole,  it  was  impos- 
sible that  the  relation  of  man  to  the  animal  creation 
could  he  left  undefined.  While  granting  to  man  '  the 
rule  over  all  the  creatures  of  the  earth,'  Mosaism  at  the 
same  time  considers  the  relation  of  man  to  the  animal, 
nay,  even  to  the  vegetable  kingdom,  to  have  a  deep 
significance,  and  limits  his  dominion  over  them  by  cer- 
tain legal  restrictions.  That  growth  of  recent  times, 
*  1  Mos.  2. 24. 


the  laws  against  cruelty  to  animals,  Avas  thus  early  (if 
not  SO  materially  and  circumstantially  expressed)  a 
peculiarity  of  the  code  of  Moses. 

The  law  of  nature,  as  the  work  of  God,  is  sacred  in 
Mosaism,  and  everything  opposed  to  nature  is  a  dese- 
cration of  God's  work.  Thus  to  sow  the  same  field 
with  different  kinds  of  grain,  to  mutilate  animals,  and 
to  permit  the  crossing  of  different  species,  are  forbidden. 
Mosaism  prohibits,  therefore,  seething  the  kid  in  the 
milk  of  the  mother,  as  in  the  material  destined  to  sup- 
port its  life  by  the  Creator,  killing  the  mother  and  her 
young  on  the  same  day,  taking  the  parent  bird  and 
the  eggs  at  the  same  time  from  the  nest.  Therefore 
Mosaism  ordains  that  the  beast  of  the  field  shall  share 
man's  sabbath  of  rest,  and  that  the  ox  shall  not  be 
muzzled  when  he  treads  out  the  corn,  etc.  From  all 
these,  and  many  other  similar  special  enactments,  we 
have  to  deduce  the  general  principle,  that  it  is  an  in- 
fringement of  the  law  of  God  to  do  that  which  is 
opposed  to  nature,  and  that  the  exercise  of  mercy 
towards  the  brute  is  the  duty  of  man.  The  manner 
in  which  these  ordinances  are  expressed,  and  sometimes 
reiterated,  proves  that  they  were  considered  by  Moses 
as  an  important  portion  of  the  law,  and  that  their 
object  was  to  ensure  and  to  develop,  in  this  respect,  the 
morality  of  the  human  race. 

Having  thus  considered  man  in  his  relation  to  God, 
to  his  fellow-men,  and  to  the  animal  and  vegetable 
kingdom,  we  resume  the  subject  of  the  individuality  or 
personality  of  man.  It  is  manifest,  that  to  it  the  first 
principle,  "  Be  thou  holy,  as  the  Lord  thy  God  is  holy," 
is  especially  applicable. 

How   does  Mosaism   understand  this  sanctification  ? 


It  is  self-evident  that  Mosaism  does  not  consider  duty 
and  right  to  be  something  external^  but  to  consist  in  the 
spiritual  resemblance  of  man  to  God ;  that  it  refers  all 
man's  relations  to  God,  to  the  world,  and  his  fellow 
being,  to  his  inward  individual  nature ;  and  as  signifi- 
cant as  it  is  sublime,  is  the  concluding  and  crowning 
command  of  the  Decalogue,  of  which  the  object  is  the 
purification  of  the  very  recesses  of  the  human  heart. 
'Thou  shalt  not  covet  the  wife  of  thy  neighbour,  the 
house  of  thy  neighbour,'  etc. 

If,  therefore,  to  acknowledge  God,  to  be  filled  with 
that  knowledge,  to  love  God,  to  confide  in  Him,  to  love 
your  neighbour,  and  to  put  all  these  high  motives  and 
feelings  into  action  by  strictly  fulfilling  the  revealed 
law,  constitute  this  sanctification  in  general  (and  that 
these  do  constitute  it,  the  Mosaic  writings  repeatedly 
and  emphatically  declare),  if,  as  the  fifth  book  of  the 
Pentateuch  earnestly  urges  on  the  hearts  of  men,  these 
general  conditions  form  the  true  life  whioh  blesses 
and  renders  man  happy  here  below,  certain  it  is  that 
the  special  fundamental  idea  of  Mosaism  is  this — '  To 
sublimate  the  moral  consciousness  of  man  above  all 
things  sensual  and  temporal,  and  to  secure  by  these 
means  the  dominion  of  mankind  over  things  sensual  and 
temporal.'  Thence  it  follows,  that  Mosaism,  regarding 
man  as  a  unity,  cannot  stop  short  at  hohness  of  spirit, 
but  must  secure  a  like  holiness  in  the  life  material 
and  of  the  senses.  Let  us  examine,  first,  what  refers 
to  these  senses.  Though  Mosaism  recognises  the  dis- 
tinction between  mind  and  body,  it  considers  man  to 
be  the  union  of  the  tv\o.  The  body  is  the  bearer  of  the 
spirit — the  body,  according  to  Mosaism,  is  elevated  to 
such  a  position  as  alone  fits  it  to  be  the  vehicle  of  the 


god-like,  self-sanctifyiug  spirit.  Therefore  anything 
that  tends  to  corporeal  degradation  or  depravity,  or  to 
give  the  body  predominance  over  the  mind,  is  opposed 
to  Mosaism,  because  it  disturbs  the  moral  consciousness 
of  man  and  subtracts  from  his  holiness.  Spiritual 
holiness  is  expressed  in  Mosaism,  also  by  corporeal 
cleanliness  and  purity.  Where  any  physical  causes 
render  the  contrary  unavoidable,  it  is  to  be  succeeded 
by  a  purification  partly  real  and  partly  symbolical. 
Sexual  life  giving  a  certain  ascendency  to  the  sensual 
portion  of  our  nature,  is  subjected  to  fixed  regulations 
and  necessitates  subsequent  purification,  as  we  before 
observed,  when  treating  of  the  laws  that  refer  to  mar- 

Further,  Mosaism  restricts,*  or  whoUy  forbids,  the 

*  Modem  medical  science  confirms  these  hygeian  principles  of 
the  code  of  Moses,  and  indicates  them  to  be  further  evidence  of 
his  inspiration.  As  man  advances  to  civilisation  in  aU  nations,  he 
discovers  the  laws  necessary  to  health,  and  as  he  so  advances,  an 
approximation,  and  only  an  approximation,  to  the  hygiene  octroy ee 
of  the  Pentateuch  is  everywhere  manifest.  Ignorance  of  sanitary 
princijjles,  even  at  this  day  generates  too  commonly  a  belief,  that 
the  Mosaic  dietetic  ordinances  were  induced  by  the  climate  of 
the  East,  and  were  not  the  inspiration  of  that  divine  wisdom 
which  prompted  his  other  utterances.  While  it  must  be  at  once 
admitted,  that  to  the  inhabitant  of  more  temperate  climates  their 
infringement  is  less  injurious,  in  them  must  yet  be  recognised, 
the  uuiveisality  of  that  law,  divinely  inspired  for  all  ages,  and 
for  all  countries  inhabited  by  man.  The  general  value  of  this 
physical  code  finds  full  confirmation  in  the  works  of  many 
writers  on  medical  science,  especially  in  those  of  one  who,  by  his 
professional  brethren,  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  profoundly 
learned  of  modern  pathologists.  His  kindness  aft'ords  me  the 
opportunity  of  citing  his  opinion  succinctly  stated  (in  a  note 
which  I  textually  quote)  on  the 

'  Dietetic  and  SANiTARy  Code  op  Moses. 

'Madam, — I  have  great  pleasure  in  complying  with  your 
request,  that  I  would  furnish  you  with  some  references  to  my 

74  LECTURE    III. 

employment  as  articles  of  food^  of  thiugs  calculated  to 
vitiate  that  body,  whose  office  is  to  be  the  vessel  of  the 

work  on  practical  medicine,*  indicating  my  opinion  as  to  th 
injurious  influences  of  several  articles  of  food  which  are  forbidden 
to  be  used  in  the  admirable  institutions  of  your  lawgiver 
Moses,  and  which  are  too  generally  employed  in  Christian  and 
other  countries.  I  have  stated,  in  various  parts  of  my  work,  that 
these  kinds  of  food  are  the  causes  of  several  diseases,  have 
enumerated  the  articles  in  question,  in  connection  with  the  dis- 
orders of  which  they  are  often  the  exciting  and  concurring 
causes,  and  have  remarked,  that  they  are  still  more  productive 
of  disease  in  warm  and  inter-tropical  countries.  In  the  first 
volume  of  the  work  above-mentioned,  at  p.  566,  I  have,  when 
treating  of  the  numerous  causes  of  disease,  mentioned  amongst 
others  of  those  causes,  the  use  as  food  of  pork,  and  pork  meats, 
of  the  blood  and  viscera  of  animals,  and  of  shell-fish,  as  being  not 
merely  predisposing  causes  in  many  instances,  but  often  also 
exciting  or  concurring  agents. 

'  Under  the  heads,  Dysentery  (vol.  i.p.695)  and  Diarrhoea,  I  have 
stated  that  in  the  east  these  diseases  have  been  rendered  almost 
epidemic  by  the  use  of  the  articles  in  question.  The  late  Sir  James 
Annesley  mentioned  to  me  that  fresh  pork  was  served  out  to  a 
regiment  in  India,  and  that  dysentery  and  diarrhoea  were  the 
consequences  in  two-thirds  of  those  who  had  partaken  of  it  ; 
these  diseases  subsiding  after  the  cause  was  relinquished. 

"  In  the  several  parts  of  my  work  where  erysipelas  and  other 
diseases  of  the  shin  are  treated  of,  the  use  of  shell-Jish  has  been 
assigned  as  one  of  the  chief  causes  of  these  numerous  and  often 
dangerous  forms  of  disease.  When  describing  also  the  effects  of 
various  articles  of  animal  food,  which  often  become  poisonous, 
owing  either  to  their  respective  natures,  or  to  diseases  of  which 
these  articles  may  have  been  the  seats,  I  have  particularly 
indicated /resAjoor^  and  pork  meats  in  any  form,  the  viscera  and 
blood  of  animals,  and  shell-fish  (see  vol.  iii.  385 — 389).  What  I 
have  stated  respecting  the  nature  and  treatment  of  the  poisonous 
effects  of  these  substances  is  too  detailed  to  admit  of  tran- 
scription, as  it  would  fill  many  pages  even  of  print.  But  I  may 
quote  the  following  passage  : — 'Fresh  pork  is  often  injurious, 
and  gives  rise  to  various  symptoms  according  to  the  idiosyncrasy 
of  the  individual,  and  to  the  manner  in  which  the  animal  has 

*  A  Dictionary  of  Practical  Medicine,  etc.     By  James  Copland,   M.D., 
F.R.S.,  etc. 


god-like  soul.  The  physical  constitution  is  liable  to 
be  animalised  by  the  inordinate  enjoyment,  not  of 
vegetable  but  of  animal  diet.  1st.  It  is  forbidden,  that 
such  parts  of  the  bodies  of  animals  as  are  especially 
imbued  with  the  vital  principle^  such  as  the  blood  (by 
Scripture  said  to  contain  the  life)  should  pass  into  the  bo- 
dies of  men,  because  they  would  render  them  too  animal. 
2ndly.  It  is  enjoined  that  no  animals  be  eaten  which  sub- 
sist on  carrion  or  fleshy  such  as  all  beasts  of  prey.  3rdly . 
All  such  creatures  as  are  imperfectly  organised  of  their 
kind — (such  as  those  that  chew  the  cud,  but  do  not  part 
the  hoof,  or  vice  versa,  and  those  fishes  that  have  not  both 
fins  and  scales) :  and  4thly,  all  animals  in  general  that 
form  the  inferior  orders  of  organised  beings,  such  as  in- 
sects, worms,  and  amphibia,  are  declared  unfit  for  human 
food,  in  order  to  prevent  the  vitiation  of  the  body  by  the 

been  fed.  In  tlie  East,  especially  in  warm  climates,  pork  is 
often  productive  of  diarrhoea  and  dysentery,  effects  which  I  have 
seen  caused  by  it  in  this  country.  The  Mosaic  law  forbade  the 
use  of  it ;  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  of  the  wisdom  of  this  law 
as  respects  warm  countries,  and  Zbeheve  as  regards  all  countries^ 
(vol.  iii.  art.  Poisons,  p.  387).  I  afterwards  go  on  to  describe  the 
.symptoms  and  the  treatment  of  the  poisonous  effects  of  pork. 

'  When  treating  of  Scrofulous  and  Tubercidar  Maladies  (vol.  iii . 
p.  736),  I  have  noticed  the  influence  of  the  articles  in  question, 
in  producing  gout,  and  scrofulous  and  tuber^r-ular  affections  in 
the  offspring  of  persons  who  use  these  articles. 

'  I  have  the  honour  to  remain, 

'  Yours  respectfully, 
'  5,  Old  Burlington  Street.  'James  Copland.' 

By  such  of  my  brethren  and  sisters  as  desire  not  only  to  read 
and  accept,  but  to  comprehend,  the  code  given  by  their  Creator 
for  the  well-being  physical,  mental,  and  moral  of  His  creatures, 
many  portions  of  my  learned  correspondent's  valuable  work 
(particularly  those  referred  to)  will  be  found  to  be  as  useful  to 
the  general,  as  to  the  scientifio  reader. — A.  M.  G. 

76  LECTURE    III. 

introduction  into  it  of  imperfectly  organised  matter. 
Assuredly  all  this  is  based  on  a  profound  knowledge  of 
the  laws  of  nature. 

The  same  tendency  prevails  in  the  regulation  of 
temporal  as  of  sensual  life.  Mosaism  estimates  the 
professional  and  industrial  life  of  man  at  its  just  value, 
and  recognises  it  to  be  the  vocation  appointed  to  him 
by  God.  But  it  also  duly  perceives  and  appreciates  the 
danger  likely  to  result  to  men  in  their  intellectual  and 
spiritual  life,  from  the  exclusive  devotion  of  the  faculties 
of  the  spirit  created  in  the  image  of  God,  to  that  profes- 
sional or  industrial  calling. 

It  therefore  provides  specially  for  the  periodical  sus- 
pension of  industrial  exertions,  fixed  times,  at  which 
man  shall  wholly  cease  from  his  labour,  and  living  the 
life  of  the  spirit,  devote  himself  to  the  advancement  of 
his  intellectual  and  religious  being.  To  this  end  was 
the  sabbath  ordained,  a  Mosaic  institution  that  has  won 
the  adherence  of  the  whole  civilised  world. 

"  Six  days  shalt  thou  labour  and  do  all  thy  work,  but 
thou  shalt  rest  on  the  seventh  day."  The  very  spirit  of 
Mosaism  rendered  the  limitation  of  this  institution  to 
its  outward  form  impossible,  but  imparted  to  it  a  defi- 
nite relation  to  religion  itself.  Mosaism  therefore 
combines  it  with  the  knowledge  of  God  as  the  Creator 
and  ruler  of  the  Universe,  thus  making  it  the  medium 
by  which  the  idea  and  the  acknowledgment  of  God  are 
manifested,  the  basis  of  the  whole  of  the  Mosaic  system. 
An  intentional  violation  of  the  sabbath  is  a  violation 
and  abandonment  of  the  whole  of  Mosaism.  It  was 
quite  consistent  with  its  design,  that  Mosaism  should 
include,  besides  the  sabbath,  the  appointment  of  certain 
times  at  which  the  religious  dependence  of  man   on 


God^  should  be  especially  recalled  to  his  consciousnes ; 
— festivals  of  which  the  idea  sprang  partly  from  the 
nationality  or  history  of  the  people  of  Israel,  such  as 
Passover  and  Tabernacles ;  partly  from  the  operations 
and  gifts  of  nature,  such  as  the  harvest  festivals, 
Schevang  and  Tabernacles ;  and  partly  from  the  general 
spiritual  requirements  of  mankind,  as  the  day  of  Atone- 
ment, for  which  the  day  of  the  blowing  of  the  trumpet 
or  of  memorial,  was  a  preparation. 

The  Day  of  Atonement  being  of  general  importance 
for  mankind,  must  detain  us  for  a  brief  space.  We 
have  perceived  that  Mosaism  pronounces  sin  to  be  the 
antagonism  of  holiness ;  that  it  considers  it  to  be  a  dis- 
turbance of  the  due  relation  existing  between  the 
god-like  soul  and  the  Divinity,  but  that  it  declares  it 
annulled  by  a  return  to  holiness,  as  sinfulness  is 
effaced  by  means  of  repentance,  and  through  the  mercy 
of  God.  Further,  it  is  consistent  with  the  design  of 
Mosaism  that  this  return  and  this  consequent  blotting 
out  of  sin,  were  not  to  be  purely  abstract,  but  that  Mosaism 
sought  to  lead  man  to  this  course  and  to  help  him  on 
his  amended  path.  This  was  the  indwelling  thought 
of  the  Day  of  Atonement,  a  thought  which  has  partially 
disseminated  itself  through  human  society.  A  recur- 
rent period,  at  which  this  idea  of  the  abandonment  of 
sin,  the  return  to  God's  ways  by  means  of  repentance 
and  self-examination,  should  be  permitted  and  brought 
specifically  to  the  consciousness  of  man,  was  a  want,  a 
benefit,  and  a  powerfiil  aid  to  self-sanctification. 

Mosaism  formed  a  complete  contrast  to  antiquity  and 
the  middle  ages,  in  this  great  consistent  and  uniform 
system,  social  and  moral.  We  perceive  clearly  that 
Mosaism  propounded  a  system  of  ethics  and  of  society 

78  LECTURE    III. 

wholly  new,  wholly  different  to  any  other  produced  by 
antiquity.  The  conditions  of  these  differences  are  the 
following — Mosaism  declares  the  attributes  of  the 
Supreme  Being  to  be  love,  justice,  and  purity,  Avhile 
antiquity  bases  its  most  refined  code  of  morals  on 

While  the  'Beautiful  and  good'  of  Plato,  the  'Middle 
Course '  of  Aristotle,  the  '  Abstinence '  of  the  Cynic,  the 
*  Pleasure '  of  the  Epicurean,  and  the  '  Indifference '  to 
pain  of  the  Stoic,  are  but  variations  of  one  and  the  same 
principle  of  egotism,  Mosaism  adopts  personal  fi'eedom, 
equahty  of  right  and  justice,  and  possible  equality  of 
possession,  as  the  basis  of  its  society.  Antiquity,  on 
the  contrary,  has,  for  the  natural  elements  of  its  society, 
castes,  the  predominance  of  certain  races,  the  freedom  of 
certain  races,  and  slavery.  Like  circumstances  obtain  in 
the  feudal  system  of  the  middle  ages.  You  must  in- 
deed, my  hearers,  have  perceived  that  much  which  has 
been  attained  to  in  the  most  recent  times,  is  declared 
in  Mosaism ;  much  more  which  Mosaism  enforces,  can 
be  achieved  only  in  ages  yet  to  come. 

All  this  Mosaism  pronounced  to  be,  thousands  of 
years  ago,  not  the  consequence,  but  the  basis,  of  the 
development  of  the  human  race. 




MosAisM  had  furnished  the  doctrine  of  a  unique,  essen- 
tially one,  supermundane,  and  holy  God ;  of  the  world, 
as  the  work  of  God,  which  He  causes  to  continue  by 
means  of  the  laws  of  nature ;  and  of  man  as  the  unity 
of  a  spirit  in  the  image  of  God,  and  the  most  highly 
organized  body,  to  whom  God  stands  in  the  immediate 
relation  of  Providence,  Judge,  the  Fountain  of  atone- 
ment and  of  revelation.  In  a  word,  Mosaism  had  fur- 
nished the  religious  idea — and  moreover  the  realization 
of  the  idea  through  the  sanctification  of  man,  manifesting 
itself  in  the  individual,  under  the  form  of  justice  and 
mercy,  of  love  to  God  and  man  ;  in  society,  in  equality 
of  rights,  and  all  practicable  equality  of  possession. 
This  mosaic  holiness  demands  further,  the  dominion  of 
moral  consciousness  over  the  sensuous  and  the  worldly ; 
in  one  word  it  demands  religious  life. 

The  essential  object  of  the  following  lectures,  can 
only  be,  to  shew  in  how  far  this  doctrine  took  a  firm 
root  in  mankind,  and  is  progressively  taking  a  still 
stronger  hold ;  and  lastly,  what  have  been  its  peculiar 
effects  within  Judaism  itself.  For  it  must  be  remem- 
bered, that  in  man  there  exist  instincts,  directly 
opposed  in  their  tendency,  to  these  teachings.  Man^s 
natural  standard  being  himself,  his  instincts  are  for  the 
most  part  egotistical.  According  to  that  standard,  he 
seeks   to  comprehend,  to  measure  and  to  judge,   God 

80  LECTURE    IV. 

and  the  universe.  He  must  thus  ever  come  to  con- 
clusions opposite  to  those  produced  by  Mosaism,  since 
God  and  the  world  merge  into  one,  and  since  egotism 
and  its  coarse  or  more  refined  gratification,  would 
appear  to  him  to  be  the  law  of  actual  existence. 

Nor  should  it  be  forgotten,  that  according  to  the 
teachings  of  Moses,  man  is  unfettered — a  free  agent; 
and  that  the  first  condition  of  this  free  agency  is  the 
creation  of  the  spirit  of  man  in  the  image  of  God. 
That,  therefore,  the  law  could  not  consistently  with  its 
own  teachings,  in  any  way  arrogate  to  itself,  like  a 
deus  ex  mnchina,  the  immediate  subjugation  of  the 
spiritual  world,  but  that  it  presupposed  and  set  forth 
the  gradual  development  of  mankind.  The  principle 
of  egotism,  which  is  inherent  in  man,  and  antagonistic 
to  the  Mosaic  doctrine,  was  allowed  to  develop  and 
exhaust  itself  throughout  antiquity,  until  mankind 
arrived  at  the  conviction  of  the  comfortlessuess  of  this 
system;  when  at  the  fitting  period  Christianity  and 
Islamism,  emanating  from  Mosaism,  were  commissioned 
to  propagate  the  Mosaic  view.  And  to  this  subject  we 
shall  hereafter  return. 

All  the  history  of  man's  spiritual  development,  when 
considered  from  two  points  of  view,  becomes  clear  and 
consistent  with  itself.  The  first  point  is  the  adoption 
by  mankind  of  the  religious  idea  as  presented  by 
Moses,  on  the  one  hand ;  and,  on  the  other,  the  free  de- 
velopment of  mankind  in  general,  and  in  them  of  the 
principles  antagonistic  to  that  idea. 

The  first  condition  was,  that  the  religious  idea  should 
exist  and  be  preserved,  in  a  fit  receptacle ;  and  that  at 
the  due  time  it  should  issue  forth,  act  upon,  and  in- 
fluence the  whole  world  of  man.     This  receptacle  was 


the  Hebrew  race.  For  the  reception  of  the  religious  or 
Divine  idea,  as  the  reverse  of  the  human  idea,  or  Hea- 
thenism, no  establislied  people  could  be  found,  whose 
mental  soil  was  ready  tilled  and  prepared.  For  in  all 
such  human  vessels,  the  seeds  of  its  antagonistic 
principle  —  Idolatry,  had  been  sown  and  had  taken 
root.  It  was  necessary,  that  in  its  national  infancy, 
a  race  should  be  appointed  and  trained  to  this,  their 
sacred  mission;  and  that  to  be  the  depositaries,  pre- 
servers, and  disseminators  of  the  religious  idea, 
should  be  their  whole  vocation,  their  sole  destiny, 
then  and  evermore. 

The  second  condition  was,  that  also  in  that  infant 
race,  some  of  these  natural  instincts  and  heathen 
principles  should  be  inherent.  That,  consequently, 
the  religious  idea  was  to  overcome  the  tendencies  foreign 
to  itself,  in  its  depositaries,  the  Jewish  race,  in  order 
to  render  them  wholly  devoted  to  their  appointed  voca- 
tion. Thus  was  this  conflict  of  the  religious  idea  with 
its  opposite  principle,  to  be  fought  to  its  close  within 
the  Jewish  race ;  and  the  champion  in  this  combat  is 

Permit  me,  my  hearers,  to  define  this  proposition 
more  closely. 

In  the  wide  circle  of  the  family  of  man,  every  more 
highly  endowed  nation  has  its  individual  task  to  accom- 
plish; each  people  has  its  peculiar  mission — its  special 
destiny,  growing  out  of,  and  dependent  on,  its  natural 
capacities,  its  inherited  characteristics,  modified  or 
developed  by  the  varying  incidents  of  locality  and 
climate,  and  by  the  course  of  external  events.  If  this 
fact  is  everywhere  observable  even  in  the  present  time, 
notwithstanding  the  close  and  constant  intercourse  sub- 

82  LECTUKE    IV. 

sisting  between  nation  and  nation ;  notwitlistaading  the 
almost  immediate  participation  by  one  people  in  the 
new  intellectual  acquirements  of  another;  if  even  in 
our  day,  the  respective  vocations  of  the  English,  French, 
German,  North  American,  etc.,  admit  at  once  of  clear 
definition — how  much  more  manifest  must  have  been 
their  several  national  characters,  in  more  remote  ages, 
when  each  people  dwelt  isolated ;  and  when  the  specific 
individuality  of  each,  being  unacted  upon  from  without, 
must  have  assumed  and  retained  more  marked  and 
indelible  forms?  Thus  the  vocation  of  the  Hebrew 
race  was,  to  make  the  religious  idea  victorious  within 
Judaism,  over  its  antagonist  the  heathen  idea ;  and  sub- 
sequently to  transplant  that  religious  idea  into  the 
midst  of  the  family  of  man,  there  to  take  root,  and  to 
extend  its  branches  unto  all.  That  such  was  its  mis- 
sion, Ave  deduce  from  the  fact  that  it  has  effected  nought 
else,  and  that  in  it  alone  it  has  found  being  and  con- 
sistence. All  the  writings — all  the  works  of  the  Jewish 
mind,  have  a  religious  import  and  tendency.  If  in 
recent  times  the  Israelites  have  tilled  other  fields  of 
literature,  we  must  not  forget  that  these  intellectual 
efforts  have  been  made  by  them,  not  specifically,  in 
their  character  as  Jews,  but  because  they,  in  their 
altered  social  condition,  have  availed  themselves  of  the 
general  extended  cultivation  of  mankind. 

In  order  to  prepare  fitting  soil  for  the  reception  and 
propagation  of  the  germ  of  the  religious  idea,  it  was 
necessary  that  Divine  Providence  should  pre-ordain  the 
training  and  development  of  the  Jewish  people  for  this, 
their  mission.  Such  progressive  training  we  clearly 
recognise  in  the  patriarchal  history  of  the  Hebrew  race ; 
which,  beginning  with  the  man  Abraham,  grew  from 


him  into  the  family  of  Jacob,  and  from  them  into  the 
twelve  tribes ;  and  they,  nnder  the  leadership  of  Moses 
became  a  distinct  people.  This  history  further  relates, 
how  Abraham  was  called  to  a  distant  and  strange  land ; 
how  Jacob,  by  reason  of  his  many  wanderings,  became 
again  a  stranger  in  the  land  of  his  birth,  and  was  trans- 
planted with  his  family  into  a  foreign  country;  and 
how,  even  in  the  midst  thereof,  his  posterity  found 
space  to  increase,  so  that  they  became  an  unmixed 
nation.  Hoav  again  this  people  was  conducted  to  the 
peninsula  of  Sinai,  in  order  that  there,  in  those  unin- 
habited regions,  its  natural  tendencies  of  organization 
should  be  developed  ;  and  that  as  a  nation,  it  should 
there  receive  the  religious  idea.  Then,  and  then  only, 
was  it  permitted  to  return  to  the  land,  in  which,  until 
the  conflict  within  itself  was  fought  out,  it  was  destined 
to  dwell.  Thus  this  race  was  ever  kept  isolated,  in 
order  to  preserve  it  from  the  contamination  of  heathen- 
ism, and  to  render  it  a  fitting  instrument  for  the  dis- 
semination of  the  religious  idea.  From  that  time 
forward,  the  Jewish  race  appeared  on  the  great  theatre 
of  the  world  in  its  entire  character ;  as  a  people  carry- 
ing Mosaism  in  its  heart  and  hand. 

There  can  be  no  rational  doubt  respecting  this ;  for 
wherever  we  may  begin  our  examination,  even  in  the 
later  writings  of  the  Hebrews,  these  point  back  to 
something  previously  existing,  as  the  root  from  which 
they  have  sprung,  and  this  is— Mosaism.  Wherever  in 
the  history  of  the  Jews  we  commence,  it  always  exhibits 
a  struggle  for  something  already  extant,  and  that  is — 

Hence,  a  marked  peculiarity  of  the  Jewish  race  also 
springs;  one,  indeed,  which  distinguishes  it  from   all 

G  2 

84  LECTURE    IV. 

other  peoples.  This  race,  at  its  very  birth,  had  its  ap- 
jiointed  mission  given  it;  while  other  peoples,  on  the 
contrary,  have  progressively  developed  their  missions, 
and  come  to  the  knowledge  of  what  these  missions  are, 
when  they  are  well-nigh  fulfilled.  Thus  the  Jewish 
race  possesses  a  history  from  its  very  commencement ; 
at  a  period  when  other  nations  have  scarcely  myths. 
That  race  knew  from  its  origin  what  it  was  Lo 
perform,  and  why  it  existed.  It  knew  itself  from  the 
earliest  moment  to  be  the  people  of  God ;  that  is,  the 
depositary  of  the  religious  idea.  It  was  not  chance, 
however,  that  caused  the  Hebrew  people  to  relapse 
again  and  again  during  its  infancy,  into  heathenism. 
To  generate  idolatry,  is  inherent  in  man's  nature,  and 
the  Israelites  were  men.  Consequently,  heathenism 
came  into  being,  and  shewed  itself  among  them.  It  is 
true,  that  (their  life  being  Mosaic,)  they  borrowed  their 
heathenism  from  the  surrounding  nations.  But  had 
this  not  been  at  hand,  they  would,  doubtlessly,  have 
originated  a  heathenism  of  their  own.  This  shews  it- 
self during  the  period  even  of  their  Mosaic  development. 
Not  the  popular  classes  only,  but  likewise  princes,  kings 
and  priests,  re-introduced  and  promoted  heathenism. 
Thus  all  preventive  measures  availed  nothing;  and 
Moses  died  in  the  full  consciousness  that  his  people 
were  going  forth  to  this  battle. 

While  all  the  rest  of  mankind,  therefore,  pursued 
their  unshackled  course  of  development  in  the  direction 
of  the  Human  idea,  it  was  reserved  for  the  children  of 
Israel,  "  the  smallest  of  the  peoples  of  the  earth,"  to 
fight  out  within  themselves  the  combat  of  the  Religious 
idea.  Though  the  generations  of  Moses  and  Joshua 
had,  it   is  true,  permitted  Mosaism  to  take   deep  root 


among  tlie  people ;  yet  is  it  equally  true  that  the  first 
national  period,  the  days  of  the  Judges,  was  their  real 
state  of  nature,  in  Avhich  antagonisms  co-existed  side  by 
side,  without  coming  into  active  collision.  The  masses 
yielded  first  to  one  impulse  and  then  to  another,  and 
the  people  was  still  unconscious  of  its  own  unity.  The 
influence  and  authority  of  each  judge  did  not  extend 
respectively,  beyond  one  tribe  or  more. 

It  was  necessary  to  fight,  in  self  defence,  against 
the  hostile  surrounding  nations.*  Mosaism  as  well  as 
heathenism  was  the  afl'air  of  the  individual;  a  state 
of  things  graphically  portrayed  in  the  closing  passage 
of  the  Book  of  Judges. f  "  In  those  days  every 
man  did  that  which  was  right  in  his  OAvn  eyes." 
But  the  Judges  in  inciting  and  leading  the  people 
against  the  heathen  nations,  had  ranged  themselves 
on  the  side  of  Mosaism,  and  in  its  name  and  spirit 
were  they  compelled  to  appear  in  the  field.  And 
the  last  Judges,  Eli  and  Samuel,  being  men  of  superior 
intellect,  insisted  on  the  ascendancy  of  Mosaism,  and 
endeavoured  to  render  it  the  inherent  characteristic  of 
their  people. 

By  the  adoption  of  the  monarchical  form  of  govern- 
ment, a  decisive  and  critical  step  was  taken.  I  do  not 
mean  that  it  was  j^er  se,  an  anti-mosaic  institution,  or 
that  it  carried  with  it  into  the  Hebrew  popular  life  a 
directly  heathen  element.  J  But  the  people  became,  by 
its  means  a  unity,  and  received  as  a  concrete  body  a  tem- 
poral head,  that  exercised  a  preponderating  sway  over 
them ;  so  that  in  the  future  it  might  depend  on  the  per- 
sonal bias  of  the  king,  whether  Mosaism  or  heathenism 
should  be  the  dominant  principle  of  action  in  Israel. 

*  Jud.  2.  11—19.         t  Ibid.  21— 25.  %  See  Lecture  III. 

86  LECTURE    IV. 

It  was  easy  to  foresee  that  kings,  in  the  interest  of  their 
unfettered  rule,  would  soon  become  prone  to  favour 
heathenism,  and  to  supplant  Mosaism.  For  the  latter 
demands  and  ensures  freedom  and  equality ;  securing 
to  the  people  the  superior  influence  in  the  state  govern- 
ment. According  to  Mosaism,  the  king  is  only  'one 
taken  from  the  midst  of  his  brethren.'*  Samuel,  there- 
fore, clearing  foreseeing  all  these  results,  is  opposed  to 
the  establishment  of  a  monarchy,  and  seeks  to  impress 
upon  the  national  mind,  the  theocratic  idea ;  for  the 
Bible  tells  us  that  God  deputes  Samuel  to  fulfil  the 
desires  of  the  people. f  In  other  words,  by  this  state  of 
vacillation  between  heathenism  and  Mosaism,  nothing 
could  be  gained.  It  was  absolutely  necessary  that  the 
conflict  between  the  two  principles  should  be  fought  out 
to  the  last ;  and  kingly  rule  furnished  the  most  direct 
means  to  that  end.  Though,  on  the  whole,  the  mo- 
narchical period  was  decidedly  Mosaic  in  its  bias  and 
character,  even  the  first  king,  Saul,  betrayed  much  un- 
steadiness. This  indecision  was  in  itself  a  crime,  and 
through  it  he  fell.  David  was  true  to  Mosaism ;  but 
he  was  a  warrior,  a  conqueror;  he  was  subjective,  for 
egotism  (though  of  a  higher  order  perchance)  was  his 
incentive  to  action.  He  sought  to  identify  Mosaism 
with  his  own  and  his  family's  sovereign  rule.  There 
lies  deep  meaning,  therefore,  in  the  prohibition  pro- 
nounced against  David's  building  a  '  temple  unto  the 
Lord.'  In  it  was  heard  the  echo  of  Samuel's  warning 
voice.  With  Solomon,  heathenism  ascended  the  throne 
of  Israel.  Solomon's  ideal  theory  was  doubtlessly 
Mosaic.  He  built  the  temple,  and  prayed  there  in  all 
sincerity  of  heart ;  but  his  nature  was  heathen.  The 
*  5Mos.  17.  15.  t  1  Sam.  8.  7. 


tone  of  his  philosophical  estimate  of  life  and  of  society, 
aud  his  views  of  government^  were  all  essentially  hea- 
then. His  habits,  manners,  and  morals,  were  therefore 
heathen.  It  was  consequently  an  easy  matter  for  him, 
in  order  to  please  his  strange  wives,  to  sanction  the 
presence  of  heathenism,  by  the  side  of  Mosaism.  Thus, 
towards  the  close  of  Solomon's  long  reign,  heathenism 
had  again  invaded  Israel,  and  gained  a  party  in  the 
state.  The  national  unity  was  destroyed,  and  that 
disunion,  which  for  some  time  had  existed  internally, 
now  manifested  itself  externally.  The  nation  broke  up 
into  two  kingdoms,  hostile  to  each  other.  The  very 
existence  of  the  people  was  thus  impaired,  aud  their 
political  downfall  rendered  inevitable.  The  only  ques- 
tion then  was,  would  Mosaism  issue  triumphantly  from 
the  ruin  of  the  nation,  or  not  ? 

Policy  compelled  the  kings  of  the  ten  tribes  of  Israel, 
to  establish  and  maintain  heathenism  as  the  state 
religion,  in  order  to  keep  their  subjects  away  from 
Jerusalem,  and  to  alienate  them  from  Judaism :  since 
for  them  Mosaism  and  self-destruction  would  have  been 
identical.  In  Judea,  indeed,  it  was  far  otherwise. 
There  stood  the  sanctuary  consecrated  to  Mosaic  wor- 
ship. It  would  undoubtedly  have  been  for  the  best  and 
highest  interests  of  the  royal  house  of  David,  to  have 
remained  its  faithful  adherents.  But  the  majority  of 
these  kings  mistook  their  course,  and  favoured  hea- 
thenism in  order  to  render  their  personal  authority 
absolute.  They  did  not  cause  the  Mosaic  temple  service 
to  be  actually  discontinued,  bvit  they  conferred  equal 
rights  on  the  heathen  worship,  the  former  being  degraded 
to  a  matter  of  form,  to  a  hypocritical  act  of  material 

88  LECTURE    IV. 

But  the  more  strenuous  the  opposition  of  the  kings, 
the  more  determined  became  the  adherence  of  the  people 
to  Mosaism.  Not  the  masses  of  the  people,  but  the 
men  of  the  people,  those  who  had  appreciated  and 
vindicated  the  popular  interest,  despite  the  kings;  those 
who  had  recognised  that  Mosaism  constituted  the  very 
vital  principle  of  the  Jewish  race,  and  that  consequently 
the  Jewish  people  could  not  but  forfeit  its  existence, 
sooner  or  later,  whenever  it  should  abandon  Mosaism  : 
those  who  had  become  convinced,  that  as  in  heathenism 
were  involved  the  degradation  and  the  servitude,  so 
in  Mosaism  lay  the  exaltation  and  the  freedom  of 
the  people ;  —  these  inspired  and  master-minds  zea- 
lously sought  to  keep  alive  Mosaism,  and  by  it,  to 
counteract  the  undue  influence  exercised  by  the  monarch 
over  his  subjects.  The  masses  of  the  people  watched 
this  conflict  in  a  state  of  perpetual  fluctuation,  and  the 
prophet  Elijah  calls  on  them  in  these  remarkable  words, 
'  How  long  will  ye  halt  between  two  opinions  ?  If 
Baal  is  God  follow  him,  if  the  Lord  is  God,  follow 

In  the  kingdom  of  Israel  this  struggle  was  speedily 
decided.  Mosaism  succumbed;  heathenism  encouraged 
by  the  sovereign,  overcame  the  people,  previously 
alienated  from  Mosaism.  Their  downfall  was  immi- 
nent. All  trace  of  these  ten  tribes,  with  the  exception 
of  a  few  fragments  that  attached  themselves  to  the  king- 
dom of  Judea,  was  irrecoverably  lost.  All  search  after 
them  was  and  is  vain,  for  they  had  been  their  own 

In  the  kingdom  of  Judah,  events  took  the  opposite 
course  :  Mosaism  obtained  the  victory.  But  in  what 
*  1  Kings  18.  21. 


manner  was  this  effected  ?  Not  by  the  conquest  of  the 
heathen  kings  by  the  Mosaic  people;  for  not  the  people, 
but  the  men  of  the  people,  were  the  combatants.  The 
people,  as  a  political  body,  were  annihilated.  From 
their  ruins,  ruins  permeated  with  the  very  spirit  of 
Mosaism,  a  new  people  arose,  devoted  from  their  cradle 
to  Mosaism,  and  developing  with  their  own  growth,  a 
new  Jewish  popular  life.  The  kingdom  was  destroyed 
by  Nebuchadnezzar,  the  people  were  carried  away  cap- 
tive into  Babylon;  after  some  time  the  fragmentary 
tribes  returned  to  Palestine,  never  more  to  relapse  into 
heathenism,  but  faithfully  to  preserve  the  religious  idea 
in  the  bosom  of  the  Hebrew  race.  By  means  of  the 
fall  of  the  Jewish  people,  Mosaism  triumphed,  and  by 
means  of  Mosaism,  the  Jewish  race  has  been  preserved. 
Let  us  now  endeavour  to  become  better  acquainted 
with  the  combat  and  the  combatants.  Contempora- 
neously with  the  establishment  of  the  kingdom,  a 
popular  party  had  arisen  in  the  state,  whose  aim  was,  to 
uphold  Mosaism  in  the  presence  of  monarchy.  How 
was  this  popular  party  composed?  We  have  stated 
above  that  it  consisted,  not  of  the  masses  of  the  popula- 
tion, but  of  men  from  among  the  people,  men  of  the 
people,  pleaders  and  defenders  of  the  popular  cause. 
Who  then  were  these  men  ?  Moses  had  intended  this 
vocation  for  the  priests  and  Levites,  as  the  organs  of 
public  worship,  and  as  a  body  of  national  instructors. 
But  the  priests,  attracted  by  the  glare  of  the  crown, 
soon  became  the  mere  tools  of  their  sovereigns  and 
princes.  The  priests,  then,  were  not  these  men  of  the 
people.  These  men  of  the  people  were — the  prophets. 
Who  and  what  are  the  prophets  ?  Let  us  examine  into 
their  history  more  closely. 

90  LECTURE    IV. 

Moses  was  the  first  X'^^J  prophet^  that  is_,  he  to  whom 
first,  from  amidst  all  the  people,  a  divine  revelation  was 
vouchsafed,  on  whom  the  '  Spirit  of  the  Lord  rested.' 
He  promised  the  perpetuation  of  prophetism  in  Israel, 
the  appearance  of  men,  in  whose  mouth  the  '  Lord  woidd 
put  His  words',*  in  order  to  secure  to  the  divine  or 
religious  idea,  the  victory  over  the  human  idea  or 

Although  so  early  as  the  days  of  the  Judges,  Deboralif 
was  designated  a  prophetess,  and  allusion  besides  made 
to  a  prophet  whose  name  is  not  mentioned ;  the  virtual 
father  of  the  prophets  (after  Moses)  was  Samuel. 

This  grand,  penetrating  character  was  resolved  to 
create,  in  opposition  to  the  royal  dignity,  and  for  the 
protection  of  the  religious  idea,  a  second  power  in  the 
state,  a  spiritual  power,  the  power  of  the  word,  of  con- 
viction. He,  therefore,  established  schools  of  prophets, 
and  consequently  a  prophetic  order,  simultaneously  Avith 
royalty.  In  these  schools  men  were  instructed  in 
impassioned  eloquence,  consonant  with  the  spirit  of 
Mosaism ;  also  in  the  art  of  sacred  song,  which  excited 
them  to  sublime,  prophetic  oratory,  and  solemn  poesy. 

The  disciples,  termed  Sons  of  the  Prophets,  lived  in 
community,!  in  houses  built  by  themselves — ate  in  com- 
mon their  frugal  repasts — adopted  a  general  costume, 

*  Deut.  18.  15—18. 

t  Let  those  who  ascribe  to  Judaism  a  tendency  to  degrade  the 
social  position, — the  vocation  of  woman,  remember,  that  in  its 
society  she  was  called  to  exercise  the  loftiest,  the  most  ennobling 
function  vouchsafed  to  a  human  being — that  of  prophecy.  Let 
them  also  remember  the  inspired  strains  of  a  Deborah  and  a 
Miriam,  as  well  as  the  fact  that  the  prophetess  Huldah  %  '  dwelt  in 
the  house  of  the  i^rophets,'  and  that  J '  the  word  of  the  Lord'  was 
asked  at  her  mouth  by  the  sovereign.   A.  M.  G. 

X  2  Kings  22.  13—20.     2  Chron.  34.  22. 


and  fixed  habits  and  manners — and  had  at  their  head  a 
father  of  the  prophets,  as  Elijah  and  EKsha  are  termed. 
Thus  the  order  of  the  prophets  as  an  institution,  be- 
came the  fountain  whence  the  more  highly-gifted  and 
inspired  seers  drew  the  material  resources  for  the 
achievement  of  their  mission.  We  find,  therefore,  sub- 
sequently to  the  age  of  Samuel,  frequent  allusions  made 
to  numerous  companies  of  prophets.  When  Jezebel 
sought  to  exterminate  them,  a  certain  Obadiah  alone, 
found  means  to  save  one  hundred ;  and  soon  after,  men- 
tion is  made,  first  of  a  party  of  one  hundred,  and  then  of 
fifty,  while  eight  hundred  and  fifty  prophets  of  Baal 
appear  on  the  scene.  By  these  means,  a  regular  order 
of  the  prophets  was  founded ;  and  this  expanded  into  a 
class  of  popular  orators.  Two  results  thence  ensued. 
On  the  one  hand,  all  these  Sons  of  the  Prophets  could 
not  attain  to  that  liigher  position,  in  which  they  might 
have  achieved  universal  appreciation  and  influence. 
Prophetism  in  itself  was  not  confined  to  the  prophetic 
schools.  (Amos). 

From  the  collective  body  of  these  prophets  we  must 
accordingly  select  those,  who  thus  highly  endowed  with 
the  gifts  of  the  soul  and  the  intellect,  stand  forth  the 
directly-chosen  ones,  filled  and  inspired  with  the  '  Spirit 
of  the  Lord.' 

On  the  other  hand,  that  the  ever-growing  corruption 
should  at  length  invade  these  prophet-ranks,  and  that 
the  prevailing  party  should  employ  them  as  tools  by 
which  to  delude  the  people,  and  alienate  their  allegiance 
from  the  true  prophets,  was  wholly  inevitable.  There- 
fore in  the  latest  centuries,  a  countless  multitude  of 
false  prophets  arise,  against  whom  and  their  deceptions, 
the    true    prophets,  such  as   Micah,   Isaiah,  Jeremiah, 

92  LECTURE    IV. 

Ezekiel,  spoke  in  words  of  flame,  and  never  wearied  of 
uttering  warning  denunciations.  The  false,  were  easily 
to  be  distinguished  fi'om  the  true  prophets.  The  first 
were  ever  contented  with  existing  circumstances,  in 
accordance  with  the  powers  that  were.  They  encouraged 
the  moral  and  religious  degeneracy  of  the  people,  fos- 
tered their  depravity,  and  predicted  to  them  power, 
duration,  and  victory.  The  true  prophets  held  a 
diametrically  opposite  course.  These  prophets,  having 
nought  on  their  side  save  a  weak,  vacillating,  and 
demoralized  population,  had  to  contend  against  the 
temporal  sovereign,  a  debased  and  hypocritical  priest- 
hood, and  against  their  perfidious  colleagues,  invested 
as  these  were,  with  like  dignity  with  themselves.  In 
this  conflict  they  displayed  a  mental  strength,  a  spirit 
of  devotion,  of  resignation,  of  self-sacrifice  and  of  fear- 
lessness, wdiich  have  been  seldom  reached,  and  never 
surpassed  by  man,  and  which  well  entitle  some  of  them  to 
be  numbered  among  the  noblest  heroes  of  human  kind. 
Hence  the  many  traditions  existing  of  the  violent  deaths 
of  several  of  these  prophets,  which  traditions  are  in 
some  instances  confirmed  by  history. 

The  means  employed  by  these  prophets  were  ha- 
rangues, in  which  they  addressed  the  people,  and 
occasionally  the  monarchs,  and  in  which,  while 
referring  to  general  or  special  circumstances,  they 
strenuously  urged  on  them,  the  adoration  and  worship 
of  the  Supreme  and  the  obligations  of  morality.  They 
condemned  idolatry  and  immorality,  and  indicated  the 
true  course  by  Avhich,  both  religiously  and  politically, 
the  people  could  secure  to  themselves  national  dm'ation 
and  prosperity.  They  took  their  stations  wherever  the 
people   were  assembled;    in   the    temple,  the    mai'ket- 


place,  and  at  the  gates  of  the  city.     They  spoke ;   and 

their  bohl  and  inspired  flights  of  eloquence  transported 

the  audience,  as  it  were,  to  other  and  higher  spheres, 

to  which  the   actual  world  around  them  presented  so 

dire    a   contrast,    and   which   nevertheless    was   to   be 

the  world  of  Israel's  race.     They  often  repaired  to  the 

palace  of  the  king,  often  gathered  around   them  the 

elders  of  the  people,  analyzed  their  crimes,  and  depicted 

to  them  the  future  that   awaited  them,  with  unsparing 

energy.     Sometimes   also  they  reduced  their  speeches 

to  writing,  and  spread  them  abroad,  and  tried  to  extend 

their  influence  by  causing  them  to  be  read  and  copied. 

In  short,  they  sought  and  employed  every  means  by 

which  to  act  beneficially  on  their  brethren. 

While  the  prophets,  as  a  body,  are  thus  presented  to 

us,  as  exerting  so  powerful  an  influence  on  the  political 

condition  of  their  countrymen,  they  divide  themselves 

into  two  classes,  the  one  consisting  of  those,  of  whose 

career    history  alone  informs  us;     the    other  of  those 

whose  prophetic  writings   (containing  a  portion  of  their 

spoken  addresses),  have  descended  to  us.     The   most 

distinguished    among    the    first-named,    are    Samuel, 

Elijah,  and  Elisha.     The  second  class*  is  composed  of 

*  Science  lias  now  irrevocably  determined  that  aU  tlie  chap- 
ters of  Isaiah  from  the  40th  to  the  66th  are  the  work  of  another 
prophet,  who  lived  towards  the  end  of  the  Babylonian  captivity. 
The  order  in  which  the  sacred  writings  have  come  down  to  us, 
gives  proof  of  this,  otherwise  the  historical  appendix  of  the 
book  of  Isaiah  would  have  been  placed  not  from  the  36th  to  the 
39  th  chapters,  but  after  the  66th  chapter. 

As  frequent  mention  will  be  made  in  the  course  of  these 
lectures  of  a  'first'  Isaiah  and  a  'second'  Isaiah,  it  may  be  well 
here  to  furnish  a  statement  of  what  is  advanced  by  the  advo- 
cates of  the  theory,  viz:  that  the  book  of  Isaiah  is  the  work  of  two 
separate  authors  who  flourished  in  different  ages,  as  well  as  the 



the  four  major  and  twelve  minor  prophets^  thus  dis- 
tinguished in  reference  only,  to  the  comparative  extent 
of  their  writings.  Samuel,  the  second  founder  of 
Mosaism    in    Israel,    must    have    plainly   foreseen,   as 

answers  put  forth,  and,  as  the  writer  ventures  to  think, 
successfully,  in  refutation  of  that  theory. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  last  century,  Koppe  was  the  first 
biblical  critic  to  cast  doubts  on  the  authenticity  of  that  part  of 
Isaiah  which  extends  from  the  40th  chapter  to  the  close  of 
the  book.  His  views  were  afterwards  adopted  by  a  multitude 
of  writers,  such  as  Doderlein,  Juste,  Eichhorn,  Rosenmiiller, 
Paukis,  Bauer,  Bertholdt,  De  Wette,  and  Gesenius,  the  last  men- 
tioned of  whom  may  be  regarded  as  the  most  authoritative 
exponent  of  the  negative  system.  Among  the  Jews  the  book 
was  received  entire,  and  no  doubt  was  ever  entertained  by  them 
of  the  authenticity  of  any  part.  It  is  recorded  in  the  Talmud 
(Baba  Bathva)  that  the  associates  of  King  Hezekiah  collected 
the  i)rophecies  of  Isaiah  ;  and  in  the  preface  to  Isaiah,  in  what 
is  called  'Mendelssohn's  Bible,'  there  is  a  quotation  from 
'Medrash  Rabba,'  shewing  that  the  father  of  Hosea  left  two 
prophecies  which  have  been  incorporated  with  the  writings  of 
Isaiah.  Again,  Sjiinoza  (Tract.  Polit.  Theol.)  casts  a  suspicion 
on  the  completeness  of  the  prophecies  of  Isaiah,  as  we  now 
possess  them.  But  all  these  doubts  are  very  different  from  the 
results  aimed  at  by  the  modern  critics  of  Germany.  De  Wette, 
in  his  Introduction  to  the  Scriptures  (German  5th  Edition, 
section  208),  has  collected  all  the  reasons  advanced  by  the 
German  critics  in  support  of  their  theory  ;  but  a  much  fuller 
account  is  given  in  Francis  Maurer's  Latin  Commentary  on 
Isaiah  (Leipsic,  1836),  chap.  40  ;  and  of  which  the  substance  is 
as  follows  : — The  last  twenty-six  chapters  are  the  work  of  some 
unknown  prophet  who  lived  about  the  close  of  the  Babylonian 
captivity.  This  portion  of  the  book  contains  discourses  written 
by  different  men,  but  worked  up  into  one  book  by  one  hand,  as 
is  proved  by  the  uniformity  of  style.  The  time  at  which  the 
author,  or  rather  the  editor  lived,  is  inferred  from  the  following 

1.  The  Jews  are  represented  as  lying  under  the  displeasure  of 
God,  and  in  the  power  of  their  enemies,  who  are  subjecting  them 
to  harsh  treatment  (xlii.  22,  24  ;  lii.  2,  3,  5)  :  their  land  is  deso- 
late, their  temple  overthrown,  and  their  city  destroyed  (xliv.  26, 28 ; 


did  Moses,  the  grand  struggle  into  which  his  people 
were  about  inevitably  to  be  drawn.  He  conceived  the 
idea  of  a  theocratic  republic*  within  Mosaism.  The 
succeeding  prophets  modified  this  conception.      With 

li.  3  ;  lii.  9  ;  Iviii.  12  ;  Ixii.  4;  Ixiv.  9-11)  :  all  their  sacred  insti- 
tutions have  passed  away  except  the  Sabbaths  and  the  Fasts 
(Ivi.  2  ;  Iviii.  2)  :  but  very  shortly  relief  is  to  come  to  them 
(xl.  1,  2) :  an<l  their  former  state  is  to  be  restored  (xliv.  28  ; 
Iviii.  12  ;  Ix.  10  ;  Ixi.  4).  The  kingdom  of  the  Chaldees  greatly 
flourishes  (xlvii.  7.  8.),  but  it  is  hastening  towards  the  heavy  judg- 
ments to  be  inflicted  upon  it  by  God  through  the  hand  of  His 
servant  Cyrus  (xli.  2  ;  xlv.  1-4),  who,  after  he  has  conquered 
Babylon,  will  allow  the  Jews  to  return  and  restore  their  com- 
monwealth (xliv.  28).  All  these  things  the  author  A'iews  as 
immediately  before  him,  not  like  a  prophet  divinely  instructed 
of  things  future  as  though  they  were  present,  but  as  one  who 
lives  and  moves  in  the  circle  of  these  events.  In  proportion  as 
the  exactness  of  the  prophet's  statements  in  reference  to  the 
period  that  intervenes  from  the  destruction  of  the  Temple  to 
the  elevation  of  Cyrus  agree  vsdth  historical  facts,  so  is  the 
vagueness  with  which  all  these  promises  of  the  glorious  restora- 
tion are  intimated  :  they  by  no  means  agree  historically  with 
the  description  of  those  times,  as  furnished  by  Ezra,  Nehemiah, 
Zachariah,  Haggai,  and  Malachi.  How  did  it  happen  that  a 
writer  who  could  foresee  so  plainly  the  ruin  of  Babylon,  and  the 
return  of  the  Jews  to  Palestine,  before  the  event,  should  be 
prevented  from  looking  a  little  farther  with  the  same  steadiness 
of  vision  ?  Simply  because  he  was  contemporaneous  with  the 
decay  of  the  Babylonian  state,  of  which  one  of  the  natural 
consequences  would  be  the  emancipation  of  the  Jews.  *  *  * 
Moreover,  the  author  appeals  to  ancient  prophecies,  already  ful- 
filled, relating  to  the  retiirn  from  captivity  ;  and  to  these  he 
now  adds  some  new  ones  (xlii.  9  ;  xlv.  19,  21  ;  xlvi.  10;  xlviii.  16). 

2.  The  many  peculiarities  of  the  real  Isaiah's  style  do  not 
appear  in  the  writings  of  the  imitator.  The  only  expressions 
common  to  both  are  T'XT^*''  ^'Hp  and  S"]|5n  for  ^I^^  :  in  this  there 

*  Would  not  the  realization  of  the  enactments  municipal  and 
governmental  laid  down  by  Moses  have,  in  fact,  formed  this 
theocratic  republic  1     A.  M.  G. 

96  LECTURE    IV. 

them,  it  became  a  theocratic  monarchy.  Neither  of 
these  designs  was  realized.  What  Samuel  did  achieve 
for  his  brethren  was,  that  for  the  vacillating  Saul,  he 
substituted  as  heir  to  the  throne,  the  faithful  follower 
of  Mosaism,  David. 

is  nothing  surprising,  if  it  be  admitted  that  the  later  writer 

had  diligently  studied  the  writings  of  his  predecessor.  There  are, 

however,  many  peculiarities  belonging  to  the  second  part :  as 

■iri^X^t^    an    Aramaic    form    for    ^ri?X^n  (Ixiii.  6) 

■"ril^O  „  „  „  '•riX'?    (liv.  15) 

nnix"'        „         „         „  Drix  (lix.  21) 

>n  an  Aramaism         „  (xliv.  19) 

"in2  '  to  prove'  or  '  to  try'  an  Aramaism  (xlviii.  10) 
"Qn  '  A  thing'  also  an  Aramaism  (xliv.  28.) 

and  many  more. 

3.  Had  this  latter  part  of  Isaiah  existed  before  the  destruction 
of  Jerusalem,  Jeremiah,  who  incurred  great  odium,  and  had  to 
bear  the  most  severe  treatment  for  prophesying  these  melan- 
choly events,  would  have  readily  appealed  to  the  clear  prediction 
of  the  same  catastrophe,  and  of  its  happy  termination,  by  so 
renowned  a  prophet  as  Isaiah. 

The  foregoing  objections  to  the  genuineness  of  the  latter  part 
of  the  book  of  Isaiah  have  been  met  by  Hensler,  Jahn,  Brentano, 
Hengstenbei-g,  MoUer,  and  others.  In  reference  to  the  above 
points,  they  argue  thus  : — 

1.  None  but  the  old  prophet  Isaiah,  and  not  one  living  near 
the  period  of  the  return  from  Babylon,  could  say  (xlviii.  7,  8), 
that  no  one  befoi^e  him  had  predicted  the  ruin  of  Babylon,  since 
it  is  spoken  of  at  considerable  length  by  Jeremiah  in  the  50th 
and  51st  chapters  of  his  book.  No  prophet  living  at  Babylon 
could  possibly  omit  the  Chaldeans  from  the  catalogue  of  Israel's 
oppressors  (lii.  4.  5)  ;  but  the  prophet  Isaiah  could  do  so,  as  he 
lived  and  wrote  a  considerable  i^eriod  anterior  to  the  Babylonian 
captivity.  Again,  a  writer  of  the  age  attributed  to  the  second 
Isaiah  could  have  had  no  conceivable  motive  for  charging  the 
Jews  with  idolatry,  and  even  with  sacrificing  their  children 
(Ivii.  1,4-13),  as,  it  is  generally  admitted,  that  these  sins  were 
not  committed  by  them  in  their  exile.  Besides  which,  the  cities 
of  Judah  and  Jerusalem  itself  are  addressed  by  the  prophet  in 
tlie  40th  chapter,  9th  verse.     This  could  of  course  be  done  by 

I'llOPHETISM.  97 

We  have  observed  above,  that  Mosaism  having  no 
external  support  in  the  kingdom  of  the  ten  tribes,  its 
struggle  with  Heathenism  was  there  much  more  feeble 
in  its  character.  The  principal  combatants  were  Elijah 
and  Elisha.  Among  the  prophetic  zvriters,  Hosea  and 
Amos  only,  worked  in  the  kingdom  of  Israel;  the 
former  two  against  the  hostile  royal  family  of  Achab — 
the  two  latter  against  that  of  Jehu.  Elijah  is  the  un- 
surpassed, the  fiery  adversary  of  Heathenism.  His 
whole  soul  is  fire;  his  whole  being  fire.     But  he  bears 

the  real  Isaiah,  but  assuredly  not  by  the  later  author,  if  he  be 
supposed  to  have  lived  when  Jerusalem  was  destroyed,  and  the 
cities  of  Judah  were  laid  waste. 

2.  The  language  in  the  second  part  of  Isaiah  is  as  elegant  as 
in  the  first  part,  and  in  some  instances  even  more  so.  The 
few  minor  diflerences  in  point  of  style  are  readily  accounted 
for  by  the  difierence  in  Isaiah's  age  at  the  respective  dates  when 
the  two  were  composed.  The  Aramaisms  offer  no  difficulty  at 
all,  since  for  a  long  period  the  Aramaic  language  had  been  known 
to  the  Hebrews  ;  and  a  striking  instance  of  this  is  evident  in  the 
first  part  of  Isaiah  (xxxvi.  11). 

3.  In  the  44th  chapter,  27th  verse,  there  is  a  direct  announce- 
ment of  the  manner  in  which  Babylon  should  be  captured,  viz., 
by  the  diverting  of  the  course  of  the  Euphrates,  and  Herodotus 
relates  (i.  185,  190),  that  this  was  historically  fulfilled.  Now  if 
the  author  lived  before  the  taking  of  Babylon,  as  the  critics 
admit,  this  properly  must  be  held  to  be  as  sure  a  proof  of  his 
inspiration  as  any  that  could  possibly  be  required. 

4.  The  name  of  Cyrus  which  occurs  in  Isaiah  (xliv.  28,  and 
xlv.  1)  is  generally  regarded  as  an  evidence  against  the  authenti- 
city of  the  book;  because,  it  is  contended,  prophets  do  not  pre- 
dict proper  names,  nor  do  they  enter  into  details.  But  who  is 
to  prescribe  to  a  prophet  what  he  is  to  reveal  ?  Besides  which, 
the  name  of  Koresh  is  not  a  proper  name,  but  the  common  term 
for  King  in  the  ancient  Persian  language  (Jahn,  Introduction). 

[To  the  kindness  of  the  Rev.  D.  W.  Marks,  I  am  indebted  for  the 
above  lucid  statement  of  the  arguments  employed  by  tiKjss  who 
support,  and  by  those  who  deny  the  theory,  that  the  book  of 
Isaiah  is  the  work  of  two  authors. — A.  M.  G.] 


98  LECTURE    IV. 

witliin  him  the  full  consciousness,  that  this  fire — pure 
and  holy  as  it  is — consumes  him  in  vain ;  and  that  this 
is  the  will  of  the  Lord,'^  who  dwells  in  the  still  small 
voice.  This  fire  could  not  alter  the  course  of  events  on 
earthj  and  therefore  causes  him  to  ascend  to  heaven. 
Elisha,  his  disciple  and  successor,  no  longer  seeks  to 
stem  the  torrent ;  he  collects  around  him  whom  he  can, 
and  guides  and  sustains  as  many  as  he  can. 

Matters  are  otherwise  in  the  kingdom  of  Judah. 
There  the  Prophet's  conflict  does  not  cease.  The  nearer 
the  kingdom  approaches  to  its  fall,  the  hotter  becomes 
the  fight.  It  holds  oh,  even  when  the  Chaldeans  had 
fired  the  walls  of  Jerusalem.  It  takes  its  stand  on  the 
smouldering  ashes  of  the  ruined  city.  It  flies  for  refuge 
with  its  champions  into  Egypt,  and  is  transported  with 
the  sons  of  the  captivity  to  Babylon.  It  seeks  even 
there,  to  restore  the  spiritual  stronghold  ;t  it  gathers 
together  the  remnant  still  faithful  to  Mosaism,  from 
amidst  the  collected  ruins  of  the  population;  it  re- 
conducts them  to  the  Holy  Land.  And  it  ceases  only 
after  the  erection  of  the  Second  Temple,  when  the  des- 
tined task  of  Prophetism  had  been  accomplished — to  fix 
immoveably  and  for  ever,  the  Religious  Idea  in  the  men- 
tal being  of  the  Jewish  people.  The  foremost  combat- 
ants in  this  battle  were  Isaiah  and  Jeremiah,  in  Jeru- 
salem; Ezekiel  and  the  second  Isaiah, J  in  Babylon; 
Haggai  and  Zechariah,  during  the  building  of  the 
second  temple;  Malachi,  at  the  period  of  national  re- 
generation of  the  people  of  Israel. 

Of  all  the  prophetic  writers,  Isaiah  is  indisputably 
the  one  whose  style  is  the  most  lofty,  nervous,  and 
sublime.  His  utterances  are  replete  with  striking 
*  1  Kings,  19.  9—13.  f  Ezekiel  40.  48.         J  See  note  p.  93. 


metaphors,  strong  antitheses,  and  graphic  paronomasia. 
He  pours  forth  a  gushing  tide  of  inspired  eloquence, 
breathing*  earnest  morality,  deep  faith  in  the  good, 
glowing  enthusiasm  for  the  God-like,  unshaken  fidelity 
to  the  Deity,  and  burning  indignation  against  apostasy, 
pride  and  unrighteousness.  Isaiah,  as  he  is  doubtlessly 
the  grandest,  was  also  the  most  favoured  of  the  pro- 
phets. He  lived  at  a  period  when  it  still  appeared 
possible,  that  by  means  of  a  passing  chastisement,  the 
purification,  regeneration,  and  deliverance  of  the  people 
might  be  effected.  He  not  only  survived  two  periods 
of  general  alarm  that  were  happily  overcome  by  Judah 
— the  first,  that  of  the  war  carried  on  successfully  by 
the  Syrian  monarch  in  alliance  with  Israel,  against  the 
kingdom  of  Judah,  until  he  was  vanquished  by  the 
king  of  Assyria;  the  second,  when  the  latter,  Senna- 
cherib, turned  his  great  armies  against  Judah,  and  when 
his  career  of  victory  was  arrested  by  the  sudden  visit- 
ation of  a  desolating  pestilence,  that  annihilated  his 
hosts  at  the  very  gates  of  Jerusalem.  But  after  the 
death  of  the  thoroughly  heathen  king  Ahaz,  who 
had,  by  sacrificing  to  Moloch,  polluted  the  sanctuary 
itself,  and  who  contemptuously  repelled  the  prophet, 
Isaiah  still  lived  to  witness  the  accession  of  the  pious 
Hezekiah.  This  king  restored  Mosaism,  and  re-estab- 
lished the  Mosaic  temple-worship  in  its  pristine 
splendour;  reverentially  listened  to  the  admonitions 
of  the  prophet,  and,  by  following  his  counsel,  stead- 
fastly and  successfully  withstood  the  might  of  Assyria. 
Jeremiah  experienced  a  totally  opposite  destiny.     His 

*  Characteristics  whiich  are  equally  those  of  the  latter  portion 
of  this  prophet's  writings,  termed  by  our  author  the  second 
Isaiah. — A.  M.  G. 

H    '2 

100  LECTURE    IV. 

personal  qualities  were  the  loftiest,  as  his  career  was 
the  most  adverse  and  calamitous.  In  his  youth,  and  in 
the  earliest  years  of  his  public  activity,  he  was  the 
cotcmporary  of  King  Josiah,  through  whose  instru- 
mentality Mosaism,  for  the  last  time,  exercised  a  brief 
sway  in  Israel.  It  shone  with  but  meteoric  light.  Af- 
ter the  death  of  this  king,  in  the  battle  of  Megiddo, 
the  Egyptian  party  hostile  to  JNIosaism  became,  at  the 
accession  of  Jehoiakim,  dominant  in  the  state.  At  this 
juncture,  the  king  of  Babylon  appeared  as  victor  on  the 
battle-field.  But  the  arrogance  of  the  Jewish  mo- 
narchs  led  them  obstinately  to  choose,  and  treacherously 
to  pursue,  their  alliance  with  Egypt,  and  to  join  in  a 
conspiracy  against  Babylon.  The  fall  of  Judah  was 
easily  to  be  foreseen.  Jeremiah  predicted  the  coming 
destruction,  sometimes  in  gushes  of  fervid  eloquence, 
sometimes  in  striking  parables.  But  his  warning  voice 
was  raised  in  vain,  and  his  only  reward  was  the  inflic- 
tion of  stripes.  Again  the  prophet  boldly  enters  the 
palace  of  the  king,  and  rebukes  him  for  his  injustice 
and  covetousness.  Boldly  he  presents  himself  before 
the  priests,  who 'seek  to  take  his  life,  and  succeed  in 
banishing  him  from  the  '  Temple  of  the  Lord.'  Then 
he  causes  his  addresses  to  be  read  to  the  king,  in  whose 
presence  the  roll  is  cut  in  pieces  and  burnt.  He  finds 
it  necessary  therefore,  to  remain  in  concealment.  The 
succeeding  king,  Zedekiah,  a  Aveak  sovereign,  sought 
the  prophet's  counsel  in  many  secret  interviews,  and 
would  willingly  have  obeyed  his  admonitions.  But  the 
Egyptian  party  was  all-powerful  and  overcame  aL 
opponents  by  force.  The  Chaldeans  surrounded  Jeru- 
salem— Jeremiah  again  urged  the  inhabitants  to  sur- 
render, by  which  the  city  might  have  been  saved ;  but 


the  prophet  was  maltreated  and  imprisoned  *  In  the 
midst  of  his  prison^  he,  a  captive,  within  a  captive  city, 
prophesies  the  overthrow  and  the  subsequent  restoration 
of  Judah.  For  this  the  princes  threw  him  into  a  miry 
pit,t  where  he  was  like  to  die.  The  king  secretly 
causes  him  to  be  drawn  up  with  cords.  The  city  is 
taken,  and  the  prophet  liberated  by  Nebuchadnezzar, 
by  whom  the  choice  of  his  place  of  abode  is  given  him. 
He  desires  to  remain  in  Judea  with  the  poorer  portion 
of  the  inhabitants,  who  had  not  been  carried  away 
captive  into  Babylon. 

A  body  of  these,  however,  who  refused  to  listen  to 
his  voice,  fly  into  Egypt,  whither  they  drag  him  with 
them.  There  they  make  him  an  eye-witness  of  their 
idolatrous  practices,  and  disregard  his  words  of  warn- 
ing and  menace.  Still  he  desists  not. — As  he  had  sat 
on  the  ruins  of  Jerusalem,  so  he  sat  mentally  on  the 
ruins  of  Babylon,  his  spirit  soaring  above  them  and 
beholding  that  resuscitated  Judah  which  was  to  rise  out 
of  Babylon's  ashes.  This  was  his  dying  strain  —  the 
song  of  the  swan.  While  Jeremiah  thus  witnessed  and 
shared  the  suflFering  and  misery  attendant  on  the 
overthrow  of  his  people,  Ezekiel  had  been  carried  away 
captive  to  Babylon,  eleven  years  previous  to  the  taking 
of  Jerusalem,  and  there  inhabited  a  remote  city.  To 
preserve  his  fellow-exiles  from  the  contamination  of 
Babylonian  idolatry,  and  to  keep  alive  their  attachment 
to  IVIosaism  in  the  spirit,  were  thus  the  only  objects, 
to  which  the  solitary  prophet  could  devote  his  energy. 
Ezekiel's  mission,  thei'efore,  was  to  account  for  the  fresh 
events  step  by  step,  shewing  that  they  were  the  conse- 
quence of  the  abandonment  of  Mosaism  in  doctrine  and 

*  Jer.  37. 16.  t  Jer.  38.  9—28. 

102  LECTURE    IV, 

in  practice;  that  stilly  the  fall  of  the  religious  idea 
was  not  identical  with  the  fall  of  Judah ;  that^  on  the 
contrary,  the  faithfnl  and  the  penitent  portion  of  Israel, 
might  confidently  look  forward  to  a  restoration.  Thus 
he  was  impelled  to  go  over  the  whole  of  the  Mosaic 
work,  in  his  own  manner  and  from  his  own  point  of  view  ; 
and  consequently  he  laid  down,  on  one  hand,  a  theory 
of  the  creation,  on  the  other,  in  a  magnificent  vision,  a 
plan  for  a  new  constitution  of  the  future  Israelite  state, 
in  which  the  Mosaic  ideas  were  to  be  realised,  though 
through  modified  ordinances. 

As  Ezekiel  belongs  to  the  earlier,  the  second  Isaiah^ 
belongs  to  the  later  period  of  the  Babylonian  captivity. 
While  Cyrus,  king  of  Persia,  was  hurrying  on  in  a 
career  of  victory  closed  by  his  conquest  of  Babylon, 
the  prophet  arose,  and  declared  this  triumph  of  the 
Persian  monarch  to  be  the  condition  of  Israel's  pre- 
dicted deliverance.  When  Babylon  fell,  his  appeals 
awakened  in  the  faithful  few,  the  desire  to  return  to 
their  native  land.  When  Cyrus  had  granted  their  re- 
quest, and  yet  the  sympathy  evinced  was  but  lukewarm, 
Isaiah  speaks  again  and  seeks  to  fan  the  zeal  of  the 
faithful  into  flame ;  and  by  warnings  addressed  to  those, 
who  forgot  alike  Zion  and  their  God,  to  increase  the 
number  of  the  band  of  pilgrims.  This  second  Isaiah 
is  the  one  among  the  prophets,  who  clothes  the  strongest 
emotion  in  the  loftiest  and  fullest  streams  of  eloquence. 
His  addresses  are  replete  with  brilliant  imagery — with 
strains  now  of  impassioned  joy,  now  of  deep  pathos. 
If  the  other  projihets  depict  to  our  mental   vision  the 

*  Here  it  may  be  pei'mitted  to  ask,  where,  in  the  records  of 
that  era,  the  propounders  of  the  Second-Isaiah  theory,  find  traces 
of  his  having  lived  and  worked? — A.  M.  G. 


fall  of  the  mighty,  he  shews  us  how  those  who  fail  are 
upheld  and  raised  again  .'^  We  shall  elsewhere  resume 
the  thread  of  our  narrative^  relating  the  efforts  made 
by  Haggai  and  Zechariah  to  promote  the  rebuilding  of 
the  temple ;  and  by  Malachi  to  remove  unmosaic  ele- 
ments from  out  of  the  peoples'  life. 

I  have  thus,  respected  friends,  endeavoured  to  place 
clearly  before  you  the  outward  plan  of  the  development 
of  the  religious  idea  in  the  Jewish  people,  and  also  in 
prophetism,  externally  considered.  It  has  been  shown 
that  the  religious  idea  had  first  to  overcome  heathenism 
in  its  recipients ;  that  this  was  to  be  effected  only  by 
means  of  a  long  struggle,  in  which  prophetism  fur- 
nished the  weapons ;  that  the  national  independence  of 
the  Jewish  people  was  necessarily  sacrificed  to  this  ob- 
ject, in  order  that  out  of  its  ruins,  new  and  devoted 
adherents  should  arise,  by  whose  instrumentality,  the 
religious  idea  should  carry  on  the  conflict  with  the 
whole  world  of  man.  It  was  the  self-conquest  of  the 
Jewish  race  that  obtained  the  victory.  This  self-con- 
quest was  undertaken  with  entire  self-consciousness. 
For  the  prophets  declare  at  all  times,  though  with  deep 

*  I  would  also  bespeak  attention  to  a  fact  whicli  in  itself  may 
be  deemed  evidence  conclusive  and  incontrovertible,  that  the 
book  called  '  Isaiah,'  is  the  utterance  of  one  and  the  same  pro- 
phetic and  master  spirit.  That  fact  is  the  total  absence,  from 
the  books  and  records  written  at  the  time  of  the  captivity  and 
the  restoration,  of  all  mention  of  the  name,  of  all  trace  of  the 
influence  and  efforts,  of  the  prophet  designated  by  German 
rationalists,  the  second  Isaiah. 

It  seems  almost  superfluous  to  ask,  whether  it  is  possible 
such  a  spirit  should  have  lived  at  such  a  time,  without  having 
marked  his  age  by  his  deeds  ;  without  having  summoned  his 
brethren  around  him,  to  listen  to  the  outpovirings  of  living 
words,  which,  as  written  utterances  even,  have  won,  for  him  the 
title  of  '  the  Sublimest  of  the  seers  of  old  ! ' — A.  M.  G. 

104  LECTURE    IV. 

sorrow,  that  it  must  be  unflinchingly  achieved :  that 
the  people  must  fall,  in  order  that  from  their  ashes  the 
religious  idea,  phoenix-like,  should  arise. 

The  argument  of  the  Avhole  of  this  first  period,  is 
consequently  the  subjugation  of  heathenism,  within  the 
Jewish  people,  by  the  religious  idea — and  the  prophets 
arc  the  instruments  of  the  conflict  and  of  the  triumph. 

The  position  and  the  task  of  prophetism  has  thus 
been  recognised;  its  true  signification  now  remains  to 
he  considered. 




Among  tlie  many  peculiarities  which  distinguish  the 
history  of  the  Jewisli  race  from  that  of  all  other  peoples, 
(which  peculiarities  in  truth  resulted  from  the  idiosyn- 
crasy of  the  national  existence)  we  may  adduce  as  one 
perhaps  of  the  most  remarkable,  the  fact,  that  the 
genius  of  this  people  took  its  boldest  flights,  and  pro- 
duced its  loftiest  creations,  at  a  period  of  national 
decline,  when  the  people  themselves,  fast  sinking  into 
moral  and  religious  degradation,  had  well  nigh  aban- 
doned their  sublime  mission.  The  greatest  produc- 
tions of  other  nations,  have  been  coeval  with  their 
attainment  of  the  zenith  of  their  glory,  and  the  noon 
of  their  national  existence.  Not  so  with  the  race  of 
Israel.  The  lower  it  fell,  the  higher  soared  the  latent 
national  genius.  This  phenomenon,  recurring  again 
and  again  in  their  history,  is  not  only  easy  of  explana- 
tion, but  is  necessary  to  this  people,  since  the  spiritual 
essence  of  the  Jewish  race,  is  the  eternal  never-dying 
'  Religious  Idea,'  which,  just  when  the  disorganization 
of  its  appointed  material  vessel  is  apparently  impending, 
must  manifest  itself  with  redoubled  activity  by  indi- 
vidual effort,  and  thus  render  itself  superior  to  the 
mutabihty  of  all  earthly  things.  Then  the  prophets 
arise  at  a  period  when  Heathenism  sits  on  the  throne  of 
Israel,  when  it  had  obtained  general  sway  over  the 
people,  had  insinuated  itself  into  the  popular  life,  and 

106  LECTURE    V, 

had  thus  paved  the  way  to  its  natural  consequence — 
the  overthrow  of  the  people  of  Israel.  For  the  nation 
had  not  only  lost  that  which  constituted  its  true  power 
and  strength,  that  by  means  of  which  it  had  been 
enabled  to  stand  in  array  against  a  world — the  Eeligious 
Idea;  but  had  likewise  become  enervated  by  Heathenism, 
in  whose  train  had  followed  luxury,  debauchery,  im- 
morality, injustice,  oppression,  and  violence.  The 
prophets  repeatedly  paint  this  condition  of  things  in 
terms  of  unmitigated  disgust  and  aversion. 

Thus  had  the  life  of  the  Jewish  people  become 
wholly  opposed  in  its  character  to  Judaism.  The  only 
fragments  of  Judaism  then  stiU  remembered  and  prac- 
tised, viz.,  the  sacrificial  service  and  some  few  ordinances 
of  the  law,  had  degenerated  into  mere  formal  and 
insignificant  observances.  The  prophets  deemed  it 
vain,  amid  this  un-Mosaic  life,  this  wholesale  infringe- 
ment of  Judaism,  to  enforce  the  Mosaic  law.  In  the 
first  place,  they  could  not  have  overcome  the  obstacles 
which  the  actual  life  of  the  people  presented,  inasmuch 
as  the  idea  was  wholly  lost  among  them;  in  the 
second,  the  prophets  could  not  fail  to  perceive  that, 
even  in  the  event  of  the  people's  acceptance  of  a  por- 
tion of  the  Mosaic  code,  that  portion  would  have  been 
but  empty  ceremonial,  since  the  idea  no  longer  existed 
in  the  national  mind. 

The  prophets,  therefore,  recognized  the  necessity  of 
even  combating  so  much  of  the  practice  of  the  Mosaic 
law  as  had  survived,  it  being  opposed  to  the  idea,  since 
it  consisted  of  empty  rites,  involving  mockery  and 
hypocrisy.  And  this  course  they,  in  fact,  adopted. 
Isaiah  exclaims  in  the  name  of  God :  '  Of  what  avail 
to  me  is  the  multitude  of  your  sacrifices?    saith  the 


Lord.  I  am  cloyed  with  the  burnt  offerings  of  rams 
and  the  fat  of  fed  beasts,  and  I  delight  not  in  the 
blood  of  bullocks,  or  of  lambs,  or  of  he-goats.  When 
ye  come  to  appear  before  me,  who  hath  required  this 
at  yom-  hands,  to  tread  my  courts?  Bring  no  more 
vain  oblations ;  incense  is  an  abomination  unto  me : 
the  new  moons  and  sabbaths,  the  assembly  proclaimed, 
I  cannot  support.  What !  Impiety  blended  with  a 
solemn  rite?  Your  new  moons  and  your  appointed 
feasts  my  soid  hateth.^"^  Jeremiah  even  declares  the 
sacrificial  worship  to  form  no  integral  part  of  Mosaism.f 
Thef  second  Isaiah  says :  '  Is  it  such  a  fast  that  I 
have  chosen  a  day  for  a  man  to  afflict  his  soul  ?  Is  it 
to  bow  down  his  head  as  a  bulrush,  and  sit  upon  sack- 
cloth and  ashes?  Wilt  thou  call  this  a  fast  and  an 
acceptable  day  to  the  Lord  ?  Is  not  this  the  fast  that 
I  have  chosen — to  loose  the  bonds  of  wickedness,  to 
undo  the  heavy  burdens,  and  to  let  the  oppressed  go 
go  free,  and  that  ye  break  every  yoke  ?  Is  it  not  to 
deal  thy  bread  to  the  hungry,  and  that  thou  bring  the 
poor  that  are  cast  out  of  thy  house  ?  When  thou 
seest  the  naked,  that  thou  cover  him;  and  that  thou 
hide  not  thyself  from  thine  own  flesh. '§  The  Jewish 
people  having  thus  lost  the  Mosaic  Idea  and  adopted 
Heathenism,  it  necessarily  ensued  that  the  life  became 
un-Mosaic,  and  that  what  remained  in  it  of  Mosaism, 
had  degenerated  into  empty  form.  It  was,  conse- 
quently indispensable,  that  the  prophets  should  strive 
above  all  things  to  reinstate  the  religious  idea  among 
the  people,  in  order  that  their  life,  which  had  in  fact, 
Avholly  severed  itself  from   that  idea,   might  again  be 

*  Is.  1.  11.  t  Jer.  7.  22  and  23. 

%  Vide  ante  note,  page  93.         §  Is.  58.  55. 

108  LECTURE    V. 

made  to  accord  with  it.  This  severance  rendered  it 
imperative  on  the  prophets,  to  seek  to  save  the  idea, 
and  to  imbue  with  it  the  heart  of  the  people ;  and  this 
compelled  them  to  seize  upon  the  religious  idea  only 
to  aim  to  develop  it  and  re-establish  its  sway.  But  it 
again  thence  resulted,  that  the  idea  was  more  general- 
ized, and  assumed  an  appearance  of  being  opposed  to, 
and  independent  of,  material  life.  While  in  Mosaism 
the  idea  and  the  life  are  one  and  the  same,  the  idea 
now  appeared  as  self-existent,  and  severed  from  the 

This  separation  between  the  life  and  the  idea  was, 
doubtless,  essentially  un-Mosaic.  It  was  likewise  a 
great  evil ;  for  the  union  of  the  idea  and  the  life,  alone 
forms  religious  truth.  It  was,  nevertheless,  a  condition 
of  its  development,  and  was  in  so  far  necessary ;  as  by 
its  means  only,  could  be  effected  the  dissemination  of 
the  religious  idea  throughout  the  whole  world  of. 
man.  The  idea  solely,  could  win  mankind  to  itself. 
When,  in  the  due  course  of  its  development,  it  shall 
have  thoroughly  permeated  the  mental  being  of  man,  it 

*  For  example  :  Mosaism  had  said,  '  Love  thy  neighbour  as 
thyself;  consider  thy  neighbour's  rights  to  be  as  thine  own  : 
every  man  shall  be  free  ;  thou  slialt  not  have  thy  neighbour  for 
a  slave,  therefore  give  him  his  freedom  in  the  seventh  year,  and 
let  him  go  free,  and  furnish  him  liberally  from  thy  corn,  thy 
herds,  and  thy  wine.'  The  people  had  lost  this  idea  of  personal 
freedom  on  their  return  to  Heathenism,  which  brought  with  it 
castes — slavery  :  so  they  did  not  liberate  slaves,  nor  observe  the 
year  of  release.  The  prophets  could  not,  therefore,  insist  on  the 
observance  of  the  year  of  release,  but  were  obliged  to  enforce  in 
general  terms,  the  principle  of  the  equality  of  rights  among 
mankind,  without  expressly  applying  it  to  actual  life.  It  would 
have  been  fruitless  to  address  the  people  thus  :  '  The  gleanings 
of  the  field  belong  to  the  jioor ;  the  second  tithe  of  the  third 
and  sixth  year.'  So  they  gave  general  exhortation,  '  Break  thy 
bread,'  etc. 


will  and  must  come  into  active  existence,  and  regulate 
and  mould  material  life. 

We  shall  thus  perceive,  that  the  severance  of  the  idea 
and  the  life  is  complete  in  Christianity ;  that  in  the  mid- 
dle ages,  the  idea  was  powerless  in  respect  of  the  life ; 
and  that  it  is  but  in  the  most  recent  times,  that  it  is  again 
beginning  to  exert  any  influence  on  daily  existence. 

What  we  here  deduce  from  history,  at  the  close  of  a 
period  of  development  of  two  thousand,  five  hundred 
years'  duration,  the  prophets  clearly  foresaw  and  rm- 
equivocally  predicted,  at  its  commencement.  Mosaism 
presents  the  union  of  the  life  and  the  idea,  and  could 
in  the  first  instance  be  addressed  to  the  Jewish  race 
only.  To  disseminate  the  religious  idea  is  Israel's 
mission;  to  live  out  the  religious  life,  is  Israel's 
appointed  task.  But  the  prophets,  inasmuch  as  they 
especially  set  forth  the  religious  idea — inasmuch  as  they 
elaborate  it  in  its  universality,  and  omit  to  insist  on  its 
special  application,  have  the  pre-consciousness  that  the 
religious  idea  is  not  Israel's  portion  only,  but  that  of  all 
mankind.^  The  acknowledgment  of  one  God  in  His 
entire  unity — of  one  God,  supreme  and  holy,  who  is, 
in  this  indirect  relation  to  man  created  in  his  image — 
Man's  Providence,  the  sole  source  of  judgment  and 
revelation — the  difl'usiou  of  universal  love,  by  means  of 
universal  justice,  freedom,  and  peace — and  the  universal 
acceptance  of  these  by  mankind,  who  will  thereby  be 
united  and  wlioUy  influenced ; — such  are  the  chief  points 
of  development,  which  the  prophets  imparted  to  the 
Mosaic  idea. 

Each  of  these  prophets,  from  the  first   to  the  last, 

*  Moses,  the  first  of  the  prophets,  also  declares  this  great 
truth  again  and  again.— Deut.  4.  6 ;  Judges  32.  1. — ^A.  M.  G. 

110  LECTURE    V. 

inculcates  this  doctrine ;  and  from  eacli  in  succession,  it 
receives  additional  development.  Nay:  this  doctrine  is 
even  anterior  to  the  prophets  whose  writings  we  now 
possess,  and  is  in  fact  the  very  mother  of  prophecy. 
It  is,  viz.,  worthy  of  all  remark,  that,  in  Micah  iv.  1 — 4, 
and  in  Isaiah,  at  the  opening  of  a  prophetic  address, 
ii.  2 — 4,  we  find  exactly  parallel  passages  expressing 
this  idea,  with  but  this  difference — that  in  Micah,  the 
composition  is  more  careful,  and  that  there  is  one 
additional  and  very  beautiful  verse.  There  has  been 
much  controversy  as  to  the  original  authorship  of  these 
verses.  Closer  investigation  proves,  however,  that  to 
neither  of  these  two  writers  does  it  belong;  but  that 
they  are  but  the  transcript  of  an  older  prophetic  decla- 
ration which  both  prophets  cite,"^  and  place,  for  a  spe- 
cific object,  at  the  head  of  their  respective  paragraphs. 
The  verses  run  thus  : — "  But  in  the  last  days,  it  shall 
come  to  pass,  that  the  mountain  of  the  house  of  the 
Lord  shall  be  estabhshed  in  the  top  of  the  mountain ; 
and  it  shall  be  exalted  above  the  hills;  and  people  shall 
flow  unto  it.  And  many  nations  shall  come  and  say. 
Come,  and  let  us  go  up  to  the  mountain  of  the 
Lord,  and  to  the  house  of  the  God  of  Jacob.  He 
will  teach  us  of  His  ways,  and  we  shall  walk  in  His 
paths;  for  the  law  shall  go  forth  out  of  Zion,  and 
the  word  of  the  Lord  from  Jerusalem ;  and  He  shall 
judge  among  many  people,  and  rebuke  strong  nations 
afar  off:  and  they  shall  beat  their  swords  into  plough- 
shares, and  their  spears  into  pruning-hooks ;  nation 
shall  not  lift  up  a  sword  against  nation,  neither  shall 

*  It  is  well  known,  that  the  prophets  contain  numerous  quo- 
tations, the  names  of  the  writers  of  which  are  frequently  not 


they  learn  war  any  more.  But  they  shall  sit  every 
man  under  his  own  vine^  and  his  own  fig  tree,  and 
none  shall  make  them  afraid;  for  the  mouth  of  the 
Lord  of  Hosts  hath  spoken  it." 

It  is  herein  declared — 1st.  That  all  nations  of  the 
earth  will  acknowledge  the  truth  of  the  Religious  idea. 
2ndly.  That  they  will  consider  themselves  bound  by  it ; 
and  3rdly.  Peace,  the  cessation  of  war  and  strife, 
general  security  and  happiness  will,  by  means  of  that 
religious  idea,  come  universally  to  prevail.  We  see 
this  general  acceptance  of  the  religious  idea  meta- 
phorically portrayed  in  "  the  going  up  of  the  nations 
to  the  mountain  of  the  Lord,  to  the  house  of  the  God 
of  Jacob ;"  its  fulfilment  in  the  life,  in  ' '  the  walking  in 
his  paths ;"  its  result,  in  the  cessation  of  war,  and  in 
dwelling  peacefully  every  one  "^  under  his  own  vine  and 
his  own  fig-tree."  Every  prophet  depicts,  in  accordance 
with  his  own  character  and  in  his  own  individual  style, 
this  great  future  of  the  human  race,  in  the  most  vivid 
colours,  and  at  length  transfers  into  the  brute  creation, 
and  into  all  nature,  the  spirit  of  heavenly  peace."^  "  The 
wolf  also  shall  dwell  with  the  lamb,  and  the  leopard 
shall  lie  down  with  the  kid,  and  the  calf  and  the  young 
lion  and  the  fatling  together,  and  a  little  child  shall 
lead  them.  And  the  cow  and  the  bear  shall  feed  their 
young  ones,  shall  lie  down  together,  and  the  lion  shall 
eat  straw  like  the  ox.  And  the  sucking  child  shall  play 
on  the  hole  of  the  asp,  and  the  weaned  child  shall  put 
his  hand  on  the  cockatrice's  den.  They  shall  not  hurt 
nor  destroy  in  all  my  holy  mountain ;  for  the  earth 
shall  be  full  of  the  knowledge  of  the  Lord,  as  the  waters 
cover  the  sea." 

*  Isaiah  11.  6—9. 

112  LECTURE    V. 

As  soon  as  the  prophets  had  attained  to  the  con- 
scioxisnrss  that  INIosaism  was  not  destined  to  limit  its 
influenee  to  the  Jewish  race,  but  tliat  its  ultimate  end 
was  the  dissemination  of  the  religions  idea  among  the 
whole  of  mankind,  the  question — How  was  that  design 
to  he  accomplished  ?  naturally  suggested  itself  to  them. 
Their  first  necessary  deduction  was,  that  Israel  was  hut 
the  instrument  of  God.*  To  he  the  depositaries  of 
the  religions  idea,  for  the  whole  human  race,  they  recog- 
nised to  he  the  mission  of  the  w^hole  posterity  of  Abra- 
ham.-}- Their  second  deduction  was,  that  in  its  fulfilment 
no  thought  of  victory  by  force  of  arms,  or  by  coercive 
means,  or  by  the  exercise  of  political  power,  was  to  be 
entertained.  The  idea  could  only  prevail  by  Adrtue  of 
its  power  as  an  idea ;  freedom  cannot  be  attained  through 
slavery ;  it  can  be  won  by  fi-ee  development  alone.  The 
views  set  forth  in  the  writings  of  the  prophets  may  be 
summed  up  as  follows: — Israel  is  contaminated — God's 
chastisement  is  therefore  necessary.  By  this  chastise- 
ment Israel  shall  be  sanctified  and  purified.  Israel  will 
be  re-established.  This  chastisement,  regeneration,  and 
restoration  will  serve  as  examples  and  proofs  of  the 
truth  of  the  religious  idea  ever  existent  in  Israel,  and 
therefore  lead  to  its  recognition  by  all  people.     There- 

•  '  And  now  saith  the  Lord  that  formed  me  from  the 
womb  to  be  his  servant,  to  bring  Jacob  again  unto  him,'  etc. — 
Isaiah  49.  1. 

t  '  Behold  my  servant  whom  I  uphold,  mine  elect  in  whom  my 
soul  delighteth.  I  have  put  my  spirit  upon  him.  He  shall  In-ing 
forth  judgment  to  the  Gentiles.  He  shall  not  cry,  nor  lift  up, 
nor  cause  his  voice  to  be  heard  in  the  street.  A  bruised  reed 
shall  he  not  break,  and  the  smoking  flax  he  shall  not  quench. 
He  shall  bring  forth  judgment  unto  truth.  He  shall  not  fail  nor 
be  discouraged,  till  he  have  set  judgment  in  the  earth.  And  the 
isles  shall  wait  for  his  law.' — Isaiah  42.  1 — 4. 


fore  Israel  endui'es  his  punishment  for  the  sake  of  all 
nations,  his  degradation  and  their  coutumelyj  for  that  of 
all  mankind.  Israel  is  the  martyr  for  the  human  race, 
of  the  religious  idea,  as  Isaiah  in  the  well-known  33rd 
chapter  represents  him  to  be.  The  reference  which 
these  successive  propositions  bear  to  the  actual  condition 
of  the  Jewish  people,  (the  latter  furnishing  in  fact 
their  connecting  links)  is  clearly  perceptible.  The 
more  palpable  this  condition  of  things  became,  as  the 
fall  of  the  kingdom  approached  and  the  captivity  of  the 
Jews  ensued,  and  as  their  restoration  appeared  more 
imminent,  the  clearer  were  the  predictions  of  prophecy. 
We  shall,  therefore,  not  be  surprised  to  find,  that  the 
second  Isaiah*  puts  forth  these  statements  with  the 
greatest  precision. 

The  third  deduction  from  the  same  view,  is  the  ampli- 
fication by  the  Prophets  of  the  doctrine  of  the  divine 
government  of  the  universe,  and  of  God's  appearing  to 
them,  for  the  express  purpose  of  leading,  by  means  of 
justice  and  truth,  all  mankind  to  moral  perfection;  they 
declare  that  God  ordains  the  destinies  of  all  nations, 
in  accordance  with  His  universal  wisdom.  It  is  God 
who  calleth  upon  people  and  princesf  for  specific  objects, 
who  granteth  them  the  victory,  in  order  to  chastise  the 
iniquity  of  the  conquered,  and  to  humble  the  pride  of 
man;  but  who  prepareth  likewise  the  downfall  of  the 
conqueror,  if  he  misuse  the  success  vouchsafed  unto 

The  judgments  of  God,  the  pm-ification  of  man  by 
their  means,  and  the  re-acceptance  of  the  purified  man, 
are    thus    the    chief   subject-matter    of   the    writings 

*  Vide  ante  note,  p.  93, 

t  Nebuchadnezzar,  as  likewise  Cyrus,  are  "  called  of  the  Lord." 

114  LECTURE    V. 

of  the  prophets ;  the  theme  of  which  they  treat  in  end- 
less modifications.  With  unflinching  courage  do  they 
inveigh  against  all  immorality ;  they  denounce  it  in  all 
its  forms  and  phases ;  and  brand  its  votaries,  whether 
found  among  the  people,  the  priests,  or  the  princes, 
whether  Israelite,  Assyrian,  Egyptian,  Babylonian,  or 
Tyrian.  With  imwearied  hand  do  they  portray  their 
fall,  their  utter  destruction.  Then  they  turn  to  paint 
in  glowing  colours,  how  God  is  found  of  them  who  seek 
Him,  how  He  hath  compassion  on  the  penitent,  and 
blotteth  out  his  transgression.  But  with  deepest  inspi- 
ration do  they  address  themselves  to  the  oppressed  and 
downcast,  and  declare  how  the  Lord,  throned  in  un- 
speakable majesty,  is  nighest  unto  the  broken  in  heart, 
and  turneth  his  sorrow  into  joy,  his  aspirations  into 
fulfilment ;  and  is  his  Saviour  and  Redeemer. 

What  renders  the  Prophets  so  valuable  is,  that  while 
Mosaism  inculcates  the  right  in  fixed  doctrine  and  spe- 
cific rules  of  life,  the  Prophets  bring  general  morality  to 
be  accepted,  set  it  forth  as  the  universal  guide  of 
human  action,  and  insist  upon  the  truth,  that  by  means 
of  it  alone,  can  nations  continue  to  exist,  and  that  with- 
out it  they  must  eventually  decline  and  fall;  that 
neither  force  of  arms,  nor  diplomacy,  is  of  power  to 
sustain  them,  if  moraUty  has  ceased  to  be  active  in  the 
midst  of  them.  The  Prophets  are  the  book  of  the 
peoples;  the  mirror  in  which  they  may  see  their  des- 
tinies clearly  reflected. 

If  we  hastily  review  the  utterances  of  each  prophet 
individually,  we  shall  perceive  that  Isaiah  especially 
enlarges  on  the  Holiness  of  the  Deity.  At  his  sanc- 
tification  for  his^  prophetic  mission,  the  loftiest  accent 
that  greets  his  ear,  is  the  three  times  "  Holy,"^  from  the 
*  Isaiuli  6.3. 


lips  of  the  seraphim.  "  Holy  Lord"  is  the  epithet,  with 
which  he  most  frequently  apostrophises  his  God.  This 
Holy  God  is  sanctified  by  justice  ',  he  who  accepts  His 
judgments,  sanctifies  Him.  Hence  the  Almighty's 
displeasure  at  crime  and  injustice,  His  condemnation  of 
fraud  and  hypocrisy.  Therefore  lie  executeth  judgment, 
causeth  the  proud  to  fall,  and  visiteth  the  froward,  but 
purifieth  by  chastisement.  *  "  When  Thy  law  came  to 
earth,  the  inhabitants  of  the  world  learnt  righteous- 
ness." If  He  be  angry,  he  returneth  from  His  anger, 
and  hath  compassion,  and  guilt  is  expiated.  Isaiah 
says,  t"  God  teareth  asunder  the  veil  that  hideth^  the 
nations;  raiseth  the  covering  that  covereth  all  peoples; 
annihilateth  death,  and  wipeth  the  tear  from  every  eye." 

The  characteristic  of  Ezekiel  is  his  enforcement  of 
the  doctrine  of  God's  unconditional  justice.  The 
judgment  of  God  is  pronounced  on  all  souls.  %  Each 
soul  will  be  judged  individually ;  the  sinful  soul  will 
be  visited  with  death,  i.  e.,  annihilation ;  the  just  with 
life,  i.  e.  salvation.  If  the  just  soul  depart  from  justice, 
and  tm-n  to  evil,  it  will  be  punished.  If  the  wicked 
turn  from  transgression  and  pursue  the  path  of  right- 
eousness, it  will  receive  forgiveness,  and  attain  to 
immortality.  God  is  therefore  prompt  to  forgive ; 
hath  pleasure  in  the  return  of  the  repentant  sinner. 
As  with  individual  so  it  is  with  national  existence. 

But  the  second  Isaiah  is  peculiarly  the  prophet  of 
the  unfortunate,  of  the  oppressed  and  sorrowing.  In 
every  accent  of  tender  love,  he  calls  them  to  God, 
§He  will  feed  his  flock  like  a  shepherd;  He  will  gather 

*  Isaiah  11.  9.  +  Isaiah  25.  7,  8. 

X  So  also  Moses.  — 5  Mos.  24.  16. ;  again,  ibid,  30.  6,  15,  19.— 
A.  M.  G. 

§  Isaiah  40.  11. 

IK)  LECTUllE    y. 

the  lambs  with  His  arm  and  cany  them  in  His  bosom; 
^He  giveth  power  to  the  faint ;  and  to  them  who  have 
no  might  He  increaseth  strength.  He  says  t  "  Ho  every 
one  that  thirsteth^  come  to  the  waters ;  and  he  that 
hath  no  money,  come  ye,  buy  and  eat :  yea,  buy  wine 
and  milk  without  money  and  without  price."  He  con- 
siderS  it  his  especial  vocation  to  preach  good  tidings 
unto  the  meek.  J  "  He  hath  sent  me  to  bind  up  the  bro- 
ken-hearted ;  to  proclaim  liberty  to  the  captives,  and 
the  opening  of  the  prison  to  them  that  are  bound." 

The  thought  of  most  frequent  recurrence  to  him  is, 
§  "  Thus  saith  the  Lord,  The  heaven  is  my  throne  and 
the  earth  my  footstool,  but  to  that  man  will  I  look, 
even  to  him  that  is  poor  and  of  a  contrite  spirit,  and 
trembleth  at  my  word."  But  all  the  glory  of  the  earth 
is  as  nought  in  His  sight,  forl|  ''Behold  the  nations  are 
as  a  drop  of  a  bucket,  and  are  counted  as  the  small 
dust  of  the  balance." 

The  transition  hence  to  the  so-called  Hagiographa,  is 
easily  perceived.  They  form  the  third  division  of  the 
Old  Testament,  and  a  specific  and  necessary  phase  of  the 
development  of  the  religious  Idea.  We  select  for  ex- 
amination the  Psalms,  the  Book  of  Job,  and  the  Pro- 
verbs of  Solomon.  Doubtless  a  part  of  these  writings 
preceded  the  prophets  whose  works  we  possess.  Some 
of  the  Psalms  were  composed  by  David  and  his  contem- 
poraries; of  many  of  the  Proverbs,  Solomon  is  the 
author ;  and,  according  to  my  view,  (founded  upon  the 
style  and  the  description  of  manners  it  contains),  the 
Book  of  Job  dates  from  the  times  of  the  Judges. 
These  productions  are,  for  the  most  part,  unconnected 
with  the  march  of  events  historically  considered,  and 

*  Isaiah  40.  29.      t  55.  1.      J  Gl.  1.      §  66.  1,  2.      |1  40.  15. 


appertain  to  tlie  individual.  But  we  must  recollect 
also,  that  the  indi\ddual  lives  amid,  and  is  influenced 
by,  the  circumstances  of  his  age  and  its  prevailing 
mental  tendencies,  and  that  the  mass  is  but  composed 
of  the  aggregate  of  individual  existences. 

The  characteristic  of  these  writings,  and  one  which 
renders  them  an  integral  and  essential  portion  of  the 
whole  edifice  of  the  religious  Idea,  is  that  they  express 
subjective  religion,  i.  e.,  the  religion  and  piety  of  the 
individual.  Mosaism  and  Prophetism  declare  the  ob- 
jective doctrines  of  God,  the  world,  and  mankind. 
The  Hagiograplia  enlarge  on  the  relation  of  God  to 
the  individual,  and  of  the  individual  to  his  God.  Mo- 
saism in  teaching  the  direct  connection  of  the  Deity 
with  mankind  by  means  of  His  Providence,  of  judg- 
ment, and  revelation,  places  God  and  man  in  direct 
relation  to  each  other.  The  necessary  consequence 
was,  that  man  perceived  this  relation  to  be  not  only 
objective,  (i.  e.  existing  in  the  social  man)  but  he  felt 
himself  also  to  be,  in  his  strict  individuality,  in  inti- 
mate connection  with  his  Maker ;  and  thus  is  evolved 
subjective  religion,  i.  e.,  man  in  his  individual  destiny, 
his  individual  position,  in  fine,  in  his  every  relation; 
and  in  his  conformation,  physical,  intellectual,  and 
moral.  And  this  view  is  perfectly  consistent;  for  the 
all-embracing,  all-seeing  God,  who  hath  divided  this 
universe  into  its  manifold  parts  and  sections,  must  have 
regard,  not  alone  to  the  species,  but  to  the  individual. 
The  'Writings'  thus  portray  the  various  emotions  expe- 
rienced by  the  individual  in  his  relation  to  his  God,  in 
the  ever-changing  scenes  of  life ;  and  the  conceptions 
of  the  Deity  induced  by  these  emotions.  As  the 
writings   of  Moses,    notwithstanding   their   nationality 

118  LECTURE    V. 

of  costume,  are  emphatically  tlic  book  of  mankind, 
the  Prophets  the  book  of  the  nations,,  so  are  the 
^Writings'  the  book  of  the  individual  man.  In  all 
ageSj  therefore^  and  under  all  climes^  have  they  ever 
found  their  way  to  the  hearts  of  all  God-loving  men. 

The   subject-matter    of   these    Hagiographa,  is   the 
suffering  and  struggling  human  being.     In  the  vortex 
of  actual  life,  amid  the  friction,   the  contending  and 
selfish   efforts   of  mankind,  is   he   destined  to  battle. 
He  feels  his  own  strength  to  be  insufficient,  and  seeks 
a  higher   support,  an  immovable   stay,   in   God.     He 
falls,   the    power    of  his   adversaries   overcomes  him. 
He  seeks  more  efficient  help,  firmer  support,  protec- 
tion,   and    safety,    in    God.       This    it    is    of   which 
these   writings   treat;    in   this    consists    subjective   re- 
ligion.    The  richest  in  these  treasures  are  the  Psalms. 
They  are  a  collection  of  devotional  lyrics,  uttering  in 
accents   the   most  touching,  in  forms   and  modes   of 
language   the   most   varied,  the   thoughts,  sensations, 
and  emotions  of  suffering,  struggling  man.     The  ma- 
jority of  these  Psalms  are  prayers  for  deliverance  from 
enemies,  for  punishment  of  the  godless,  who  oppress 
the  innocent.     Thus  the  judgment  of  God  is  sometimes 
invoked,   sometimes  pronounced;   for  He  judges  the 
people,  the   rulers,    and   the  universe,  with  inflexible 
justice.     He  who  trieth  the  heart  and  the  reins,  who 
knoweth  the  secrets  of  all  spirits,  the  all- seeing  Lord, 
He  annihilateth  the  wicked,  is  unto  them  who  trust 
in  Him,  help,  shield,  banner,  saviour,  shepherd,  refuge, 
and  light.      Let  every  one  therefore  trust  in  the  Lord, 
for  He  is  his  help  and  his  shield.     Unto   Him  shall 
men  turn  in  every  peril,  for  He  is  faithful  and  full  of 
compassion.     Men's  unhappiness   is   often   caused  by 


sin,  for  the  foi'givcness  of  which  we  must  pray.  But 
God's  mercy  is  without  limit.  He  remembereth  that  we 
are  but  dust.  He  is  the  protector  of  the  oppressed. 
He  chastisethj  but  deUvereth  not  unto  death.  He  is 
nigh  unto  the  poor  and  wretched,  and  granteth  victory. 

Then  again  the  delivered  pours  forth  his  song  of 
thanksgiving,  for  the  salvation  and  help  that  God  hath 
vouchsafed  unto  him  in  the  hour  of  his  sorest  peril. 
And  with  this  is  connected  the  universal  song  of  praise, 
in  which  God  is  addressed  as  the  Creator  of  the 
Universe,  Almighty  Ruler  of  the  Earth,  the  Revealer 
of  the  truth  which  leadeth  man  to  the  right  path,  the 
Providence,  whose  counsels  are  unsearchable.  Unto 
Him  must  man  submit.  Him  must  he  fear,  love,  and 
worship.  In  Him  must  he  rejoice  and  be  glad.  Him 
must  he  acknowledge  as  the  Eternal  God,  for  ever  and 

The  Psalms  must  doubtlessly  be  understood  from 
the  subjective  point  of  view.  They  are  not  intended 
to  present  us  with  objective  doctrine.  They  express 
the  conceptions,  which  man,  in  the  various  phases  of 
life,  forms  of  the  Deity.  The  pictures  are  often  highly 
coloured.  But  every  chord  of  human  feeling  and 
aspiration  is  touched,  and  the  ever-present  unfailing 
conviction  of  God's  existence  and  government,  pours 
forth  into  the  trembling  heart  of  man,  peace,  security, 
and  consolation.  No  writings  are  more  instructive  and 
interesting  than  these  Psalms,  the  lyric  utterances  of  the 
Jewish  race.  They  may  be  compared  with  the  hymns  and 
odes  of  Pindar,  or  the  chorusses  of  the  Greek  tragedy. 
In  the  latter,  we  have  the  cold  marble,  wrought  by  the 
hand  of  art  into  the  most  perfect  forms,  and  the 
highest  plastic  beauty ;  in  the  former,  the  warm  palpi- 

120  LECTURE    V. 

tating  human  heart,  whence  the  fresh  rapid  stream 
of  life  gushes  freely  forth.  In  these  creations  we  at 
once  clearly  perceive  the  contrast  presented,  and  the 
missions  to  be  respectively  fulfilled,  by  these,  the  two 
most  important  nations  of  antiquity,  Hellas  and  Israel. 
Both  have  exercised  a  powerful  influence  on  mankind; 
the  one  on  temporal  or  human  things,  the  other  on 
things  imperishable,  eternal,  on  the  inmost  being  of 

The  Book  of  Job  treats  the  same  question  in  all  its 
bearings  more  exclusively  and  more  extensively,  viz. : — 
the  actual  life  of  suffering  man,  in  his  relation  to  the 
Deity.  But  what  is  matter  of  feeling  and  impulse  only 
in  the  Psalms,  is  elevated  in  Job  into  a  matter  of  con- 
sciousness, artistically  elaborated  to  a  definite  proposi- 
tion. The  question  itself,  in  its  various  solutions, 
assumes  a  dramatic  form.  Job  himself  opens  the  in- 
quiry — ■ '  Why  does  God  permit  so  much  evil  to  visit 
man,  in  this,  his  brief  pilgrimage  on  earth  V  The 
friends  of  Job  undertake  to  reply  to  this  query,  after 
the  old  accepted  manner.  '  God  is  just  •'  every  affliction 
is  punishment  for  transgression.  Job  refutes  this,  partly 
from  general,  and  partly  from  personal  experience. 
Then  every  sufferer  would  be  indicated  to  be  criminal, 
every  prosperous  man  to  be  a  hero  of  virtue.  The  con- 
trary is  endlessly  manifest,  since  many  known  sinners 
enjoy  immunity  from  suffering,  and  many  sufferers  are 
unconscious  of  guilt,  comparable  with  their  sufferings 
in  intensity.  A  higher  solution  must  be  sought,  which 
God  in  fact  Himself  declares,  viz  :  everything  in  nature 
has  its  fixed  purpose  assigned  to  it  by  God.  Tliis  pur- 
pose is  achieved  by  the  most  appropriate  means.  By 
virtue  of  the  co-operation  ^and  arrangement  of  these 


several  purposes,  nature  exists.  These  designs  are 
proofs  in  themselves  of  the  wisdom  of  the  designer. 
The  inevitable  deduction,  left  by  the  artistic  handling 
of  the  argument,  for  the  reader  himself  to  make, 
although  prepared  in  the  introduction  and  conclusion, 
is  this  : — an  allwise  purpose  is  contained  in  the  vicissi- 
tudes and  sorrows  of  human  life ;  these  last  tend  to  the 
continued  endurance  of  the  race  of  man,  to  the  develop- 
ment of  the  mental  power  by  the  exercise  of  piety  and 
resignation :  thus  is  man  led  by  suffering  to  a  higher 

The  Book  of  Job  presents  a  grand  picture  of  human 
life.  As  to  style,  religious  depth,  and  artistic  per- 
fection, it  has  been,  and  still  remains,  unequalled. 
What  it  contains  and  sets  forth,  is  yet  as  true,  as  un- 
changed, as  though  this  very  day  it  had  first  been 
uttered.  The'same  lamentations  over  the  innumerable 
ills  of  life,  the  same  condemnatory  judgment  upon  the 
fallen,  are  still  heard  from  the  lips  of  selfish  dogmatists. 
But  the  consolatory  inferences  we  draw  at  the  present 
moment  from  this  argument,  are  not  more  striking  nor 
sublime,  than  those  furnished  by  this  glorious  poem. 
With  all  this,  a  spirit  of  humanity  pervades  the  book, 
a  deep  sympathy  for  human  sorrow,  a  knowledge  of 
human  weakness,  touches  of  a  morality  the  most  re- 
fined, and  homage  rendered  to  wisdom ;  all  these  mark 
it  as  the  utterance  of  the  purest  of  human  hearts,  a 
pearl  in  the  bright  coronet  formed  of  the  creations  of 
Israel's  genius. 

While  the  Book  of  Job  rises  to  the  loftiest  sphere  of 
reliffious  meditation,  the  Proverbs  descend  to  the  con- 
sideration  of  practical  daily  life.  The  Proverbs  are,  as 
a  whole,  intended  to  demonstrate  the  applicability  of 

122  LECTURE    V. 

the  law  of  God  to  every-day  life,  and  its  operation  on 
material  existence.  "  The  fear  of  the  Lord  is  the  be- 
ginning of  wisdom/'  is  one  of  the  opening  declarations 
of  the  book,  and  the  enforcement  of  this  teaching  its 
unwearied  aim.  With  this  fear  we  stumble  not — we 
keep  far  removed  from  e\dl — we  fall  into  no  snares — and 
we  lengthen  our  days.  Unshaken  trust  in  God,  firm  as 
the  rock,  is  om^  shield  and  our  fortress,  the  surest  weapon 
of  defence  in  life.  For  God,  who  abhorreth  deception,  but 
who  hath  pleasure  in  him  who  walks  in  innocence, 
blesseth  the  upright,  and  permitteth  him  not  to  fall. 
True  it  is,  that  He  leaveth  not  the  righteous  unproved; 
but  him  whom  He  loveth  the  Lord  chasteneth,  as  a 
father  his  child;  and  He  ordereth  for  fixed  objects, 
in  wisdom  and  mercy,  all  things  aright. 

We  would  here  subjoin  the  following  brief  remarks  : — 
1st.  In  the  Psalms  and  in  the  Book  of  Job  we  meet  with 
repeated  allusions  to  nature.  The  Psalms,  (especially 
the  19th  and  the  104th)  place  Nature  and  Revelation  in 
juxta-position,  and  refer  frequently  to  the  works  of  God 
in  nature,  as  proofs  of  the  Divine  Existence.  The  Book 
of  Job  recurs  again  and  again  to  nature,  and  deduces 
from  her  operations,  the  solution  of  his  argument. 
How  different  is  all  within  the  realms  of  heathenism. 
Considering  nature  as  the  starting  point,  it  evolved, 
from  the  conflict  of  the  various  elements  in  nature,  two 
or  more  gods; — failing  to  perceive  the  unity  of  nature 
herself.  But  the  religious  idea  went  forth  from  God, 
through  Him  recognises  nature  to  be  one,  a  uniform 
single  work  of  the  Creator,  and  perceives  in  nature, 
thus  understood,  its  own  verification.  2nd.  Since  the 
main  theme  of  these  Writings  is  the  individual  and  his 
idiosyncrasy,  they  naturally  revert  more  frequently  and 


more  explicitly  to  the  doctrine  of  the  immortality  of 
the  soul.  On  the  whole,  however,  in  them^  as  in  the 
books  of  Moses  and  the  Prophets,  this  doctrine  is  rather 
set  forth  as  a  pre-acknowledged,  pre-accepted  truth,^ 
than  insisted  on  as  the  basis  of  all  religion,  on  which  the 
superstructure  is  to  be  reared^  and  which  should  be  the 
aim  and  end  of  religious  teaching.  Moses  and  the  prophets 
were  alike  incomprehensible  without  the  pre-conception 
of  the  immortality  of  the  soul ;  they  include  it,  in  truth, 
in  the  doctrine  of  man's  creation  in  the  image  of  his 
Creator.  But  their  aim  and  scope  is  the  'here/  to 
mould  and  form  this  into  an  independent  and  religious 
unity.  The  Hagiographa  are^  in  this  matter,  conceived 
wholly  in  the  Mosaic  spirit.  And  these  two  characteristics 
testify  that  these  Writings^  are  but  offshoots  from  Mo- 
saism  their  great  root,  in  Avhich  are  to  be  found  their 
firm  groundwork  and  significance.  But  they  are,  in 
themselves,  the  unfolding  of  the  religious  Idea  in  the 

Here  then  we  have  reached  the  close  of  the  first 
period  of  the  existence  of  the  religious  Idea,  and  of  its  de- 
positaries and  bearers,  the  Hebrew  people.  That  period 
comprehends  two  phases,— the  founding  of  the  religious 
idea  in  Mosaism,  and  its  conquest  over  heathenism  in 
the  midst  of  the  Jewish  race,  by  Prophetism.  In  this 
victory  it  suflFered,  it  is  true,  the  severance  of  the  idea 
and  the  life ;  but  by  that  severance  it  effected  a  general 
diffusion  of  the  religious  idea,  in  its  destination  for  all 
the  human  race ;  and  further,  it  prepared  its  development 
in  the  individual.  From  this  juncture  we  behold  the 
rehgious  idea  stepping  forth  into  a  larger  arena,  into  the 

*  Besides  being  clearly  expressed  in  passages  too  numerous 
for  citation. — A.  M.  G. 

124  LECTURE    V, 

whole  world  of  man.  At  tlie  same  time,  the  Jewish 
race  quits  the  narrow  houndarics  of  Palestine,  to  spread 
itself,  in  its  wide  dispersions,  over  the  earth.  We  pause 
here.  I  shall  in  my  next  lectures,  proceed  to  the  ex- 
amination of  the  important  subjects  of  Talmudisra,  on 
the  one  hand,  and  of  Christianity  and  Moslemism  on 
the  other. 




The  first  small  colonies  of  Jews  (whose  numbers  were 
subsequently  augmented  by  other  bodies)  that  returned 
from  the  Babylonian  captivity  to  Palestine,  Avere  neces- 
sarily composed  of  those  exiles,  who,  faithful  to  the 
standard  of  the  Prophets,  had  kept  themselves  aloof  from 
the  habits  and  manners  and  the  Idolatry  of  Babylon, 
and  held  fast  to  Mosaism,  though  perhaps  regarding  it 
merely  as  a  peculiarity  of  the  Jewish  race. 

Their  total  alienation  from  Heathenism  was  further 
confirmed  by  the  erection  of  the  Second  Temple,  by  the 
influence  of  the  three  last  prophets,  and  by  the  efforts 
of  the  two  upright  but  somewhat  stem  legislators,  Ezra 
and  Nehemiah.  Holding  official  situations  at  the  Per- 
sian Court,  and  being  thereby  invested  with  something 
of  a  judicial  character,  they  enforced  the  observance  of 
many  municipal  regulations  in  popular  life,  and  intro- 
duced many  ordinances  for  the  re-establishment  and  re- 
organization of  divine  worship. 

Erom  that  moment,  all  admixture  of  heathen  elements 
will  be  found  to  have  wholly  and  finally  disappeared 
from  amid  the  Jewish  race.  Happily,  under  the  mild  and 
tolerant  sway  of  the  Persian  monarchs,  centuries  of 
tranquillity  passed  over  the  heads  of  that  race — centu- 

126  LECTURE    VI. 

ries  of  iaternal  and  external  growth,  during  wliicli  they 
acquired  organic  consistency  and  firmness.  Of  these 
years  of  peace  and  progress,  nothing  can  be  observed, 
since  nothing  is  known  of  them,  nor  did  anything  occur 
in  them  worthy  to  be  recorded.  Even  the  overthrow  of 
the  Persian  monarchy  by  Alexander  the  Great,  caused 
but  a  brief  interruption  to  this  halcyon  interval  of  calm. 
This  small  and  no  longer  independent  nation  could  but ' 
bend  reed-like  beneath  the  world's  mighty  events,  but 
could  not  be  crushed  by  their  pressure.  So  that  the  dis- 
sensions and  conflicts  among  Alexander's  generals  passed 
over  the  land,  like  a  summer  shower,  the  Jews  yielding 
homage  now  to  the  Egyptian  Ptolemies,  now  to  the 
Syrian  SeleucidcC.  The  struggle  in  which  the  Jcavs  them- 
selves were  destined  to  engage,  began  when  the  rest  of 
the  world  had  almost  regained  tranquillity,  and  has  con- 
tinued, with  but  small  interruption,  from  that  moment 
up  to  the  present  day.  The  more  firmly  the  Jews  esta- 
blished themselves  on  the  broad  basis  of  Mosaism,  the 
more  evident  did  it  become  that  it  presented,  not  an 
ideal,  but  a  real  contrast  to  Heathenism,  a  contrast  in- 
herent in  the  very  being,  physical  and  mental,  of  the 
Jewish  race.  The  heathen  world,  restored  to  peace, 
awoke  to  the  consciousness  that  this  antagonism  existed; 
it  took  up  arms  and  combatted  it,  as  for  life  and  death. 
After  Heathenism  had  thus  opposed  the  Religious  Idea 
within  the  Hebrew  race,  and  had  succumbed  to  that 
idea  within  Judaism  itself,  foreign  heathenism  turned 
to  bay,  to  do  battle  with  it  in  the  persons  of  the  Jews, 
then  and  evermore  its  bearers. 

The  first  champion  of  Heathenism  in  the  fight  against 
the  Eeligious  Idea,  was  the  Seleucide,  Antiochus  Epipha- 
nes.  He  sought  to  exterminate, not  the  Jews, but  Judaism. 


He  used  every  means  to  compel  the  Jews  to  bend  the 
knee  before  his  idols.  Then  arose  a  small  band  of 
Jews,  to  do  glorious  battle  in  a  glorious  cause.  Then  it 
was  again  shown  what  a  handful  of  people,  when  bound 
together  by  one  intense  and  animating  principle,  may 
achieve,  even  though  the  power  of  a  world  be  arrayed 
against  them.  As  the  Greeks  fought  against  the  Per- 
sian Colossus,  the  Swiss  against  the  Biu"gundians  and 
and  Austria,  so  fought  the  little  band  of  the  Maccabees 
against  the  host  of  the  Syrian,  ten  against  a  thousand. 
Hurrying  from  victory  to  victory,  they  ere  long  restored, 
not  only  the  religious  idea,  but  also  freedom  and  inde- 
pendence to  their  people  and  country.  Bearing  on  high 
the  trophies  of  this  triumph,  the  Jews  regained  for  a 
time  their  historical  position  as  a  nation  among  the 
nations,  governed  by  native  rulers,  who  soon  exchanged 
the  priest's  mitre  for  the  king's  diadem. 

But  it  was  the  struggle  which  had  quickened  into  pul- 
sation the  life-current  in  the  hearts  of  the  Jews.  Tran- 
quillity once  restored,  the  ruling  families  exhausted  them- 
selves by  mutual  dissensions,  splitting  the  people  into 
parties,  that  attacked  each  other  with  all  the  virulence 
of  fraternal  animosity.  Morality  and  religion  were  thus 
undermined.  The  opposing  factions  themselves  sum- 
moned the  second  champion  of  Heathenism,  the  Roman, 
into  Judea,  which  country  he  would  doubtless  soon  have 
visited  unbidden,  since  it  lay  in  his  path  of  conquest. 

The  people  having  thus  lost  their  internal  self-de- 
pendence, by  means  of  the  disunion  and  conflicts  of 
their  leaders,  submitted  almost  without  resistance  to  the 
yoke  of  Rome.  But  her  rule  degenerated  soon  into 
unheard-of  oppression  on  the  part  of  the  exacting  go- 
vernors, who  transplanted  the  despotism  then  prevailing 

128  LECTURE  VI. 

in  tlie  imperial  court  of  Rome^  to  the  soil  of  the  pro- 
vinces. In  the  Jewish  race  there  yet  dwelt  a  fimcl  of 
strength,  which  had  long  disappeared  from  the  other  de- 
pendent states  of  the  empire.  So  soon  as  discontent 
and  hatred  came  to  prevail  between  the  governors  and 
the  governed,  it  was  impossible  but  that  religious  strife 
should  speedily  ensue.  Everything  heathen  was  ob- 
noxious to  the  Jew,  as  everything  Jewish  was  ludicrous 
and  contemptible  in  the  eyes  of  the  Roman.  To  render 
idolatrous  worship  to  the  statues  of  the  Csesara  in  the 
temple,  was  repugnant  and  impossible  to  the  Jew,  while 
his  incomprehensible  refusal  was  regarded  by  the  Roman 
as  being  prompted  by  a  spirit  of  resistance  only.  The 
igniting  spark  was  not  long  ere  it  fell  on  this  inflam- 
mable heap. 

The  Jews  rose  en  masse  with  desperate  fury  against  th6 
Romans,  and  soon  freed  their  land  from  the  presence  of 
an  enemy,  whose  sway  at  that  very  time  extended  from 
the  Euphrates,  over  the  lands  watered  by  the  Danube, 
thQ  Weser,  and  the  Tweed,  to  the  shores  of  the  Atlantic 
Ocean,  and  from  the  Atlas  Mountains  to  the  sources  of 
the  Nile.  Two  distinct  but  equally  dangerous  circum- 
stances co-operated  to  render  a  war  of  extermination 
inevitable — its  fatal  issue  certain.  The  first  of  these 
was  the  invasion  of  Judaea  by  countless  legions, 
flushed  with  a  long  course  of  conquest  under  the  vete- 
ran generalship  of  Vespasian  and  Titus.  The  second 
and  more  fatal  condition  of  this  impending  ruin,  was 
the  internal  dismemberment  of  the  people,  who,  lacking 
one  ruling  spirit,  were  torn  into  factions  by  their  several 
contending  leaders.  During  the  continuance  of  the  war 
with  the  Romans,  these  rival  chiefs,  some  of  them  ani- 
mated by  the  fiercest  zeal,  others  advocating  submission 


to  the  invading  forces,  had  even  availed  themselves  of 
every  brief  suspension  of  arms  granted  by  the  foreign 
foe,  to  renew  their  T)loody  and  suicidal  domestic  strug- 
gles. In  the  final  conflict,  brilliant  was  the  courage,  in- 
flexible the  firmness,  undaunted  the  perseverance,  and 
heroic  the  spirit  of  self-sacrifice,  displayed  by  the  Jews. 
They  rushed  into  the  burning  temple,  snatched  the 
golden  seats  of  the  priests  from  the  flames,  to  cast  them 
on  the  heads  of  the  besiegers.  More  than  a  million 
Jews  fell  in  this  war;  97,000  were  taken  prisoners. 
Some  of  these  were  put  to  death,  others  sold  as  slaves, 
others  sent  to  work  in  the  mines;  and  others  reserved  to 
be  carried  captives  to  Rome,  and  there  torn  in  pieces  by 
wild  beasts  in  the  public  games.  The  existence  of  the 
Jews  as  a  people  was  annihilated.  But  did  all  this  involve 
the  annihilation  of  Judaism  ?  No  !  in  truth.  Though 
in  many  a  page  of  history  the  designs  of  Providence  are 
legible,  surely  they  are  nowhere  so  clearly  to  be  read,  so 
deeply  to  be  revered  as  in  this  one.  All  other  nations  of 
antiquity  were  to  perish.  The  Hebrew  Race  alone  was 
etei'nally  to  endure.  And  the  conditions  necessary  to 
its  preservation  had  been  long  prepared. 

A  large  portion  of  the  Jews  of  the  captivity  had 
remained  behind,  in  the  countries  washed  by  the  Tigris 
and  the  Euphrates.  After  the  re-establishment  of  their 
brethren  in  Palestine,  they  had  there  formed  themselves 
into  communities.  Their  several  conquerors,  from  the 
time  of  Alexander  doAvnwards,  had  caused  large  colonies 
of  Jews  to  be  transplanted  to  the  cities  they  respectively 
built.  The  internal  dissensions  prevailing  during  the 
closing  years  of  their  national  existence,  had  induced 
many  Jews  to  emigrate  to  other  countries,  long  before 
the    destruction    of  Jerusalem.      Thus    a   wide  net  of 


130  LECTURE    VI. 

Jewish  communities  had  been  gradually  spread  over  the 
then  known  world.  Numerous  bands  of  Jews  had  ga- 
thered themselves  into  communities  in  various  parts 
throughout  the  eastern  countries  of  Asia,  throughout 
the  whole  of  Sja'ia,  Egypt,  and  Cyrene,  Italy  and 
Greece.  Some  had  wandered  into  Spain  and  Gaul,  and 
some  had  advanced  even  beyond  the  Danube  and  the 
Rhine.  The  endurance  of  Jewdom  had  thus  been  long 
ensured.  The  fugitives  from  Palestine  found  every- 
where cities  of  refuge  well  prepared  to  receive  them, 
and  from  them  they  conld  again,  in  their  tm*n,  secure 
others.  The  Jews  had  besides  their  identity  of  race, 
a  characteristic  Avhich  imbued  their  lives  with  a  purport 
peculiar  to  themselves,  and  wholly  distinct  from  that 
of  the  rest  of  the  world,  a  religious  purport.  They 
could  not  therefore,  after  the  loss  of  their  nationality, 
be  amalgamated  with  their  conquerors,  as  other  nations 
had  been,  but  were  forced  universally  to  keep  themselves 
apart  and  self-dependent.  Thus  a  second  time  did  the 
religious  idea  become  the  salvation  of  its  bearers ;  that 
by  means  of  which  the  Jews  achieved  their  own  preser- 

Although  the  dreadful  catastrophe  in  Asia  could  not, 
it  is  true,  at  first  remain  inoperative  on  the  destinies  of 
the  dispersed  Jewish  communities,  yet  the  Jews  in 
Africa  and  Asia  rose  again  and  again  in  active  revolt 
against  the  Roman  dominion. 

After  these  convulsive  and  expiring  efforts  of  the 
love  for  freedom,  in  which  the  lives  of  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  Jews  were  sacrificed,  they  necessarily  lived 
through  a  period  of  peace  and  security.  For  Heathen- 
ism being  itself  in  a  state  of  progressive  dissolution,  had 
no  longer  the  strength  requisite  to  oppose  this  antago- 


nistic  principle  of  Judaism.  At  lengtli  the  Jews  re- 
ceived^ as  did  all  other  conquered  nations,  the  right  of 
Roman  citizenship,  and  began  by  degrees  to  participate 
in  public  life.  The  struggle  was  not  renewed  until 
Christianity  ascended  the  throne  of  Rome.  It  termi- 
nated in  the  entire  isolation  of  the  Jews,  and  their 
expulsion  from  civil  and  municipal  society. 

A  passing  glance  must  now  be  bestowed  on  the  inner 
life  of  Judaism  during  the  second  period  of  Jewish  na- 
tional existence.  Judging  from  external  manifestations, 
we  at  once  perceive  the  absence  of  all  creative  intellec- 
tual power.  Of  this,  all  the  writings  that  have  come 
down  to  us  from  that  period,  give  evidence.  They  con- 
sist, partly  of  the  remnants"^  of  the  past,  such  as  the  three 
last  prophets,  the  book  of  Esther,  and  the  Chronicles ; 
partly  of  imitations  devoid  of  all  originality,  and  there- 
fore preserved  to  us  by  means  of  translations  only,  like 
the  Apocr3^pha ;  and  partly  of  un-Jewish  off-shoots, 
grafted  on  a  Jewish  stem,  like  Daniel  of  the  Asiatic, 
Philo  of  the  Egypto-Greek,  character,  or  of  a  mixtm-e 
of  Greek  and  Roman,  like  Josephus.  But  within  this 
apparent  stagnation  of  Jewish  intellect,  there  was  latent 
and  preparing  to  work  itself  out,  a  new  and  comprehen- 
sive growth  which  had  struck  root  and  shot  forth  its 
branches,  in  the  last  century  before  the  fall  of  Jerusalem, 
although  its  matured  fruit  was  first  revealed  to  the  sight 
of  man  many  centuries  after  that  event. 

It  has  been  seen,  that  early  in  the  annals  of  Judaism 
there  was  introduced  the  severance  of  the  Idea  from  the 

*  SpdtUnge  der  Vergangenheit.  Surely  this  term  cau  scarcely 
be  applied  to  Malaclii,  whose  mission  was  all-important,  since  his 
closing  exhortation,  "  Remember  ye  the  law  of  Moses  my 
servant,"  iv.  4,  joins  indissolubly  the  very  last  with  the  very  first 
link  of  the  great  chain  of  divine  revelation. 


132  LLCTURE    VI. 

Life,  which  in  Mosaism  fonii  a  Unity.    It  has  been  seen 
also  that  Prophetism,  in  fulfilment  of  its  purpose,  had, 
when  the  popular  life  had  become  un-Mosaic,  directed  its 
efforts  to  the  development  of  the  Idea.      Now  that  the 
Jewish  race  had  again  devoted  itself  to  Mosaism,  it  was 
sought  above  all  things  to  impart  to  the  life  a  Mosaic 
character.     The  intellectual  power  of  the  national  mind 
being  at  that  period  exhausted   and  insignificant,  the 
Mosaic  Idea  was    thrust  in  the  back  ground,  and  the 
Mosaic  life  forced  prominently  forward.     But  this  con- 
dition of  things  was,  ere  long,  disturbed  by  two  circum- 
stances.    In  the  first  place,  human  life  can  never  be 
raised  to  a  high  standard,  unless  it  is  animated  by  that 
which  is,  in  the  abstract,  truth.      If  not  so  inspired,  it 
must  become  more  or  less  conventional  and  soulless.  In 
the  second,  there  existed  then  so  great  a  diversity  in  the 
historical  positions   of  the  people,  that  a  national  ob- 
servance   of  the  whole  of  Mosaism  could  not  be  even 
contemplated.     The  result  of  the  first  circumstance  was 
the  strictest  adherence  to  the  letter  of  the  Mosaic  law, 
while  the  Mosaic  idea  was  neither  realized  nor  under- 
stood.    The  consequence  of  the    second  was,  that  the 
popular  every-day  life  came  to  require  numberless  regula- 
tions, nowhere  contained  even  in  the  letter  of  the  Mosaic 
writings.*     Besides,  national  life  had  itself  produced 
national  customs  and  national  views,  which,  though  not 
actually  un-Mosaic,  have  no  real  place  and  foundation  in 
the  writings  of  Moses.     Finally,  what  further  operated 
in  this  direction  is  this,  that  the  law  of  Moses  indicates 
so  much,  for  the  observance  of  which  in  practice  much 
detail  is  required.     Allow  me  to  examine  these  propo- 
sitions somewhat  more  closely. 

*  Their  introduction  was,  in  fact,  an  infringement  both  of  the 
letter  and  the  spirit,  5  Mos.  4.  2. — A.  M.  G. 


The  unfavourable  circumstauces  under  which  the 
Israelites  entered  into  possession  of  the  land  of  Canaan, 
such  as  their  small  numerical  strength,  and  the  vicinity 
of  so  many  hostile  nations,  by  whom  their  possession  of 
every  hand's  breadth  of  territory  was  disputed,  and 
lastly,  their  being  subservient  to  a  foreign  power,  were 
all  so  many  obstacles  to  the  establishment  of  their  polity 
on  the  true  Mosaic  basis,  viz.,  the  equal  division  of  the 
soil.  Though  the  principles  of  entire  personal  fi*eedom 
and  equality  of  civil  rights  were  carried  as  far  as  possible 
into  practice,  yet  by  the  partial  neglect  of  the  Mosaic 
territorial  enactments,  an  un-lNIosaic  tendency  was  im- 
parted to  the  constitution.  This  soon  became  manifest 
in  the  non-observance  of  the  Sabbatical  Year  and  of  the 
Jubilee  in  their  true  spirit  and  signification,  their  cere- 
monial ordinances  being  at  the  same  time  fulfilled.  The 
Mosaic  temple-service  was  strictly  performed,  long  after 
its  true  life  had  become  extinct,  under  the  pressure  of  a 
political  condition  that  had  suggested  other  requirements. 
Family  worship,  assemblages  for  devotional  purposes 
in  all  parts  of  the  country  and  without  the  walls  of  the 
temple,  meetings  for  instruction  and  prelections :  all 
these  were  institutions  for  which  the  Pentateuch  fur- 
nishes no  enactment,  or  for  which,  (for  example,  the 
reading  of  the  law)"^  Moses  provided  after  a  wholly 
different  manner.  Either  these  arrangements  were 
made  irrespectively  of  the  Mosaic  code,  as  in  the  instance 
just  quoted,  or  it  was  sought  to  establish  customs  ana- 

*  The  Pentateuch  fixes  reading  of  the  whole  law  once  in  every 
seven  years  ;t   now,  a  portion  is  read  every  Sabbath. 

t  True ;  that  is,  for  the  assembled  nation  ;  but  its  individual 
study  was  enjoined  on  every  human  being  day  by  day  and  hour 
by  hour  :  need  I  quote  '  Hear  0  Israel !'  etc.  (5  Mos.  6.  4 — 10. 
Compare  also  Joshua  1.  8). — A.  M.  G. 

134  LECTURE    VI. 

logous  to  the  Mosaic  institutions.  Thus^  instead  of 
sacrifices^  the  offering  up  of  certain  prayers  was  enjoined. 
But  this  arrangement  was  so  far  opposed  to  the  Mosaic 
ideal  conception  of  sacrifices,  that  while  they  were  for 
the  most  part  voluntary,  the  prayer  was  offered  by  the 
whole  community,  and  was  fixed  and  obligatory. 

What  were  the  inevitable  consequences  of  these  varying, 
and  in  some  respects,  mutually  counteracting  circum- 
stances? One  was,  the  imconditional  authority  of  the  Mo- 
saic code;  the  other,  its  interpretation  by  uninspu'ed 
organs.  Of  what  nature  Avas  this  interpretation  or  com- 
mentary? It  was  in  part  narrowly  restricted  to  the  very 
letter  of  the  laAv,  and  yet  it  was  a  free  interpretation,  since 
it  included  much  foreign  matter,  which  had  by  its  means 
to  be  referred  to  the  letter  of  the  law,  much  extraneous 
element,  whose  origin  had  to  be  sought  and  found  in 
that  code.  This  appears  to  be  paradoxical,  and  yet  it  is 
not  so  :  a  rational  interpretation  is  directed  to  the  dis- 
covery of  the  true  purport  and  spirit  of  the  text; 
these  once  ascertained,  they  are  admitted  to  be  un- 
changeable. An  interpretation  of  the  letter  only,  has  no 
regard  to  the  rational  signification ;  the  commentator's 
efforts  are  directed  to  the  search  of  something  prede- 
termined upon  as  discoverable  in  the  letter.  TiU  this 
is  found,  the  letter  even  is  freely  handled.''^ 

*  I  select  one  from  mauy  examples.  The  Talmudists  were 
desirous  of  finding  in  the  Scriptures  the  principle  of  deciding  in 
court  and  council,  according  to  the  majority  of  votes.  For  this 
purpose  they  select  from  Exodus  23.  2,  "  Follow  not  the  multi- 
tude for  evil;  testify  not  in  a  matter  of  right  by  complying 
with  the  multitude,  forcing  (blending)  right."  In  this  text,  the 
Talmudists  separated  DOn?  C3''3")  """inS  (after  the  multitude, 
forcing  right)  from  the  preceding  portion  of  the  verse,  and  they 
interpret  these  words  by  "  the  majority  must  be  hoiued  to,'''  where- 
by they  deduce  the  principle  of  deciding  by  the  majority  from  a 
passage  which  rather   conveys   a  contrary  pi-ecept.     It   ought. 


Such  then  was  the  nature  of  that,  which  then  and 
thenceforward  was  to  form  and  fill  the  intellectual  life 
of  the  Jew,  and  which  imparted  to  the  third  phase  of 
Judaism — Talmudism — its  distinctive  and  inalienable 
characteristic.  That  characteristic  was  the  peculiar  in- 
terpretation of  Holy  Writ.  This  interpretation,  Midrasch, 
was  at  one  and  the  same  time  literal  in  respect  of  the 
letter,  and  free  as  regards  the  spirit  and  meaning.  It  was 
also  divided  into  two  distinct  branches  of  inquiry ;  the 
one  was  that  of  the  law,  the  other  that  of  the  doctrinal, 
moral,  and  historical  contents  of  Scripture.  In  the 
latter  division,  it  was  necessary  that  the  interpretation 
should  be  especially  free  and  unfettered ;  this  mode  of 
explanation  gave  rise  to  a  huge  growth  of  moral  ramifi- 
cations. Thus  was  accumulated  an  inexhaustible  store 
of   parables,   metaphors,    fables,    anecdotes,    aphorisms 

before  all,  to  be  remarked,  that  the  supposition  of  a  pious  fraud 
is,  in  this  case,  completely  out  of  the  question,  such  being  im- 
possible in  the  presence  of  the  great  number  of  scholars  to  be 
found  in  an  entire  nation  ;  this  reasoning  is  the  simple  product 
of  the  method  followed  by  the  Talmudists  in  their  consideration 
of  the  subject.  Just  as  unreasonable  would  it  be  to  decry  as  an 
intentional  fraud  the  mji^hical  interpretation  adopted  in  the 
Christian  church,  according  to  which  the  whole  institution  of 
sacrifices  was  mei-ely  typical  of  the  Christian  dispensation,  al- 
though the  verbal  meaning  of  the  text  is  subjected  by  this  mode 
of  interpreting  to  no  less  violence  than  by  the  Talmudists.  In 
like  manner,  the  Talmudists  employ  frequently  a  different  read- 
ing altogether,  notwithstanding  the  authority  of  the  letter,  nay, 
just  because  of  the  letter  in  the  passage  cited ;  for  instance, 
31  hv  is  substituted  for  3")  by,  with  the  view  of  gi\'ing  a  reason 
for  the  formality  (observed  in  courts)  of  requiring  the  vote  of 
the  younger  assessors  before  the  question  was  put  to  the  more 
aged.  (On  this  passage  vide  Rashi,  who  frankly  says,  "The 
Talmudists  have  many  commentaries  on  this  passage,  but  not 
one  agreeable  to  the  sense  of  the  text,  not  one  based  on  the 
words  therein  contained.") 

136  LECTURE    Vi. 

and  proverbsj  which^  under  tlie  name  of  Agada,  con- 
tributed to  the  diffusion  of  worldly  pnidence  and  moral 
wisdom^  and  to  their  circulation  as  current  coin  among 
the  people.  In  the  first  of  these  divisions,  the  Law,  it 
was  indispensable  that  perfect  consistency  with  its 
letter  should  exist  in  the  interpretation.  Certain  rules 
were  therefore  adopted,  and  according  to  them,  the  cases 
were  determined,  in  which,  if  expedient,  the  explanation 
might  be  limited,  and  the  others  in  which,  if  the  rela- 
tive cu'cumstances  demanded  it,  it  might  be  extended. 
By  these  rules  it  was  also  permitted  to  reach  the 
desired  conclusion  by  a  long  series  of  deductions  and 
inferences.  This  set  of  rules,  in  their  collective  form, 
was  called  the  Halacha. 

This  system  was  productive  of  two  direct  results,  of 
which  the  one,  affecting  the  material  life  of  the  Jews, 
may  be  thus  defined.  The  development  of  this  intel- 
lectual phase  must  have  been  free,  as  the  tendency 
must  have  been  natural  to  the  people.  It  induced  the 
formation  of  an  independent  body  of  literati  from 
among  the  people,  who  gradually  forced  the  old  orders 
of  the  priest  and  the  Levite  into  the  back  gTOund. 
This  intellectual  movement  produced  more  mental 
equality  among  the  mass,  or,  to  use  a  recent  phrase, 
the  preponderating  power  of  intelligence.  The  field  of 
inquiry  embraced  by  the  second  division  referred  to  the 
inner  life.  Its  first  condition  was  the  fulfilment  of  the 
Mosaic  life,  in  so  far  as  its  practice  was  possible,  and 
the  amalgamation  of  all  that  had  grown  out  of  the 
popular  habits  and  manners  with  ^material  existence. 
The  smaller  the  portion  of  the  Mosaic  life  of  which  the 
then  circumstances  allowed^  the  observance,  according 
to  its  true  spirit  and  extent,  the  more  rigid  was  the 


adherence  to  the  remnant  of  ordinances  still  observed. 
This  gave  rise  to  the  three  following  consequences : 
1st.  All  that  could  be  obeyed  in  the  ceremonial 
law  was  held  to  be  religion^  its  infringement  to  be 
sin  against  God.  2ndly.  The  law,  as  presented  to  the 
Jew  in  the  code  of  Moses,  was  no  longer  considered 
binding ;  but  it  was  binding  according  to  its  subsequent 
interpretation  by  the  commentators.  3rdly.  In  order 
to  ensure  the  observance  of  the  Mosaic  law,  it  was 
superincumbered  with  restrictions :  the  fulfilment  of 
these  restrictions  was  held  to  be  the  fulfilment  of  the 
Mosaic  code  :'^  a  hedge,  it  was  said,  was  planted  around 
the  laAv.  It  will  be  at  once  perceived,  that  the  laws 
were  thus  multipled  a  hundredfold,  and  a  direction  was 
imparted  to  them  foreign  to  Mosaism.  4thly.  The 
popular  mind  received  and  adopted  the  impression, 
that  everything  in  human  existence,  from  the  most 
insignificant  trifle  in  material  life  to  the  most  important 
action  involving  a  first  moral  principle,  was  equally  to 
be  determined  by  the  law,  was  to  be  found  specifically 
provided  for  in  the  law.  This  gave  birth  to  casuistry, 
or  the  regulation  by  the  law  of  every  possible  indivi- 
dual contingency. 

I  have  thus  attempted  to  place  before  you  the  origin 
and  tendencies  of  Talmudism.  Its  commencement 
dates  from  the  last  century  before  the  fall  of  Jerusalem 
— its  development  and  consohdation  from  the  third — its ' 
close  from  the  sixth,  century  of  the  vulgar  era.  I  shall 
therefore  consider  its  contents  and  purport  in  a  future 

If  we   would  view  the  subject  from  a  higher  point, 

•  Instead,  I  repeat,  of  an  imperative   command  being  thus 
broken,  "  Tiiou  shall  not  add,"  etc.— A.  M.  G. 

138  LECTURE  VI. 

however^  we  must  enquire  what  was  the  real  influence  of 
this  second  phase  of  Jewish  existence,  and  of  the  ten- 
dency of  tlie  Tahnud,  on  the  development  of  the  Reli- 
gious Idea. 

The  solution  of  this  question  is  not  difficult;  for  it 
has  been  shown  that  the  E-eligious  Idea  had  overcome  its 
antagonism,  the  Heathen  idea,  mthin  the  Hebrew  race ; 
and  further,  that  when  the  internal  principle  of  decay 
within  Heathenism  had  prepared  its  dissolution  in  the 
then  civilized  world,  the  Eehgious  Idea  was  destined  to 
step  forth  into  the  general  world  of  man.  The  Divine 
Idea,  as  will  be  presently  seen,  could  in  the  first  ages 
of  its  promulgation,  take  but  partial  hold  of  the  mental 
soil  of  the  human  race.  It  was  necessary  therefore 
that  it  should  be  preserved  in  its  integrity  within 
Judaism,  until  such  time  as  mankind,  prepared  by  in- 
creased civilization  for  its  reception,  should  be  fitted  to 
accept  it,  and  be  imbued  with  it,  entirely  and  universally. 
The  two-fold  mission  was  thus  imparted  to  the  Religious 
Idea ;  first,  to  be  partially  disseminated  among  mankind 
generally — secondly,  to  be  preserved  inviolate  in  the 
very  heart  of  Judaism.  Its  preparation  for  both  these 
conditions  formed  the  second  phase  of  the  popular  exist- 
ence of  the  Jewish  race.  During  this  second  phase 
antiquity  witnessed  the  final  extinction  of  Heathenism. 
The  Religious  Idea  had  meantime  gathered  up  the 
strength  and  the  means  by  which  to  endure,  in  the  midst 
of  Judaism,  for  thousands  of  coming  years.  The  disse- 
mination of  the  Religious  Idea  throughout  the  world 
has  been  eflbctcd  by  means  of  Christianity,  at  a  later 
period  by  Mahomedanism,  and  by  the  dispersion  of  the 
Israelites  over  the  whole  ea»th.  The  preservation  of  the 
Religious  Idea  within  Judaism,  was  secured  by  Talmud- 


ism ;  for  Talmudism  is  but  its  transformatiou  into  the 
chrysalis,  the  enveloping  it  in  the  cocoon,  formed  of  a 
web  of  enactments  for  material  life.  Within  that  web  the 
Religious  Idea  lay  pure  and  unscathed,^  distinct  alike 
from  the  semi-divine  ideas  comprised  in  Christianity  and 
Mahomedanism,  and  from  the  remains  of  Heathenism^ 
then  still  lingering  among  mankind. 

Whoever  recognises  in  the  history  of  man,t  not  an 
entangled  skein  of  accidental  circumstances,  but  in 
truth  a  series  of  cause  and  effect  yet  in  actual  opera- 
tion, according  to  the  pre-ordained  plan  of  an  allwise 
and  divine  Providence,  must  at  once  perceive  that  the 
simultaneous  occurrence  of  the  two  great  events,  the 
rise  of  Christianity,  and  the  dispersion  of  the  Jews,  was 
not  a  fortuitous  coincidence.  He  must,  on  the  contrary, 
be  impressed  with  the  marked  unity  of  purpose  evident 
in  both  these  occurrences,  a  unity,  not  in  their  origin 
and  their  action,  (for  Jerusg-lem  was  not  destroyed  by 
Christianity,  nor  Christianity  diffused  by  Judaism)  but 
in  their  aim  and  result.  If,  according  to  the  clear  and 
unequivocal  declaration  of  the  Prophets,  it  is  ordained 
that  the  whole  human  race  is  to  be  subdued  by  the 
Religious  Idea,  it  is  manifestly  necessary  that  the  deve- 
lopment of  mankind  should  ever  be  left  free  and  un- 
shackled, in  order  that  the  universal  dissemination  of  the 
Religious  Idea  may  be  the  ultimate  fruit  of  that  free 
development.  This  result  could  not  at  once  be  achieved. 
The  acceptance  of  the  religious  idea  must  be  gradual,  as  the 

»  And  like  a  graceful  myttiological  emblem,  destined  one  day 
to  emerge  into  light  and  life,  and  bear  all  spirits  aloft  on  its 
pinions,  to  the  realms  of  eternal  day. — A.M.  G. 

t  Or,  who  is  not,  in  the  words  of  the  poet,  '  The  dark  idolater 
of  chance.' — A.  M.  G. 

140  LECTURK    VI. 

development  of  man  is  progressive  ;  the  ultimate  stage 
of  that  progress  being  its  universal  acceptance,  in  the 
eutireness  and  purity  in  which  it  has  been  preserved  for 
mankind.  The  first  condition  necessitated  its  partial 
introduction,  under  the  forms  of  Christianity  and  Ma- 
homedanism ;  the  second,  the  preservation  of  Judaism 
and  of  the  Jewish  race.  This  destined  preservation  of 
the  Jewish  race  and  the  Religious  Idea,  not  on  one  spot 
of  earth  only,  but  throughout  the  world,  equally  de- 
manded the  dispersion  of  the  Israelites  over  the  habit- 
able globe.  By  the  eye  of  Christianity,  this  dispersion 
was  long  viewed  as  a  curse ;  and  verily  a  curse  it 
was  for  the  individual  outcasts  of  the  Jewish  race, 
who  by  its  means  suffered  unutterable  torments, 
a  martyrdom  both  of  body  and  spirit.  Yet  for  the 
Hebrew  race,  as  its  children  have  long  known,  this  very 
dispersion  was  a  blessing.  Abarbanel,  even  he,  who  in 
his  troubled  pilgrimage,  had  to  fly  from  Spain  to  Por- 
tugal, from  Portugal  to  Italy,  from  Italy  to  Corfu, 
himself  observes, — 'By  means  of  the  dispersion  only 
were  we  saved  ;  for  when  oppressed  by  the  rulers  of  one 
country,  we  have  raised  our  heads,  and  have  been 
preserved  in  another.'  Nay  more  !  this  dispersion  has 
been  fraught  with  blessing  for  all  humanity.  As  depo- 
sitaries of  the  Religious  Idea,  the  Jews  were  and  are 
everywhere  its  irrefutable  visible  witnesses.*  In  respect 
and  on  behalf  of  the  Religious  Idea,  (and  this  our  fur- 
ther investigation  into  the  existing  conditions  of  man 
will  prove  to  demonstration)  they  will  evermore  exercise 
fresh  and  ever-increasing  influence  over  mankind,  until 
that  idea  shall  have  acquired  universal  and  undisputed 
sway  over,  the  mental  being  of  the  human  race.    Amid 

*  Ye  are  my  witnesses,  saith  the  Lord. — Isaiah  44.  3. 


the  vast  revolutions  and  transmutations  tliat  were  im- 
pending over  the  whole  civilized  world,  when  the  migra- 
tions of  the  various  peoples  and  races  changed  the 
entire  face  of  the  known  habitable  globe,  when  the 
senile  and  expiring  nations  of  antiquitj^  were  fast  sink- 
ing into  their  long-prepared  grave,  and  when  a  youthful 
and  vigorous  race  were  destined  to  subdue  the  earth,  it 
would  have  been  impossible  for  the  Israelites  to  have 
maintained  and  defended  their  independent  national 
existence  in  Palestine.  The  Jewish  people,  as  a  people, 
had  also  passed  away.  But  they  did  not  disappear,  as 
other  races  have  disappeared,  from  among  men.  The 
Almighty  had  provided  for  them  a  wholly  new  and 
peculiar  phase  of  being.  His  providence  decreed  that 
the  race  of  Israel  should  arise  in  the  midst  of  all  nations 
to  new  life,  endowed  with  inexhaustible  strength  and 
unconquerable  perseverance.  For  this  new  life,  the 
second  phase  of  the  national  existence  had  been,  both  in 
its  internal  and  external  relations,  an  indispensable 
preparation.  The  wider  the  difference  between  the 
Assyrian  and  Babylonian  captivities,  (in  which  the  Jews 
Avere  transported  collectively  to  one  fixed  place  of  exile) 
and  their  second  and  final  removal  and  dispersion,  the 
clearer  is  it  made,  that  during  the  second  national 
period  the  preservation  of  the  Religious  Idea  was  pre- 
pared and  ensured; — within,  by  means  of  a  concrete 
system  of  material  enactments  derived  from  the  Mosaic 
law — without,  by  the  dispersion  of  the  Jews  before  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem. 

Here  then  it  becomes  necessary  to  consider  Chris- 
tianity in  its  relation  to  Judaism.  But  as  Christianity 
is  the  ground  on  which  the  Jewish  and  the  Heathen 
world  first  came  into  spiritual  contact,  it  is   desirable 

142  LECTURE  vr. 

tliat  we  should  inform  ourselves  somewhat  more  pre- 
cisely as  to  the  state  of  the  Heathen  world  at  that  mo- 
ment. With  a  few  brief  remarks  on  this  subject,  I 
will,  with  your  permission,  close  this  day's  lecture. 

In  what  direction  soever  we  turn  our  inquiry,  we  shall 
at  once  clearly  discern  that  at  this  juncture  all  hitherto 
existing  forms  were  in  a  state  of  decay  or  of  entire  decom- 
position, and  that  no  means  of  resuscitation  or  reformation 
were  at  hand.  The  political  existence  of  all  nations  that 
had  once  played  an  important  and  independent  part  in 
the  world's  drama,  had  been  annihilated  by  the  arms  of 
Rome.  Egypt,  Asia-Minor,  Northern  Africa,  Spain,  Gaul, 
and  Britain  had  been  reduced  to  the  insignificant  con- 
dition of  Roman  provinces ;  only  there,  where  a  youthful 
and  vigorous  race— the  Parthians  and  Germans — poured 
down  from  the  north  and  east,  had  the  arms  of  Rome 
received  a  check.  The  power  of  Rome,  the  mistress  of 
the  world,  began  to  decline.  The  republic  had  been 
transformed  into  an  empire.  To  the  despotism  of  the 
Caesars,  had  again  succeeded  the  uncurbed  personal 
authority  of  the  procurator.  Justice  had  been  displaced 
by  arbitrary  rule,  in  which  dwelt  combined  the  insatia- 
ble avarice  of  individuals,  and  the  senseless  and  profane 
deification  of  the  emperor. 

Heathenism  had  known  but  two  classes — rulers  and 
slaves;  even  the  mucli  vaunted  freedom  of  the  Athen- 
ians and  Spartans  was  but  the  freedom  of  the  dominant 
families ;  and  of  these,  the  masses  of  the  population 
were  the  bond-men.  The  propitious  moment  at  which 
the  Roman  plebeian  succeeded  in  curbing  the  absolute 
rule  of  the  patricians,  laid  a  subject  world  prostrate  at 
the  feet  of  the  citizen  of  Rome.  This  degeneracy 
reached  its  extreme  point  during  the  imperial  rule  of 


the  Caesars.  Save  emperors  and  slaves,  nought  re- 

The  political  world  was  transformed  into  a  multitude 
of  disconnected  particles,  an  assemblage  of  men  devoid 
of  freedom,  of  organization,  and  wholly  governed  (as 
may  be  seen  from  the  elections  and  depositions  of  the 
Emperors  by  the  Praetorian  Guard)  by  unbridled  passion 
and  brute  force.  Such  was  the  ultimate  result  of  the 
social  experiment,  in  that  antiquity  which  had  so 
variously  operated  on  man  in  his  political  relations. 
That  a  boundless  immorality  would,  in  such  a  condition 
of  things,  gain  entire  ascendancy  over  society,  is  evident. 
The  pleasures  of  the  senses,  and  the  possession  of  the 
means  by  which  to  ensure  their  enjoyment,  were  the 
sole  incentives  to  action.  Sensual  excess,  an  indulgence 
of  the  appetites  bordering  on  insanity,  and  such  as  the 
world  has  never  since  beheld,  covetousuess,  extortion, 
legacy-hunting  denunciations ;  these  comprised  the 
whole  range  of  social  activity.  The  moral  sense  of  man 
was  dead. 

There  stood  Heathenism  sunken  and  depraved,  an 
object  of  ridicule  and  contempt  in  the  sight  of  its  own 
sons,  a  senseless  drama,  played  by  soulless  actors.  Who- 
ever reads  the  coarse  but  biting  satires  of  Lucian,  and 
at  the  same  time  calls  to  mind  the  worship  offered  to 
the  degenerate,  yet  deified  emperors,  as  though  they 
had  indeed  become  Gods,  will  at  once  discern  in  such 
things  the  decomposed  elements  of  a  decayed  organism. 
Philosophy  had  a  like  fate;  for  the  philosophic  con- 
sciousness of  mankind  must  truly  have  fallen  to  the 
lowest  ebb,  when  so-called  philosophers  were  the  most 
cringing,  the  most  fawning  and  abject  flatterers,  who 

144  LECTURE    VI. 

clothed  in  flowery  and  figurative  phrases  their  advocacy 
of  the  most  shameless  scepticism,  the  lowest  morality. 

What,  save  utter  despair,  could  result  from  such  a 
state  of  being  ?  When  sensual  indulgence  has  reached 
the  point  of  exhaustion  and  satiety,  a  higher  yearning 
makes  itself  felt ;  the  more  keenly  and  bitterly,  the 
smaller  the  power  left  in  the  bm-nt-out  embers  of  the 
sold,  to  satisfy  her  own  aspirations  after  light  and  life. 
Doubt  fills  the  spirit  with  deepest  sadness,  with  bitter- 
est anguish  at  the  sense  of  its  own  nothingness.  Then 
the  slave  desires  enlargement.  If  earthly  freedom  be 
denied  him,  he  stretches  forth  his  hand  to  Heaven,  and 
seeks  an  imagined  spiritual  liberty  on  High.  Even  the 
most  shameless  parasite  despises  him  before  whom  he 
bends,  gnashing  his  teeth  and  muttering  to  himself, 
'  Had  I  but  your  possessions,  thus  should  you  render 
obeisance  unto  me.'  For  all  these  longings,  all  these 
aspirations,  antiquity  could  offer  nought,  no — nought; 
could  yield  no  satisfaction.  For  under  the  dominion  of 
Rome,  and. the  degeneracy  of  the  other  nations,  Art 
even  she  that  had  been  the  peculiar  creation  and  attri- 
bute of  antiquity,  had  wholly  declined. 

One  only  nation  still  existed,  in  whom  there  yet  lay 
a  vigorous  germ,  a  strong  element  of  life  and  being — 
the  Jews,  Avitli  the  Religious  Idea.  This  idea  passed 
from  Judaism  into  Christianity ;  and,  arrayed  in  this 
garb,  entered  the  general  world  of  man.  She  thus 
received  the  worn-out  old  world  in  her  maternal  em- 
brace, mitigated  the  death-struggle  for  antiquity;  and 
though  doubtless  no  longer  wearing  her  previous  aspect, 
arose  with  the  fresh  morning  dawn,  in  the  midst  of  the 
new  races  of  the  earth. 



It  is  not  without  some  hesitation  that  I  have  undertaken 
to  investigate  the  subject  of  which  it  is  this  day  my 
duty  to  treat,  viz._,  the  relation  of  Christianity  to  Ju- 
daism. By  every  earnest  thinker,  the  passing  judgment 
on  that  held  by  the  professors  of  creeds  different  from 
his  own  to  be  the  holiest  and  the  highest,  must  ever 
be  a  matter  involving  seriousness  and  deliberation, 
amounting  almost  to  reluctance.  That  Christianity 
cannot  be  viewed  by  a  Jew  in  the  light  in  which  it  is 
viewed  by  a  Christian,  is  self-evident.  That  he  should 
so  vievi  it  will  not,  I  am  sure,  be  expected ;  since  if 
he  could,  he  woidd  not  be  a  Jew.  To  omit  this 
branch  of  our  enquiry  is  impossible.  The  method  we 
have  adopted  in  tracing  the  course  of  development 
taken  by  the  religious  idea,  renders  it  indispensable  that 
its  entrance  into  the  wide  arena  of  the  world  of  man 
under  the  form  of  Christianity  should  be  clearly  eluci- 
dated; or  this  very  matter, — the  development  of  the  re- 
ligious idea, — would  be  but  imperfectly  understood. 

Every  candid  seeker  after  the  truth  within  the  range 
of  our  present  enquiry,  cannot  abstain,  if  a  Jew,  from 
closely  examining  into  Christianity ;  and  cannot  fail,  if 
a  Christian,  to   desire  acquaintance  with  the  estimate 


formed  of  the  Cliristian  system  by  the  Jewisla  mind 
according  to  the  Jewish  standard.  While  therefore 
strictly  adhering  to  the  plan  hitherto  pursued  in  these 
Lectures,  and  examining  Christianity  according  to  the 
premises  I  liaA'e  laid  down_,  I  can  rest  in  the  confident 
assurance  that  my  respected  hearers  must  have  already 
become  convinced  of  the  earnest  desire  by  which  I  have 
been  actuated,  to  judge  impartially,  and  according  to 
the  historical  and  objective  standard  only.  The  en- 
lightened members  of  all  religious  denominations  have 
assuredly  in  this  era  gone  so  far  as  to  have  attained  to 
the  con\iction,  that  by  free  and  general  enquiry  only 
can  a  knowledge  of  truth  be  acquired ;  and  that  to 
suppress  utterances  and  enforce  silence,  in  order  to 
uphold  any  system,  can  have  but  the  effect  of  precipi- 
tating its  ruin. 

Much  however  depends  on  the  mode  in  which 
judgment  is  pronounced.  Whenever  opinions  are 
formed  in  a  spirit  of  animosity,  malignity,  exclusion, 
and  depreciation,  they  should  be  received  with  distrust, 
or  rejected  with  firmness.  Such  defects  are  in  them- 
selves evidences  of  immature  judgment;  for  truth, 
invested  with  her  highest  attributes,  cannot  hate  and 
condemn,  she  can  but  correct  and  instruct.  Christi- 
anity could  never  be  hated  by  a  true  Jew,  who  knows 
it  to  be  a  great  off-shoot  of  his  own  stem. 

You  must  now  permit  me  in  the  first  place  cursorily 
to  review  the  ground  already  traversed ;  to  re-examine 
the  foundations  already  laid,  on  which  the  superstruc- 
ture is  to  be  reared.  It  has  been  seen,  that  ever  since 
the  promulgation  of  Mosaism  up  to  the  period  at  which 
we  have  arrived,  the  religious  idea  and  the  human  idea 
had  been  continuously  and  mutually  antagonistic.    The 


human  idea,  starting  from  the  ego,  or  principle  of  self, 
had  thence  proceeded  to  nature  and  her  operations,  in 
order  to  ascertain  their  action  on  man.  Thus  a  dual- 
istic  principle  was  soon  declared  to  prevail  in  her,  by 
the  human  idea  5 — existence  and  non-existence, — growth 
and  decay.  Then  a  third  and  modifying  power  was  sought, 
and  the  conception  formed  of  the  Godhead  was  that  of 
powers  held  by  three  or  more  divinities.  Such  are  the 
Sanzai  of  the  Chinese ;  the  Brama,  Vischnu,  and  Siwen 
of  the  Indians ;  the  Ormuzd,  Ahriman,  and  Zeruane- 
Akrene  of  the  Persians.  Finally,  the  human  idea  came 
itself  to  detect  the  utter  nothingness  of  these  concep- 
tions, and  thus  prepared  its  own  dissolution.  Such 
was  the  process  all  antiquity  passed  through,  from  the 
Indians  down  to  the  Romans. 

In  the  opposite  principle,  the  religious  idea  as  set 
forth  in  Mosaism  predicates  a  God  before  known  by 
revelation.  This  God  is  an  absolute  existence,  a  holy, 
perfect,  eternal  and  supermundane  being,  the  Creator  of 
the  world,  as  the  unity  of  all  specialities.  This  one  and 
only  God  formed  man,  as  the  chief  of  those  specialities, 
to  be  a  unity  composed  of  body  and  spirit^  endowed 
with  a  soul  created  in  the  image  of  God.  God  sustains 
the  universe ;  indirectly^  by  means  of  the  great  laws  of 
nature,  on  which  He  has  set  it  forth ;  directly,  in  His 
relation  to  the  God-like  human  spirit,  as  man's  Provi- 
dencCj  Judge,  Pardoner,  and  Revealer.  The  highest 
principle  of  morals  is  declared  by  Mosaism  to  be,  '  Man 
shall  be  holy,  as  the  Lord  his  God  is  holy.'  This  holi- 
ness is  to  be  manifested  in  love  to  God,  love  to  his 
neighbour,  and  in  the  control  exercised  by  man's 
moral  consciousness  over  his  physical  and  temporal 
desires.       Mosaism     makes    imperative    on    man    the 


148  LECTURE    VII. 

practice  of  justice  and  charity,  aud  renders  tlie  claim  to 
the  latter  the  inalienable  right  of  the  poor.  Human 
society  was  established  by  Mosaism  on  the  basis  of 
personal  freedom,  equality  of  right,  and  all  possible 
equality  of  possession.  The  unity  of  the  life  and  of  the 
idea  was  set  forth  by  Mosaism,  which  determined  the 
conditions  of  a  life  imbued  with  the  religious  idea,  of  a 
truly  religious  '  here'  below,  complete  and  entire.  Yet 
that  in  the  Jewish  people,  as  in  all  peoples,  the  human 
and  natural  should  become  active,  was  inevitable. 
Prophetism  was  therefore  compelled  by  stern  reality,  to 
sever  the  life  from  the  Idea,  in  order,  from  out  the 
midst  of  the  heathen  life  of  the  Jewish  race,  to  conduct 
the  Idea  to  safety  and  victory.  By  this  severance,  Pro- 
phetism further  prepared  the  religious  idea  for  its 
destined  dissemination  throughout  mankind.  After  the 
religious  idea  had  overcome  the  heathenism  within  the 
Jewish  race,  it  was  necessary,  in  order  to  its  obtaining 
a  like  victory  over  the  heathenism  prevailing  among 
mankind  generally,  that  it  should  introduce  itself  into 
that  general  world  of  man.  This  introduction  could 
be  effected  only  according  to  the  measure  and  degree 
of  free  development  attained  by  the  human  race. 
Though  antiquity  had  been  prepared  by  its  previous 
process  of  dissolution,  for  the  acceptance  of  the  religious 
idea,  since  its  vitality  was  wholly  exhausted,  yet  that 
acceptance  could  be  but  partial.  For  the  develop- 
ment of  man's  being  was  yet  too  imperfect,  to  fit  him 
to  be  the  recipient  of  the  religious  idea,  whole,  pure, 
and  entire.  Christianity  is  virtually  the  entrance  of 
this  semi-religious  idea  into  the  Western,  as  Moslemism 
is  its  introduction  into  the  Eastern,  world.  To  make 
good  this  assertion  is  our  present  task. 


In  its  execution,  we  sliall  have  especially  to  direct  our 
attention  to  the  two  first,  yet  distinct  stages  of  Christi- 
anity: the  first,  its  birth  within  Judaism  itself;  the 
second,  its  introduction  into  the  disorganised  world  of 
Heathenism.  The  first  point  to  be  considered  is — How 
and  in  what  manner  did  Christianity  take  its  rise  in 
Judaism?  For  the  mode  of  its  origin  must  have 
mainly  determined  its  whole  subsequent  character.  It 
has  been  shown,  that  at  the  period  at  which  Christi- 
anity took  its  rise,  the  mental  activity  of  Judaism  had 
assumed  a  direction  contrary  to  that  previously  imparted 
to  it  by  prophetism.  The  development  of  the  re- 
ligious idea  had  been  the  achievement  of  prophetism. 
The  course  now  pursued  was  the  elaboration  of  a 
vast  code  of  material  laws,  in  which  was  to  be  em- 
bedded the  religious  idea,  in  order  to  preserve  it 
unscathed  for  a  distant  future,  and  to  protect  it  from 
the  vicissitudes  attendant  on  the  impending  dispersions 
of  Jewdom.^  All  important  as  we  at  once  admit  this 
material  code  to  have  been,  for  the  historical  progress 
and  preservation  of  the  religious  idea,  it  is  nevertheless 
evident,  that  a  life  so  replete  with  the  observance  of 
rites  and  ordinances,  when  deriving  no  aliment  from 
the  inward  and  natural  piety  of  its  followers,  must  have 
degenerated  into  a  course  of  forms  and  ceremonies,  of 
assumed  sanctity  and  hypocritical  fanaticism. 

Such  a  course  do  the  prophets  indicate,  in  their 
denunciations  against  the  empty,  soulless  and  degraded 
sacrificial  worship.  Amid  the  depravity  that  prevailed 
among  the   Jewish   people   at    the   fall    of  Jerusalem, 

*  No  one  can  here,  it  appears  to  me,  form  a  post-factum 
judgment  of  what  would  have  been  the  result  of  adherence  to 
the  Mosaic  code. — A.  M.  G. 

150  LECTURE    VII. 

amid  a  moral  degeneracy  to  which  the  Talmudic  writers 
allude,  this  fact  must  have  become  doubly  manifest. 
The  Pharisees  of  that  period,  a  body  openly  condemned 
by  the  Talmud  also,  were  the  organs  of  this  exaggerated 
and  caricatured  ritual. 

That  this  excessive  and  preponderating  share  in 
human  life,  yielded  to  the  forms  of  religion,  that  their 
abuse  and  not  their  use,  should  bring  about  their  re- 
jection and  the  renewed  enforcement  of  the  idea  only, 
was  natural.  In  obedience  to  the  law  of  our  nature, 
according  to  which  one  extreme  is  made  to  generate 
another  and  opposite  extreme,  the  wholesale  abrogation 
of  the  ritual,  and  the  re-establishment  of  the  undivided 
sway  of  the  idea  and  the  idea  only,  became  the  mental 
striving  of  the  period  under  review.  And  in  truth,  in 
this  alternate  production  by  one  extreme  of  its  contrary 
extreme  are  involved  the  necessary  conditions  of  all 
human  progress.  The  rise  of  Christianity  in  the  midst 
of  Judaism  may  therefore  simply  and  justly  be  defined 
to  be  the  effort  of  the  human  mind  to  restore  validity 
to  the  Idea,  as  opposed  to  the  form.^ 

Prophetism  had  placed  the  Idea  in  opposition  to 
Heathen  life,  and  had  abstained  from  insisting  on  the 
duty  of  a  religious  life,  only  by  reason  of  the  want,  in 
the  prophetic  age,  of  a  due  field  for  its  exercise.  But 
at  the  period  we  arc  now  occupied  in  considering, 
idealism,  going  beyond  just  limits,  had  become  opposed 
in  its  tendencies  to  that  religious  life  even,  of  which 
the  internal  essence  was  the  religious  idea,  and  which, 

»  I  adduce  as  illustrative  of  this,  the  repeated  allusions  made 
in  the  first  Gospel  to  the  principal  commandments  (those  of  the 
decalogue)  as  containing  the  essence  of  i-eligion. 


in  its  external  development  only,  threatened  to  de- 
generate into  empty  rites. 

This  produced  a  two-fold  effect.  First,  Christianity 
remained  inoperative  within  Judaism  ;  because  all  that 
Christianity  had  to  offer  in  the  dominion  of  the  spiritual, 
Judaism  possessed.  All  that  Christianity  opposed — the 
Law — was  so  interwoven  with  the  mental  constitution  of 
the  Judaism  of  that  age,  as  to  be  a  necessity  of  its 
nature,  and  the  condition  of  its  future  existence.  Again, 
Christianity,  in  its  effort  to  render  the  Idea  alone  valid 
and  influential,  being  repelled  by  Jewish  life,  withdrew 
further  and  further  from  actual  life,  and  laid  hold  of 
and  pursued  the  Idea  exclusively. 

The  separation  between  the  Idea  and  the  life,  which 
in  Prophetism  developed  the  former  at  the  cost  of  the 
latter,  and  in  Talmudism  developed  the  latter  at  the 
price  of  the  former,  achieved  in  Christianity  its  final 
and  entire  result.  This  final  result  was,  that  it  deter- 
mined the  whole  character  of  Christianity;  and  it 
likewise  determined  the  issuing  forth  of  Christianity 
out  of  Judaism.  This  proposition  will  be  fully  con- 
firmed by  a  close  observation  of  Christianity,  in  the 
early  stages  of  its  growth  and  progress.  In  its  first 
utterances,  Christianity  betrays  no  opposition  to  the 
law  of  Moses,*  but  insists  on  a  spiritual  acceptation.t 
Later,  it  renounces  allegiance  to  the  law,  and  limits 
adherence  to  the  belief  J  Finally,  it  avows  itself  opposed 
to  the  law  and  combats  it.§     From  the  point  of  view  to 

*  '  Think  not  I  am  come  to  destroy  the  law  or  the  prophets  . . . 
I  am  not  come  to  destroy  but  to  fulfil.  For  verily  I  say  unto  you, 
Till  heaven  and  earth  pass  one  jot  or  one  tittle  shall  in  no  wise 
pass  from  the  law  tiU  all  be  fulfilled.' 

t  As  in  relation  to  the  Sabbath. 

+  The  synod  of  the  apostles  in  Jerusalem. 

§  Particularly  in  the  history  of  the  apostles  and  in  the  Epistles. 

153  LECTURE   vir. 

which  we  in  our  age  have  attained,  it  is  easy  for  us  to 
perceive  the  necessity  of  this  course  of  events.  For  by 
means  only  of  its  total  severance  of  the  Idea  from 
Jewish  life,  was  the  entrance  of  the  Idea  into  the 
Heathen  world  rendered  possible. 

This  however  did  not  prevent  Christianity  from  being 
compelled,  in  its  subsequent  course  of  development,  to 
elaborate  the  idea  only,  and  to  cast  actual  life  wholly 
on  one  side.  Christianity,  in  fact,  denied  all  independent 
existence  to  our  earthly  phase  of  being,  took  refuge  in 
the  world  to  come,  and  considered  the  *  here '  in  its 
terrestrial  relations,  as  inherently  depraved. 

Life  on  earth,  according  to  the  Christian  system,  is  a 
condition  of  bondage  of  the  immortal  spirit,  that  waits 
and  longs  for  its  enlargement  after  death.  It  trans- 
mutes finite  life  out  of  itself,  to  a  sphere  beyond — to 
a  life  Hereafter.  It  places  the  standard  of  human 
action  in  the  world  to  come,  and  measures  human  action 
in  this  world  after  that  ideal  standard.  Secondly,  ac- 
cording to  the  Christian  system,  all  things  actual  were 
of  necessity  self- condemned,  and  their  place  in  human 
aspiration  filled  by  an  ideal,  which,  transcending  the 
sphere  of  humanity,  carried  man  beyond  and  out  of 
himself  It  followed,  that  for  active  exercise  of  the 
right  and  active  resistance  to  wrong,  Christian  morality 
substituted  passive  endurance ;  for  control  exercised  by 
the  moral  consciousness  of  man,  humility ;  for  reason- 
able enjoyment,  self-denial  and  renunciation.  Christi- 
anity was  thus  forced  to  admit,  that  the  religion  of  the 
individual,  and  not  of  society,  was  its  especial  concern. 
It  treats  only  of  the  individual  man's  conduct,  in  re- 
lation to  his  fellow-man  individually.  It  is  the  religion  of 
the  individual,  the  highest  form  of  subjective  religion. 


and  closely  related  to  the  Hagiographa."^  Human 
society,  as  such,  exists  not  for  Christianity.  Of  this 
principle,  the  precepts,  '  Give  unto  Csesar  that  which  is 
Csesar's,'  and  '  My  kingdom  is  not  of  this  world,'  offer 
the  indirect — as  the  doctrine  of  unconditional  submission 
to  all  the  powers  that  be,  repeatedly  to  be  met  with  in 
the  Epistles,  offers  the  direct  exemplification.  To  this, 
history  furnishes  sufficient  testimony.  For  when  Christi- 
anity existed  in  all  its  pristine  vigour,  it  called  into  being 
the  numerous  companies  of  anchorites,  hermits,  and  de- 
votees, who  during  life  and  after  death,  were  revered  as 
saints;  it  produced  conventual  and  monastic  institutions; 
and  the  spirit  it  breathed  made  the  perfect  Christian's 
life,  ever  to  consist  in  withdrawal  from  the  world  of  man, 
in  a  sublimating  devoteeism  that  removed  him  out  of 
and  above  the  world  of  man,  and  in  the  renunciation  of 
temporal  things.  On  human  society  again,  as  such, 
Christianity  then  exerted  no  marked  influence.  For 
even  when  she  ascended  the  imperial  thrones  of  Rome 
in  the  persons  of  the  emperors  of  the  East  and  West, 
notwithstanding  their  reputed  devotion  to  the  new  faith, 
their  sovereign  rule  exhibited,  as  before,  alternations 
of  abject  weakness  and  the  most  unscrupulous  despotism. 
Feudalism  also  developed  itself  in  Germany,  after  the 
introduction  of  Christianity  into  that  state,  previously 
the  home  of  freedom  ;  and  Feudalism  is  of  all  institu- 
tions, the  one  most  thoroughly  opposed  to  every  funda- 
mental principle  which  Mosaism  had  advanced  as  the 
basis  of  human  society.  Finally,  the  later  mutations 
in  the  world  have  sprung  from  elements  equally  inimical, 
in  their  nature  and  action,  to  Christian  dogma. 

But  Christianity  had  thus  come  to  present  a  complete 
contrast  to  Mosaism.    The  dominant  principles  of  action 
*  See  Lecture  V. 

154  LECTURE    VII. 

in  Mosaism  were,  the  unity  of  the  idea  and  the  life ;  a 
religious  life  on  earth,  lived  by  man,  fully  endowed  with 
all  his  rights  as  an  independent  human  being.  Moses, 
and  also  the  Prophets  and  Writings  in  his  spirit, 
presupposed  the  immortality  of  a  soul  created  in  the 
image  of  God,  to  be  an  accepted  truth,  but  did  not 
make  it  the  sole  lever  of  human  action,  the  sole  end  and 
aim  of  human  existence.  Mosaism  declared  human 
life  to  have  its  own  definite  and  independent  object ; 
it  considered  man  as  man,  as  a  member  of  the  great 
national  family ;  while  Christianity  regarded  him  only 
as  a  nursling  for  futurity.  Mosaism  further  sought  to 
give  to  societ}^  the  basis  of  religion,  and  therefore 
insisted  upon  equality  of  rights,  personal  freedom,  and 
all  possible  equality  of  possession,  as  positive  and  im- 
mutable obligations  of  religion.  The  spirit  of  these 
enactments  was  of  such  power,  that  notwithstanding 
the  mutations  and  hardships  of  later  ages,  the  equality 
of  every  member  of  the  Jewish  polity  remains  still  an 
active  principle  of  Judaism."^  Christianity  regarded  all 
municipal  concerns  as  irrelevant  to  religion.  Although 
the  Mosaic  theory  of  the  equality  of  all  members  of 
the  human  family  had  been  retained,  nothing  had  been 
done  to  accomplish  its  realisation,  because  Christianity 
had  transferred  the  centre  around  which  its  activity 
was  to  radiate,  to  a  celestial  existence. 

It  was  doubtless  this  attribute  of  Christianity,  which 
imparted  to  it  its  especial  fitness  for  transplantation 
into  the  exhausted  soil  of  Heathenism.  It  met  the 
requirements  of  the  Heathen  world,  whose  depressed 

*  Even  in  an  age  when  wealth  was  all  important  to  a  Jew,  it 
was  deemed  honourable  for  the  richest  Jew  to  unite  his  daughter 
in  marriage  with  a  poor  but  learned  man. 


condition  rendered  nouglit  more  welcome  to  tlie  op- 
pressed and  despairing  race  of  man^  than  translation  to 
a  sphere^  in  which  earth  would  be  forgotten  amid  the 
celestial  joys  displayed  to  the  longing  gaze  of  faith. 
Nought  could  be  more  welcome,  amidst  the  prevailing 
sla\dsh  subjection  and  degeneracy,  than  a  '  Kingdom  of 
Heaven/  a  bright  realm,  Avhere  all  that  was  crooked  on 
earth  would  be  made  straight,  where  as  compensation 
forthe  fleeting  joys  renounced  here  below,  the  spirit  would 
reap  a  rich  harvest  of  eternal  bliss.  Pohtically  to  effect 
this  change  presented  no  difficulty,  as  the  whole  state 
could  be  made  to  pass  in  a  night  from  Heathenism  to 
Christianity.  Christianity  having  been  thus  evolved 
from  Judaism,  the  second  point  to  be  considered  is — 
'  What  form  did  Christianity  assume  within  Heathen- 
ism?' Primary  Christianity  while  retaining  its  close 
affinity  to  Mosaism,  must  here  be  dismissed  from 
our  thoughts,  and  our  attention  directed  to  historical 
Christianity.  Beginning  Avith  the  Gospel  of  St.  John 
and  the  Epistles,  we  must  mark  its  growth  into  a 
Christian  Church,  its  assumption  of  the  fixed  dogma  of 
its  several  successive  forms  of  Roman  Catholic,  Greek 
Catholic,  and  finally  of  the  orthodox  Protestant  Chm*ch.* 
The  more  clearly  defined  our  conception  of  the 
acceptance  by  the  religious  idea  of  the  principle  of  the 
freedom  of  human  development,  the  more  natural  will  it 
appear  to  us,  that  Christianity,  wliile  introducing  that 
idea  into  the  heathen  world,  was  so  acted  upon  by 
Heathenism,  as  to  cause  it  to  amalgamate  with  itself 

*  One  important  phase,  a  product  of  modern  times,  our  author 
omits  to  mention,  '  The  Unitarian.'  Is  not  the  Christian  vessel 
following  the  same  course  as  that  of  Judaism,  ascending  the 
stream,  till  it  reaches  the  fountain  of  its  birth  ? — A.  M.  G. 

156  LECTURE    VII. 

some  elements  of  the  human  idea.  New  forms  cannot 
displace  old  forms  of  thought^  without  in  some  respects 
being  assimilated  with  the  old  forms.  Man,  in  accept- 
ing into  his  mental  constitution  the  new^  does  not 
wholly  and  at  once  cast  out  the  old.  The  new  enters 
into  combination  with  the  old.  This  is  the  process  of 
transformation,  as  carried  on  by  and  in  individual  man. 
Can  that  of  a  whole  age  be  less  progressive  ?  Let  us 
examine  this  matter  somewhat  more  narrowly.  Chris- 
tianity carries  with  it  out  of  Mosaism  the  knowledge  of 
the  unity  of  the  Godhead,  the  omniscient  Creator  of  a 
universe  upheld  by  Him,  by  means  of  the  great  laws  of 
nature  on  which  He  set  it  forth.  This  general  view 
was  preserved  in  Christianity  as  the  groundwork  of  its 
system.  In  so  far  then,  it  was  the  means  by  which 
the  diffusion  from  out  of  Judaism,  of  the  religious  idea 
among  mankind,  and  its  victory  over  heathenism,  were 
achieved.  But  the  human  notion  of  disunion  and  of  a 
third  and  mediating  power,  was  too  firmly  fixed  in  the 
minds  of  men,  not  to  re-act  upon  the  rehgious  idea.  In 
the  midst  therefore  of  the  conception  of  the  existeuce 
of  the  One  only  God,  as  a  Unity,  soon  came  to  light  in 
combination  with  it,  that  of  a  threefold  divine  existence, 
a  Trinity.  Between  the  Christian  dogma  and  heathenism, 
there  existed,  it  is  true,  a  clear  and  substantial  difference. 
The  trinitarian  Godhead  of  Christianity,  was  exclusively 
and  wholly  good ;  whereas  in  Heathenism  one  of  the 
three  diAinc  powers  was  conceived  to  be  opposed  to  the 
other  two — the  principle  of  evil.  Thus  far  therefore 
Christianity  again  remained  true  to  the  religious  idea. 
Yet  it  could  not  wholly  emancipate  itself  from  the 
heathen  conception  of  the  principle  of  Evil.  And  this 
re-appeared  in  Christianity,  albeit  under  the  form  of  a 


being  inferior  and  subject  to  tlie  Divinity ^  though  ever 
present  and  eternal.  Satan^  the  Devil^  a  power  to  be 
eventually  overcome  by  the  power  divine,  or  God,  In 
this  again,  Christianity  had  become  the  antagonism  of 
Mosaism — for  Mosaism  :  1st  emphatically  declares  the 
unconditional  unity  of  God,  and  the  perfection  of  God's 
works;  and  2ndly,  gives  a  general  refutation  to  the 
principle  that  evil  universally  exists,  by  regarding  evil 
to  be  a  relative  condition  of  the  individual.  Since 
Christianity  thus  set  forth  evil  as  an  absolute  existence, 
it  necessarily  declared  man  to  be  subjected  to  its 
dominion.  Christianity  carried  with  it  out  of  Judaism, 
and  subsequently  preserved,  the  idea  of  the  creation  of 
man's  soul  in  the  image  of  God.  But  while  Mo- 
saism admitted  the  possibility  of  sin  in  man,  by 
means  of  sensuality,  Christianity  transmuted  this  possi- 
bility into  an  actuality,  and  established  this  as  the 
originnl  sin  which  man  since  Adam  ever  brings  with 
him  into  the  world.  God  created  the  first  man  of  a 
sinless  nature ;  but  man,  from  the  beginning,  rendered 
his  own  nature  sinful.  Sin  therefore  is  not  a  fortuitous 
and  relative  condition  of  the  individual,  but  thus  becomes 
an  inherent  and  universal  attribute  of  the  human  soul. 
This  theory  engendered  another  complete  antagonism 
to  Mosaism.  Mosaism  declared  the  dii^ect  relation  of 
God  to  man.  God  judges  the  actions  of  men,  permits 
evil  consequences  to  follow  evil  deeds  ;  but  pardons  the 
guilt  of  the  penitent,  and  restores  his  soul  to  purity. 
According  to  the  Christian  dogma,  on  the  contrary,  the 
soul  in  consequence  of  original  sin,  being  born  in  sin, 
all  direct  connection  between  God  and  man  was  inter- 
rupted. God  can  no  longer  be  in  direct  relation  with  a 
soul  inherently  sinful.     This  state  of  sinfulness  renders 

158  LECTURE    VII. 

some  mediation  requisite  between  God  and  the  sinful 
soul.  As  by  Adam's  act,  sin  was  made  eternally  pre- 
sent in  tlie  human  soul,  so  was  some  other  act  called 
for,  by  virtue  of  which  man's  spirit  should  be  freed 
from  its  presence.  This  act  was  the  martyr's  death  of 
the  founder  of  Christianity;  and  herein  was  abstract 
speculation  reconducted  to  its  earliest  form.  The  death 
of  one  man  in  his  character  only  of  man,  having, 
as  was  evident,  no  power  to  work  out  atonement  for 
other  men,  the  necessity  arose  for  an  impersonation 
of  a  portion  of  the  divine  nature,  for  an  incarnation  of 
the  Godhead,  and  for  his  appearance  on  earth  in  human 
form,  as  the  instrument  of  the  redemption  of  mankind. 
Christianity  once  more  in  this  exhibits  a  total  contrast 
to  Mosaism.  Mosaism  emphatically  denounces  any  im- 
personation of  the  Deity.* 

The  development  of  these  first  elements  had  yet  fm'- 
ther  results.  The  purification  of  man's  soul  from  original 
and  inherited  sin,  by  means  solely  of  the  vicarious 
sacrifice  of  God,  in  His  assumed  human  form,  could  not 
be  held  to  be  an  accomplished  fact.  It  attained  efl&cacy, 
by  virtue  only  of  man's  faith  in  its  truth  and  sufficiency. 
That  soul  alone  is  saved,  by  whom  this  death  is  accepted 
as  the  fount  whence  salvation  fiows.  Hence  follows : 
1st.  That  as  this  consequence  of  the  death  of  Jesus,  viz., 
the  salvation  of  the  sinful  soul  after  dissolution,  could 
neither  be  affirmed  historically,  nor  attested  by  the 
understanding  ;t  that  as  on  the  contrary  human  reason 
would  suggest  its   denial,  the  attainment  of  the  object 

•5f  See  the  Snd  article  of  the  Decalogue  ;  also  5th  Book  of 
Moses,  4.  15.  'Thou  sawest  no  similitude  on  the  day  when  the 
Lord  spake  in  Horeb.' 

t  Even  if  the  death  of  Jesus  was  susceptible  of  historical 
proof,  this  purport  could  not  be  proved. 


was  declared  to  be  effected  only  by  the  acceptance  of 
the  unproved  fact  into  the  belief.  2ndly.  The  whole 
Christian  doctrine  must  therefore  be  regarded  as  a 
mystery,  an  act  not  to  be  comprehend ed^  but  to  be 
accepted  unconditionally  and  appealing  to  the  belief 
alone.  3rdly.  As  only  the  believing  soul  could  be 
saved,  any  non-believer  was  excluded  from  salvation. 
This  exclusion  was  thus  engrafted  on  the  Christian  doc- 
trine, and  a  difference  established  between  the  believing 
and  non-believing  sections  of  the  world  of  man.^  On  all 
these  points  likewise,  the  contrast  between  Mosaism 
and  Christianity  is  everywhere  apparent. f  Mosaism  es- 
tablishes and  prophetism  confirms  the  principle,  that  by 
his  own  repentance  alone  can  man  be  justified;  but 
that  God  in  His  mercy  pardons  every  repentant  sinner. 
Mosaism  further  requires  that  man  shall  know  God  and 
His  Law.  It  especially  declares  that  God  and  His  Law 
was  not  discovered  by  man,  but  was  given  to  him  by 
revelation.  This  revealed  law  shall  be  acknowledged 
and  understood  by  man.  J  It  is  no  mystery  which  is  to 
be  accepted  and  believed.  The  law  was  confided  by  God 
to  the  consciousness  of  man,  which  by  its  entire  compre- 
hension will  be  imbued  with  its  truth.  Lastly,  Moses 
and  the  prophets  never  make  man's  acceptableness  in 
the  eyes  of  God,  to  be  dependant  on  his  confession  of 
certain  articles  of  belief,  but  on  true  reverence  for  the 
one  and  only  God,  to  be  shown  in  good  works.  The 
Talmudists  expressly  say — 'The  just  of  all  nations  are 
sharers  in  eternal  life.' 

I  resume  :  Christianity  carried  the  Religious  Idea  out 

*  St.  John,  3.  18.  Also  36  v. 
t  5MOS.24.  16.  Ezek.18.  20. 
T  5Mos.  30.  11—14. 

160  LECTURE    VII. 

of  Judaism  iuto  the  general  world  of  man,  by  diffusing 
among  and  implanting  in  mankind  the  conception^  that 
there  is  only  one  God ;  that  the  universe  is  His  creation ; 
that  the  human  being  is  endowed  by  God  with  a  soul 
created  in  God's  image ;  that  God  is  in  direct  relation 
to  man  as  Providence,  Judge,  Pardoner,  and  Revealer; 
and  that  love  to  God  and  love  to  our  fellow-man  are  the 
highest  principles  of  morality.  But  Christianity  within 
the  world  of  men  could  not  defend  itself  against  the 
action  on  it  of  the  human  idea ;  as  is  seen  in  its  amal- 
gamating with  the  conception  and  being  of  the  one  and 
only  God,  that  of  a  three-fold  divine  existence,  one  of 
these  divine  beings  appearing  on  earth  in  human  form; 
again,  in  its  ascribing  original  sin  to  a  soul  created  in 
God's  image,  from  which  sin  it  was  cleansed  by  the 
vicarious  death  of  that  Divine  Being;  and  lastly,  in 
declaring  this  deliverance  from  sin,  to  be  attainable  only 
through  faith  in  its  instrument. 

In  consequence  of  its  historical  origin,  Christianity 
entirely  abstracted  the  religious  idea  from  life  on  earth, 
by  transferring  the  motive  principle  to  a  life  to  come ; 
by  making  Religion  the  educator  of  mankind  for  that 
future  world,  and  thus  indicating  social  and  political 
life  to  be  unworthy  and  independent  of  religion,  and 
without  the  pale  of  its  direct  influence.  In  this, 
Christianity  had  become,  in  its  essence,  the  opposite  of 
Judaism  in  general,  and  of  the  Judaism  of  that  period 
in  particular ;  the  latter  being  then  occupied  in  combin- 
ing and  arranging  a  widely-extended  system  of  material 
enactments,  for  the  specific  object  of  protecting  the 
religious  idea  from  the  deteriorating  influence  of  external 
friction . 

Not  only  in  its  internal  properties,  but  also  in  its 


external  form,  had  Christianity  succumbed  beneath  the 
reaction  of  the  general  world  of  man.  Christianity 
had  at  its  origin  entered  the  lists  against  the  vicious 
employment  of  the  Jewish  ceremonial,  and  only  by 
resting  on  this  basis  as  its  special  mission,  could  it 
win  a  successful  entrance  into  the  general  world 
of  man.  But  scarcely  had  it  acquired  some  sway,  ere 
it  surrounded  itself  with  a  form  far  from  simple  in  its 
accessories;  and  allowed  its  original  characteristic  of 
external  simplicity  to  disappear  amid  the  pomp  of  a 
worship  that  addresses  itself  to  the  senses,  a  gorgeous 
ceremonial  that  fascinates  the  eye.  Yet  more  :  passing 
rapidly  through  the  successive  phases  which  led  from 
Mosaism  to  Talmudism,  Christianity  produced  an 
exegesis  of  the  written  word,  declared  it  binding, 
and  stigmatised  every  one  who  deviated  from  this 
interpretation,  as  heretical  and  unworthy  of  salvation. 
Assuming  to  have  drawn  this  exposition  from  a  divine 
source,  from  the  Holy  Ghost,  it  invested  it  with  a 
plastic  form  as  a  Church,  and  ensured  its  future  propa- 
gation by  ordained  organs  or  priests.  Precisely  at  the 
same  period  at  which  the  priesthood  was  wholly  sup- 
planted in  Judaism  under  its  phase  of  Talmudism,  by 
a  numerous  body  of  literati  and  teachers,  the  Christian 
church  instituted  an  order  of  priests,  whose  claim  to 
the  sacerdotal  dignity  was  determined,  not  by  birth,  but 
by  a  special  consecration.  To  this  priestly  order  were 
secured  the  most  important  privileges,  and  a  position 
wholly  independent  of  the  laity  and  the  state.  Lastly, 
after  primary  Christianity  had  theoretically  withdrawn 
itself  from  the  political  arena,  so  that  its  influence 
in  the  state  was  null;  in  asserting  its  independence 
of    the     civil     power,    it    elevated    the     Church    and 


162  LECTURE  vn. 

the  hierarchy  above  the  state ;  thus  rendering  the 
highest  civil  authority,  inferior  and  subject  to  the 
highest  spiritual  authority.  For  the  unity  predicated 
by  Mosaism  to  exist  between  religion  and  society, 
Christianity  substituted  a  division  between  church  and 
state,  by  which  the  most  fearful  conflicts  were  subse- 
quently occasioned. 

My  respected  hearers  will  have  ere  this  discovered, 
that  I  distinguish  primary  or  original  Christianity  from 
historical  Christianity,  and  from  the  recent  mutations 
in  the  Christian  church.  I  consider  primary  Clu"isti- 
anity  to  be  the  endeavour  to  render  valid  the  idea  as  op- 
posed to  the  form  of  Judaism  ;  but  I  regard  it  to  have 
been  a  direct  antagonism  to  Mosaism,  in  the  dogma  I 
here  recapitulate.  It  withdrew  the  idea  wholly  from  the 
life.  It  placed  religion  and  social  life  far  asunder.  It 
repudiated  all  participation  in  the  life  on  earth ; 
and  placed  man's  true  sphere  of  existence,  in  a  life  to 
come.  It  thus  took  man  out  of  himself.  Mosaism,  on 
the  contrary,  assumed  the  immortality  of  a  spirit 
created  in  the  Divine  image,  to  be  an  accepted  truth, 
but  taught  that  true  human  life  was  a  life  on  earth,  a 
'  here '  below,  permeated  and  governed  by  the  religious 

The  historical  Christianity  of  the  Church  I  con- 
sider to  have  been  the  means,  by  which  the  fun- 
damental thoughts  of  the  religious  idea,  were  carried 
out  of  Judaism  into  the  wide  world  of  man.  These 
general  views  I  enumerate,  with  a  brief  summary 
of  the  modifications  produced  and  the  influence 
exerted  by  the  human  idea,  as  exhibited  in  the  con- 
ditions of  the  historical  development  of  Christianity. 
The  unity  of    God,    who   is    super-mundane,   and  the 


Creator  of  the  universe; — this  unity  transmuted  into 
a  threefold  Deity  or  Trinity,  in  opposition  to  which 
was  a  principle  of  evil,  as  an  absolute  existence  :  a 
god-like  human  soul, — yet  inherently  polluted  since 
Adam,  by  the  presence  of  original  sin :  the  direct 
relation  of  God  to  man,  as  Providence,  Judge,  and 
Pardoner — yet  that  relation  destroyed  by  original  sin,  and 
renewed  by  virtue  of  the  death  of  the  Divine  Founder  of 
Christianity :  these  modifications  of  the  religious  by 
the  human  idea,  had  for  their  ultimate  result — the 
binding  authority  of  canonical  interpretations,  exclu- 
sion, priestly  domination,  the  ascendancy  of  the  church 
over  the  state,  etc. 

Of  the  recent  movements  in  Christianity,  I  Avill  treat 
in  a  future  lecture.  A  rapid  glance  at  the  result  of  our 
examination  of  Christianity  from  the  general  point  of 
view,  and  in  its  historical  bearings  shows,  that  Christi- 
anity brought  the  religious  idea,  out  of  Judaism  into 
the  general  world  of  man ;  that  it  overcame  the  human 
idea,  or  heathenism,  but  that  it  effected  this,  only  by 
sacrificing  a  portion  of  the  religious  idea,  by  adapting 
itself  to  the  degree  of  development  previously  attained 
by  mankind,  and  by  itself  entering  into  combination, 
with  important  elements  of  the  human  idea.  However 
indispensable  this  process  may  have  been  for  the  intro- 
duction of  the  religious  idea  among  mankind,  and  how 
clear  soever  the  evidence  thus  afforded  of  the  principle  of 
the  freedom  of  human  development  within  the  dominion 
of  the  religious  idea,  yet  precisely  these  conditions  it 
was,  which  rendered  the  preservation  of  the  reH- 
gious  idea  within  Judaism,  and  the  combined  ex- 
istence of  Judaism  side-by-side  with  Christianity,  an 
imperative    and    eternal    necessity.       For  Christianity 

M   2 

164  LECTURE    VII. 

in  its  first  elements  only,  had  been  the  bearer  of  the 
religious  idea.     The  whole  historical  completion  of  its 
edifice,  formed  a  new  and  entire  contrast  to  that  idea. 
Within  mankind,  Christianity  was  a  ray  emitted  by 
the  religious  idea,  whose  effulgence,  in  its  action  on  the 
collective    mind,    and   in  its    consolatory  influence   on 
countless  hearts  of  men,  was   and  is  still,  fraught  with 
untold   blessing.     Christianity  bestowed  on  mankind, 
in  the  place  of  Heathenism,  a  new  religious  purport, 
and  proclaimed  Love  to  be  the  motive  principle  of  human 
morality.  But  Christianity  was  satisfied  with  the  general 
assertion,    and   limiting   its    sphere    of    action   to    the 
individual  man,  failed  to  insist  on  its  realisation  in  the 
social  man.     It  partially  neutralised  its  own  recognition 
of  the  principle  of  Love,  bj^  further   adopting  in  its 
historical  development,  that   of   exclusion  or  election. 
It    cannot   therefore,    if   viewed    according  to  general 
principles,  be  accepted  as  the  consummation  of  the  Re- 
ligious Idea.     That  idea  has  yet  to  await  and  to  achieve 
its  final  victory  in  the  world  of  man. 




The  spread  of  Christianity  has  been  virtually  Avholly 
confined  to  Europe,  and  to  the  European  colonies  in 
America.  In  Asia  and  Africa^  it  has  on  the  contrary, 
found  no  spot  on  which  to  take  firm  root.  Not  only 
did  the  soil  of  its  very  birth-places  —  Palestine  and 
Syria — even  though  moistened  with  the  blood  of  its 
thousand  devoted  followers  who  fell  in  the  Crusades, 
prove  uncongenial  to  its  propagation,  but  it  was  also 
speedily  ejected  from  those  portions  of  the  neighbour- 
ing continent,  North  and  East  Africa,  where  it  had 
flourished  during  a  brief  period.  Even  while  regaining 
the  dominion  in  Spain  that  it  had  lost  for  several  pre- 
vious centuries,  it  at  the  same  moment  witnessed  the 
falling  of  one  of  its  earliest  and  most  important  seats 
of  empire,  Constantinople,  into  the  hands  of  its  mighty 

Though  it  may  be  foreseen  that  sooner  or  later, 
Turkey  in  Europe  will  lapse  to  one  of  the  Christian 
powers,  yet  is  it  clearly  manifest,  that  the  grand  line  of 
demarcation  between  the  Western  and  Eastern  world 
must  long  endure  among  mankind.  Who  is  then,  the 
successful   rival  that  thus   victoriously   took  her  place 

166  LECTURE    VIII. 

by  the  side  of  Christianity  ?  Islamism  or  the  reUgion 
of  Mahomed.  The  number  of  its  believers  greatly  ex- 
ceeds that  of  the  professors  of  Christianity.  We  hence 
perceive  that  Christianity  and  Moslemism,  (if  the 
Heathenism  of  Eastern  Asia  and  of  Central  Africa  be 
excepted^  whose  votaries  are  without  doubt  collectively, 
numerically  the  largest  body)  share  the  religious  go- 
vernment of  the  world.  The  professors  of  Judaism  exist 
equally  in  the  countries  where  both  these^  its  two  deri- 
vative creeds,  prevail.  In  the  regions  of  Heathenism, 
in  China,  India,  and  Central  Africa,  it  is  remarkable 
that  the  Hebrews,  though  dwelling  apart  in  small  and 
remote  settlements,  have  lost  all  connection  with  their 
brethren  of  creed  and  race  in  other  lands. 

It  is  impossible  not  to  concede  a  deep  significance  to 
a  religion,  that  after  conquering,  as  by  the  stroke  of  an 
enchanter,  a  world  into  which  for  six  centuries  Christi- 
anity had  sought  in  vain  to  penetrate,  has  filled  for 
twelve  hundred  years  the  mental  being  of  a  third  of 
mankind.  There  must  at  once  be  recognised  in  Ma- 
homedanism  a  singular  accordance  with  the  whole 
character  of  the  Orient,  by  which  it  was  thus  enabled  to 
effect  a  regeneration  of  the  heathen  Eastern  world,  that 
Christianity  was  powerless  to  achieve.  For  us  espe- 
cially, according  to  the  standard  by  which  we  have  to 
foDow  the  course  of  the  religious  idea  throughout  the 
world  of  man,  the  origin,  development,  and  diff'usion 
of  Islamism  possess  an  equal  interest  with  those  of 
Christianity.  For  us  too,  another  great  fact  is  involved 
in  Islamism.  Precisely  because  we  thus  see,  that  the 
religious  idea  has  not  found  entrance  into  the  mental 
world  of  man  by  means  of  Christianity  alone,  but  that 
Mahomedanism    has    been    equally    the    vehicle    of  its 


introductiou  there  where  Cliristianity  could  not  gain 
admittance,  do  we  also  perceive  that  the  religions  idea 
is  destined  for  all  mankind,  and  that  herein  lies  the 
proof  of  its  ultimate  and  certain  victory  over  all  man- 

With  two  special  observations  should  our  present 
inquiry  be  opened.  The  one  is,  that  the  author  of 
Moslemism,  Mahomed  (unlike  the  founders  of  Christi- 
anity) is  a  completely  historical  personage.  By  this 
is  meant,  that  there  exist  other  and  authentic  records 
of  his  life  and  works  besides  those  his  own  and  his 
disciples'  writings  furnish.  We  know  this  Mahomed 
in  his  virtues  and  in  his  failings,  in  the  deceptions  he 
practises,  in  the  terror  he  inspires.  The  second  is, 
that  Mahomedanism  is  a  religion  that  was  born  and 
cradled  beneath  the  fluttering  of  war's  banner,  grew 
and  attained  its  giant  proportions  and  strength  at  the 
point  of  the  sword.  While  Moses  addressed  the 
religious  idea  to  his  race  alone,  and  the  prophets  pre- 
dicted its  victory  over  the  world  of  man  by  means  of 
the  slow  but  irresistible  power  of  truth,  under  the 
guidance  of  a  divine  providence ;  while  Jesus  sent  his 
disciples  to  preach  the  word  to  the  Heathens,  and 
Christianity  only  at  a  later  age  seized  on  the  sword 
and  spear  as  a  means  of  diffusing  the  true  faith,  Ma- 
homedanism won  the  allegiance  of  its  very  first  con- 
verts on  the  battle-field,  and  its  founder  declared  a 
war  of  extermination  against  unbelievers,  to  be  the 
duty  of  the  faithful.  Significantly  enough,  out  of 
the  rivalry  of  two  towns,  Mecca  and  Medina,  did 
Mahomedanism  win  its  first  accession  of  power;  the 
first  champions  of  Moslemism  were  in  nought  better 
than    a  horde   of   predatory    and  nomadic    Bedouins; 


and  the  whole  power  acquired  by  Islamism,  it  at- 
tained by  methods  entirely  consistent  with  its  origin. 
These  circumstances  should  in  no  way  lead  us  to 
pronounce  a  hasty  condemnation^  but  rather  induce 
an  opposite  judgment.  If  a  religion  is  upheld  of 
which  the  founder  displayed  so  much  human  weak- 
ness^ and  of  which  the  propagation  was  efl'ected  by 
means  so  irreligiously  violent ;  if,  notwithstanding  the 
frailty  of  that  founder,  and  the  deeds  of  \dolence  attend- 
ing its  dissemination,  this  faith,  I  say,  endured  and 
awakened  such  ardent  enthusiasm  in  its  followers,  it 
must  have  possessed  a  deep  significance,  of  power  to 
overcome  these,  its  enfeebling  accidents.  The  Arabian 
empire  fell,  but  Islamism  exists.  New  races  and  peo- 
ples ov^erspread  Mahomedan  Asia,  but  they  all  upheld 
Islamism.  Thus  Mahomedanism  no  more  declined 
with  the  power  of  its  first  converts,  tliaii  did  Christi- 
anity with  the  downfall  of  Rome.  Islamism  has  ever 
won  to  itself  the  allegiance  of  each  newly-arising 
eastern  nation,  as  did  Christianity  that  of  the  various 
races  of  northern  barbarians  by  whom,  at  the  period 
of  their  migrations,  the  then  civilised  world  was  over- 
spread. Mahomedanism  has  thus  risen  superior  to  its 
origin.  The  characteristics  of  the  Oriental  nature  may 
at  once  be  recognised  in  the  mode  of  its  dissemination. 
The  inhabitant  of  the  East  is  incapable  of  gradual 
development;  he  accomplishes  everything  by  sudden 
impulses.  If  success  attend  not  these  first  impulsive 
efforts,  he  never  attains  it.  Having  once  reached  a 
higher  point  of  civilisation  by  a  first  vast  and  energetic 
effort,  at  that  point  he  remains  at  a  stand-still  during 
thousands  of  after  years. 

Let  us  in  the  first  place,  bricfiy   sketch  the  life  of 


Mahomed.  He  was  born  in  April  571,  at  Mecca,  the 
capital  of  Central  Arabia,  a  holy  place  of  pilgrimage 
for  Arab  heathen  devotees.  He  was  of  the  honourable 
lineage  of  the  Knreisch ;  yet  his  father  was  but  an  obscure 
merchant  in  narrow  circumstances.  He  died  shortly 
after  Mahomed's  birth,  and  this  loss  was  succeeded  in 
his  sixth  year,  by  that  of  his  mother.  In  his  youth,  he 
accompanied  his  uncle  on  his  mercantile  journeys  to 
Syria  and  Southern  Arabia,  entered  into  commerce  on 
his  own  account,  and  even,  at  one  period,  gained  his 
subsistence  as  a  shepherd.  But  a  new  direction  was, 
in  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  his  age,  imparted  to  his 
whole  existence,  when  his  employer,  a  rich  widow, 
became  attached  to,  and  married  him.  Henceforward 
he  lived  almost  wholly  absorbed  in  rehgious  medita- 
tions, in  which  he  was  guided  and  seconded  by  his 
wife's  cousin,  Waraka  Ibn  Nanfal,  who,  having  long 
before  rejected  the  Arabian  idolatry,  had  at  one  time 
adopted  Judaism,  at  another,  Christianity;  had  trans- 
lated several  portions  of  the  Bible  into  Arabic;  and 
had  especially  held  Abraham  to  be  the  purest  and 
holiest  of  God's  chosen  heroes.  Mahomed  had  from 
his  childhood  been  subject  to  fits  of  epilepsy,  ascribed 
by  the  Arabians  to  the  visitations  of  higher  spirits. 
This  state  of  unconsciousness,  often  of  delirium,  com- 
bined with  his  religious  enlightenment,  may  have  first 
suggested  to  him  the  idea  of  appearing  on  the  world's 
theatre  as  the  founder  of  a  new  religion,  and  may  have 
induced  in  him  the  belief  that  he  had  really  received 
divine  revelation.  This  once  conceived  and  openly 
declared,  rendered  amplification  of  his  system  neces- 
sary. As  to  his  own  divine  inspiration,  it  is  possible 
he  was  subsequently  undeceived  when  he  failed  to  work 

170  LECTURE    VIII. 

the  miracles  he  attempted.  And  this  failure  caused 
him  frequently  to  inveigh  in  the  Koran,  against  the 
generally  accepted  belief,  that  miracles  are  the  incon- 
trovertible proof  of  prophetic  power. 

He  was  forty  years  of  age  when  he  first  declared 
himself  to  be  divinely  inspired,  but  confided  this  to  his 
nearest  relatives  only ;  among  these  and  his  immediate 
friends,  he  gained  adherents,  whose  number  amounted 
to  forty  at  the  expiration  of  four  years.  By  his  public 
appearance  in  Mecca,  with  this  small  body  of  followers, 
as  a  preacher  against  idolatry,  he  necessarily  excited 
his  numerous  adversaries  to  violent  opposition,  so  that 
he  was  compelled  to  fly  to  a  distance  from  Mecca,  and 
live  for  the  most  part  in  concealment.  He  failed 
not  however  to  take  advantage  of  the  opportunities 
aflbrded  by  the  periodical  return  of  seasons  of  pilgrim- 
age, (during  which,  according  to  Arabian  custom,  all 
feuds  and  enmity  were  suspended)  to  re-appear  and 
preach  in  Mecca,  where  he  then  secured  the  allegiance 
of  the  Medinaites,  ever  jealous  rivals  of  the  Meccans. 
The  former  found,  on  their  return  to  their  native  town, 
willing  listeners  to  the  doctrines  of  the  Prophet. 
When  his  adversaries  in  Mecca  sought  his  hfe,  he 
fled  to  Medina,  and  ever  after  declared  war  in  the 
name  of  God,  against  all  unbelievers.  This  flight  took 
place  on  the  22nd  of  September,  622,  a.c,  in  the  fifty- 
first  year  of  his  age,  and  eleventh  of  his  prophetic  mis- 
sion. He  at  first  exercised  his  followers  in  plundering 
expeditions  against  the  caravans  of  the  Meccans,  thereby 
increasing  the  number  of  his  own  adherents — van- 
quished 600  Meccans  with  314  Mussulmans  —  attacked 
the  neighbouring  independent  JcAvish  colonies,  after  in 
vain  attempting  to  allure  them  to  his  cause  —  was  dc- 


feated  agaiu  and  again — betrayed  on  several  occasions 
great  cowardice — concluded  peace  with  his  enemies — 
and  found  his  power  and  the  number  of  his  adherents 
augment  so  greatly,  that  he  at  length  surprised  and  took 
possession  of  Mecca  at  the  head  of  ten  thousand  believers, 
which  city  he  thenceforward  made  his  chief  seat  of 
empire.  A  victory  gained  over  a  heathen  army,  raised 
his  authority  to  its  zenith,  so  that  many  tribes  of  Arabs 
yielded  him  homage,  first  only  as  a  temporal  leader, 
but  subsequently  in  his  character  of  prophet.  A  cam- 
paign against  the  Greeks  in  Syria  being  wholly  un- 
successful, he  confined  his  attempts  to  Arabia,  where 
he  so  strengthened  his  authority  by  the  exercise  of 
severity  and  force,  that  he  was  enabled,  when  sixty 
years  of  age,  to  enter  Mecca  in  perfect  security  at  the 
head  of  48,000  believers,  and  proclaim  on  Mount  Arafa 
his  most  important  doctrines.  Soon  after  he  fell  sick, 
and  died  on  the  8th  of  June,  632,  in  the  sixty-first 
year  of  his  age,  the  twenty-first  of  his  mission,  and 
the  eleventh  after  his  flight  from  Mecca,  having  within 
scarcely  ten  years  subjugated  the  whole  of  Arabia, 
and  transformed  the  broken-up  Arab  tribes  into  one 
connected  body,  inspired  with  one  common  senti- 
ment—  an  ardent  desire  for  war,  and  bright  dreams 
of  victory.  Mahomed  had  ten  wives,  and  more  than 
a  like  number  of  female  slaves  who  ranked  almost  as 
such.  Four  sons  born  to  him  died  in  childhood,  and 
one  only  of  his  three  daughters  left  any  ofi"spring. 
He  permitted  each  Mussulman  to  have  only  four  wives, 
but  made  an  exception  to  this  rule  in  his  own  favour. 
Whilst  his  many  failings  in  the  conjugal  relation,  and 
his  crueltv  towards  his  enemies,  throw  a  dark  shade 

172  LECTURE    VIII. 

on  the  character  of  Mahomed^  he  was  simple  iii  his 
domestic  habits,  in  his  dress,  and  in  his  food ;  indulged 
in  no  display,  surrounded  himself  with  no  pomj).  His 
liberality  and  benevolence  were  boundless;  so  that, 
notwithstanding  the  vast  amount  of  booty  collected  by 
him,  he  left  no  treasure  at  his  death. 

Though  in  furtherance  of  his  schemes  of  policy,  he 
hesitated  not  to  commit  the  most  atrocious  barbarities, 
in  other  respects  he  was  lenient  and  generous,  visited 
the  sick,  attended  the  dead  to  the  grave,  and  befriended 
the  oppressed.  Mahomed  possessed  no  acquired  know- 
ledge whatever ;  he  could  neither  read  nor  write ;  he 
uttered  his  prophecies  aloud,  and,  dictating  them, 
caused  them  to  be  written  on  parchment,  palm-leaves, 
bones,  stones,  and  the  like.  These  were  collected  after 
his  death,  by  the  Kalif  Abu  Bekr.  All  found  were 
thrown  together  without  arrangement,  and  were  sub- 
sequently copied  by  Othman,  with  the  suppression  only 
of  the  textual  variations.  The  Koran  is  therefore,  a 
collection  of  114  chapters  or  sections,  some  long,  some 
short,  that  unconnected  and  replete  with  countless 
repetitions  and  immerous  discrepancies,  was,  it  is  evi- 
dent, never  intended  by  the  author  to  see  the  light  in 
its  present  crude  form.  But  as  Mahomed  named  no 
successor,  so  did  he  abstain,  from  political  motives,  from 
arranging  his  writings  in  chronological  or  other  order. 

The  more  numerous  the  contradictions  contained  in 
the  Koran,  the  more  requisite  is  it  to  judge  of  Ma- 
homedanism,  not  by  the  Koran  alone,  but  by  its  later 
development  also.  In  respect  of  the  style,  it  is  rather 
the  uncontrolled  and  passionate  fire,  than  the  poetic 
and  artistic  elevation  bv  which  the  readers  of  the  Koran 


are  carried  away.  That  no  written  utterance  in  the 
workl  contains  more  that  is  fabulous  than  the  Koran, 
may  with  truth  and  without  prejudice  be  asserted. 

Mahomed's  immediate  successor  even,  Abu  Bekr, 
carried  the  war  beyond  the  confines  of  Arabia,  attacked 
the  Christians,  and  wrested  Syria  from  the  Greeks  ;  but 
Omar  followed  up  these  conquests  with  wonderful 
success,  subjecting  not  only  Palestine  and  Persia,  but 
also  Egypt  and  all  Northern  Africa,  to  the  yoke  of 
Moslemism.  Othman  and  Ali  carried  their  arms  further, 
into  Nubia  and  Bucharia.  Thus,  as  early  as  half  a 
century  after  Mahomed's  flight  to  Medina,  Moslem 
rule  reached  from  the  boundary  of  China  to  the  At- 
lantic Ocean.  A  small  snow-ball,  detaching  itself  from 
Medina  and  rolling  to  Mecca,  had  grown  into  a  huge 
avalanche,  and  overspread  half  the  world. 

On  proceeding  to  the  examination  of  the  inward 
constitution  of  Moslemism,  the  inquiry  which  first 
presents  itself  is  again — How  did  it  originate  ?  It  must 
be  stated  in  reply,  that  Islamism  did  not,  like  Christi- 
anity, spring  directly  out  of  Judaism.  Mahomed  was 
not  a  Jew,  nor,  as  was  the  case  with  respect  to  Christi- 
anity, did  a  certain  inherent  necessity,  arising  within 
Judaism  itself,  originate  Mahomedanism.  Islamism 
was  an  entirely  free  and  independent  creation  from 
witliout ;  an  adoption  of  the  religious  idea  by  the  outer 
Avoiid.  Nevertheless,  Moslemism  was  a  product  of 
Judaism,  to  which  it  presented  a  less  entire  contrast 
than  Christianity.  Indeed,  Mahomedanism  was  avowed- 
ly based  wholly  on  Judaism  and  Christianity,  whether 
because  Mahomed  really  perceived  that  these  two  reli- 
gions offered  a  firm  foundation  on  which  to  raise  his 
superstructure,  or  because  he  thus  hoped  to  obtain  the 


favour  of  the  partizans  of  both  these  creeds.  Mahomed 
therefore,  declared  Moses  and  the  prophets,  Jesus  and 
his  disciples,  to  be  his  divinely  inspired  predecessors, 
whose  work  he,  as  the  last  of  the  prophets,  and  the 
promulgator  of  the  highest  truth,  was  destined  to 
complete.  The  Koran  assumes  the  Old  and  New 
Testaments  to  be  true  revelations  from  God,  now 
receiving  completion  and  solution  in  the  Koran.  The 
greater  portion  of  the  Koran  is  composed  of  narratives, 
some  extracted  from  the  New,  but  a  far  greater  number 
from  the  Old  Testament.  As  Mahomed's  knowledge  of 
the  two  Scriptures  was  derived,  not  from  his  own 
perusal  of  them,  but  from  the  reports  of  others,  the 
process  to  which  he  subjected  these  extracts,  partly 
from  ignorance,  partly  from  the  admixture  of  later 
traditions  and  arbitrary  and  fabulous  embellishment, 
so  disguised  these  Bible  narratives,  as  to  render  them 
scarcely  recognisable. 

This  mode  of  its  origin  determined  the  character  of 
Islamism.  Islamism  lays  hold  of  the  highest  principle 
of  the  Religious  Idea,  and  reproduces  it  pure  and  uu- 
defiled.  But  having  once  passed  away  from  this  first 
principle,  it  consistently  elaborated  the  Heathen  ele- 
ment, abstaining  from  any  return  to  Mosaism,  save  in 
certain  external  accidents.  Christianity,  on  the  con- 
trary, modified  the  very  first  principle  of  the  ReKgious 
Idea;  yet,  having  sprung  directly  from  Judaism,  it 
relapsed  constantly,  though  in  an  incongruous  manner, 
into  Judaism. 

The  chief  doctrine  of  Islamism  is  then,  the  acknow- 
ledgment of  the  existence  of  one  only,  eternal,  omniscient, 
incorporeal,  and  omnipotent  God,  who  created  the  universe 
out  of  nothing,  according  to   His  divine  will.     Of  this 


doctrine,  derived  from  Judaism,  Mahomed^s  statement 
Avholly  agrees  with  that  of  the  Bible.  It  is  true,  that  he 
relatesthe  history  of  the  creation  with  many  chronological 
inaccuracies,  yet  otherwise  in  perfect  conformity  with 
the  writings  of  Moses,  Mahomedanism  proclaims  this 
doctrine  of  the  unity  of  the  one  supernal  God  to  be  the 
corner-stone  of  its  system,  and  strenuously  upholds  it  as 
its  chief  support.  In  this,  it  presented  a  complete 
contrast  to  Arabian  idolatry,  over  which  it  secured  the 
entire  victory  of  the  Religious  Idea ;  but  in  this,  it  at  the 
same  time  formed  an  equally  complete  contrast  to  the 
developed  dogma  of  Christianity,  by  which  this  doctrine 
had  been  so  entirely  modified.  In  the  Koran,  nothing 
is  of  more  frequent  recurrence  than  arguments  against 
the  Christian  doctrine  of  the  Trinity,  and  of  the  human 
incarnation  of  God;  arguments,  advanced  sometimes 
with  ardent  zeal,  sometimes  with  biting  satire.  Against 
Judaism,  on  the  contrary,  whose  teachings  he  had 
adopted,  Mahomed  enters  into  no  controversy.  He 
inveighs  only  against  the  Jews,  who  would  not  yield  to 
his  authority,  and  whom  he  accuses  of  distorting  the 
Scriptures,  by  which  imputation,  it  is  true,  he  con- 
cealed his  own  falsification  of  the  sacred  text. 

The  less  antagonism  there  was  involved  in  Mahome- 
danism to  Judaism  and  to  the  first  fundamental  views 
of  Christianity,  the  more  strenuous  Avas  the  effort  made 
by  Mahomed  to  create  this  antagonism ;  a  necessary 
result  of  the  blind  faith  in  himself  and  his  prophetic 
mission  which  he  so  ardently  desired  to  awaken.  The 
belief  in  himself  he  therefore  placed  in  immediate  juxta- 
position with  the  belief  in  God.  "  There  is  no  god  but 
God,  and  Mahomed  is  His  Prophet.^'  This  aphorism 
conveys  the  two  distinguishing  tenets  of  Islamism,  of 

176  LECTURE    VIII. 

which  the  one  is  incomplete  without  tlie  other.  Who- 
ever acknowledges  both  these  is  a  Mahomedan,  a 
believer;  whoever  denies  thenij  if  even  he  owns  the 
existence  of  one  only  God^  an  unbeliever.  This  apho- 
rism imparted  a  peculiar  direction  to  Mahomedanism, 
and  established  an  essential  distinction  between  the 
believer  and  unbeliever.  The  moral  worth  of  man  lies 
not  therefore  in  his  actions,  but  solely  in  Islamism; 
that  is,  in  the  belief  in  God  and  Mahomed.  The  un- 
believer is  eternally  damned ;  the  believer,  if  he  obeys 
the  Mahomedan  law,  is  sure  of  eternal  bliss.  If  he 
does  not  fulfil  it,  he  is  pmiished  during  the  limited 
period  of  four  hundred  j'cars,  and  then  is  permitted  to 
enter  the  lower  spheres  of  blessedness.  But  this  salva- 
tion is  not  consequent  on  the  merit  of  the  individual ; 
it  is  a  free  gift  of  the  mercy  of  God. 

The  effect  of  this  was,  that  Islamism  especially  con- 
tains definite  views  of  salvation  and  perdition,  and 
invests  them  with  material  attributes,  that  are  perfectly 
in  accordance  with  the  character  of  the  East.  Hell,  as 
the  abode  of  the  damned,  and  Paradise,  as  that  of  the 
blest,  were  painted,  with  their  physical  sufferings  and 
joys,  with  all  the  vividness  of  colouring  that  the  most 
lively  fancy  could  invent.  Unbelievers  were  subjected 
in  Hell  to  fearful  tortures,  sometimes  of  heat  and  some- 
times of  cold.  In  Paradise,  the  blest  were  regaled  with 
the  choicest  viands,  were  attended  by  the  most  lovely 
maidens,  reposed  on  the  softest  carpets ;  they  possessed 
the  costliest  treasures,  and  eternally  enjoyed  the  bloom 
of  manhood.  These  hoAvever  were  but  preparatory  tor- 
ments and  preparatory  joys;  for  at  the  appointed  hour  the 
resurrection  of  the  dead  will  come  to  pass.  Seventy 
thousand  angels  will  drag  Hell  by  seventy  thousand 


cords  before  the  throue  of  God.  The  condemned  and 
the  blest  are  then  to  be  judged  anew.  The  latter  will 
be  translated  to  the  heavenly  Paradise,  which  is  placed 
in  the  seventh  heaven,  at  the  foot  of  the  Eternal's 

Though  in  this  second  article  of  the  Mahomedan 
belief  was  involved  the  same  antagonism  to  Mosaism 
which  existed  in  historical  Christianity,  namely,  the 
justification  of  man  by  faith  only  in  the  respective 
founders  of  these  religions;  this  antagonism  was  ren- 
dered still  more  marked  in  Christianity,  from  a  divine 
nature  being  ascribed  to  that  founder ;  while  in 
Moslemism  he  claimed  only  to  be  the  last  and  highest 
of  the  prophets.  Yet  the  two  religions  again  diverged 
from  each  other;  Mahomedanism  remaining  consist- 
ently heathen  in  its  bias;  Christianity,  on  the  contrary, 
seeking  in  its  developments  to  return  to  the  Rehgious 
Idea.  If  his  belief  alone  determines  man's  claim  to 
salvation,  then  it  follows  that  his  actions  possess  only 
relative  merit ;  that  is,  in  so  far  as  he  is  impelled  to 
them  by  faith.  Then  man  is  not  free  and  self-deter- 
mining, as  the  Religious  Idea  sets  forth,  but  is  subjected 
to  the  operation  of  an  immutable  necessity,  since  belief 
or  faith  is  no  free-will  act  of  man's  spirit.  Moslemism 
derived  this  article  of  its  creed  from  Arabian  heathenism. 
It  was  Sabeanism,  whose  ground-work  was  fate  in 
nature,  as  shown  forth  in  the  laws  governing  the 
heavenly  bodies,  by  which  also  the  destiny  of  man  is 
ruled.  Islamism  therefore  declared  that  God  fixes  so 
irrevocably  the  destiny  of  man,  that  let  him  do  or 
leave  undone  whatever  he  may,  his  appointed  fate  will 
ever  prevail.  Whether  he  go  to  the  battle  or  remain 
at  home,  said  Mahomed,  the  arrow  winged  for  his  breast 

178  LECTURE    VIII. 

will  reach  it.  Sickness  overpowers  liim  in  the  degree 
appointed  by  God,  whether  man  apply  remedies  or  not. 
Fire  will  burn  as  decreed  by  God,  whether  man  seek 
or  not  to  extinguish  it.  Men's  actions  have  therefore 
no  direct  results,  since  that  which  happens  is  previously 
determined,  irrespectively  of  man's  agency.  This  strict 
fatalism  of  Mahomedanism  lies  in  the  very  nature  of 
the  Eastern,  and  must  have  been  a  powerful  engine  of 
success  in  the  schemes  of  conquest  pursued  by  Mahomed 
and  his  successors. 

All  freedom  of  action  being  thus  denied  to  the  spirit 
of  man,  neither  could  belief  nor  unbelief  be  free  opera- 
tions of  the  human  mind.  On  the  contrary,  belief  was 
awakened  in  man  by  God ;  this  is  repeatedly  declared 
in  the  Koran.  *"  And  one  of  you  is  predestined  to  be 
an  unbeliever,  and  another  of  you  is  predestined  to  be  a 
believer."  Unbelief  proceeded  from  a  being  who  was 
the  source  of  all  evil,  Satan — Eblis ;  he  causes  un- 
belief in  men,  and  leads  even  the  believer  to  disobey 
the  law  of  the  Prophet.  Mahomedanism  elaborated 
the  doctrine  of  the  devil,  as  also  the  opposite  theory  of 
angels,  and  made  these  distinct  articles  of  the  Islam 
creed.  It  is  manifest  that  Mahomed,  in  pursuance  of 
these  dogmas,  would  pronounce  war  against  unbelievers 
to  be  a  religious  duty,  since  such  war  ejBPected  the 
limitation  of  the  devil's  power,  and  the  conversion  of 
the  posterity  of  unbelievers  into  believers.  The  exclu- 
siveness  that  is  inculcated  by  Christianity,  albeit  in  its 
passive  form,  in  Mahomedanism,  in  conformity  with  the 
nature  of  the  East,  takes  an  active  character,  and  as- 
sumes the  offensive. 

Of  the  direct  relation  of  God  to  man,  no  question 
*  Sale's  Kovan,  chap.lxiv. 


could  longer  be  entertained.  God  M^as,  according  to 
Islamism,  a  supernal  necessity  or  fate,  before  whom 
man  was  nought  save  an  enslaved  being,  attaining  signi- 
ficance solely  through  faith  in  this  divine  fate  and 
in  Mahomed.  The  life  of  man  had  no  aim  or  purport, 
except  faith.  In  it  no  general  principle  of  morals  (such 
as  Christianity  derived  from  Mosaism  and  combined 
with  its  own  system)  could  be  enforced.  As  however, 
in  the  Eastern,  the  Ideal  per  se,  is  not  a  predominating 
element,  Mahomed  was  compelled  to  seek  in  material 
life  a  fulcrum  for  his  religious  system.  We  have  con- 
sequently not  to  expect  any  consistent  unity  of  the  Idea 
and  the  life,  as  established  by  Mosaism ;  for  life  itself 
was  of  no  import,  according  to  Mahomedanism.  In  it 
there  was  no  connecting  link  between  the  Idea  and  the 
life;  for  the  creation  of  the  soul  of  man  in  God's 
image,  and  with  it  the  sanctification  of  man  in  God, 
had  disappeared  in  Islamism.  It  therefore  enforced, 
but  did  not  consistently  develop,  certain  external  and 
material  circumstances  only  of  human  existence.  The 
things  it  commanded  were,  purifications,  fasts,  pray- 
ers repeated  five  times  daily,  alms-giving,  and  if 
possible,  a  pilgrimage  to  Mecca.  The  things  inter- 
dicted were,  the  drinking  of  wine,  the  eating  of  swine's 
flesh — of  blood — of  the  flesh  of  such  animals  as  have 
died  of  themselves  or  have  been  suffocated  or  killed  by  a 
blow,  or  torn  by  a  wild  beast — and  all  games  of  chance. 
These  ordinances  were  partly  borrowed  from  the  neigh- 
bouring heathen  nations,  partly  derived  from  Mosaism. 
With  these  was  combined  a  body  of  municipal  regula- 
tions regarding  marriage,  inheritances,  murder,  and  theft. 
For  a  murder,  the  relatives  were  free  to  accept,  at  their 
option,   compensation   in   money ;    while   to   the  thief 

N  2 

180  LECTURE    VIll. 

the  severer  punishment  was    adjvidged    of   having    his 
right  hand  chopped  off. 

The  stronger  was  the  tendency  prevailing  in  Islamism 
to  set  forth  and  consolidate  religious  belief  by  means  of 
political  power,  the  more  rapidly  did  Religion  and  the 
State  become  identified.  The  kingdom  of  the  faitliful 
comprehends  therefore  both  Church  and  State.  The 
Kalipli  or  Sultan,  is  the  Vicegerent  of  Mahomed,  the 
head  of  the  Mahomedan  Church  ;  and  the  grades  below 
him  are,  like  him,  either  servants  of  the  sword,  under  the 
names  of  Vizirs  and  Pashas,  or  teachers  and  commanders, 
under  the  names  of  Imaums  and  Ulemas.  Thus,  while 
in  Mosaism  religion  and  society  should  be  in  strict 
accordance,  it  was  inevitable  that  Christianity,  by  the 
separation,  in  its  system,  of  religion  and  society,  should 
originate  a  severance  of  Church  and  State.  In  Islam- 
ism, on  the  contrary,  Church  and  State  are  identified ; 
so  that  a  new  sect  could  arise  only  in  another  state  — 
for  example,  Turkey  and  Persia.  We  therefore  recog- 
nise in  Islamism,  the  passing  of  the  Religious  Idea 
out  of  Judaism  into  Eastern  heathenism.  The  doctrine 
of  the  one  super-mundane  God,  won  to  itself  the 
stedfast  allegiance  of  the  Eastern  world.  Islamism 
however,  while  it  held  fast  instead  of,  like  Christianity, 
modifying  this  fundamental  principle,  was  powerless  to 
overcome  other  and  minor  existing  heathen  elements. 
The  creation  of  man  in  his  Maker's  image,  and  the 
thereon  consequent  freedom  of  man,  succumbed  beneath 
the  heathen  conception  of  the  law  of  necessity.  The 
direct  relation  of  God  to  man,  as  also  his  sanctitication 
by  morality,  resolved  themselves  into  the  one  condition 
of  the  validity  of  faith  only.  Equality  of  right  and 
personal   freedom  were    rendered   null  by    the  action 


of  slavery;  by  the  personal  authority  exercised  by 
believers;  by  the  war  waged  against  unbelievers;  by 
the  principle  of  election,  and  exclusion ;  and  by  the 
identification  of  Religion  and  State.  Charity  took  the 
form  of  alms-giving.  The  immortality  of  the  spirit  was 
limited  by  the  fantastic  foreshadowing  of  a  future 
existence,  devoted  to  unbridled  sensuality. 

After  this  manner  did  that  Mahomedanism,  whose 
first  principles  were  derived  from  Mosaism,  become  iu 
its  subsequent  development  wholly  antagonistic  to  the 
Mosaic  system.     The  relation  of  Islamism  to  Christi- 
anity bore  again  a  different  character.     In  consequence 
of  its  strict  adherence  to  the  doctrine  of  the  Unity,  and 
of  the  modification  by  Christianity  of  this  docrine  into 
that  of  the  Trinity,  Islamism  became  opposed  to  Chris- 
tianity.    Irrespective   of  this  one  point  of  divergence, 
Islamism  has  considerable  analogy  with  Christianity,  and 
it  is  perhaps  more  consistent  in  its  development  than 
Christianity  itself.    Both  rehgions  inculcate  justification 
by  faith ;  in  both  the  standard  of  value  of  human  action, 
is  faith  alone.    Both  promise  eternal  bliss  to  the  believer 
only.     But  Christianity  is  inconsistent,  in  its  retention 
of  doctrines  belonging  to  the  Religious  Idea,  namely, 
Divine  Providence,  the  freedom  of  man,  and  the  laws 
of  morality.     Islamism  is  consistent  in  declaring  Fate 
or  Necessity  to  be  the  arbiter  of  human  destiny,  and 
morality  to  consist  exclusively  in  the  practice  of  certain 
prescribed  ordinances  of  religion.      From  this  incon- 
sistency   of    the    Christian,    and    consistency    of    the 
Mahomedan  system,  resulted  the  principal  conditions 
marking  their  respective  histories.      By  virtue  of  this 
inconsistency,  the   path    of    progress   was    opened    in 
Christianity.       By   its   means,   the    great    conflict    was 

182  LECTURE    VIII. 

prepared,  in  which  the  Christian  intellect  has  been 
engaged  unremittingly  for  centuries.  Whether  or  not 
is  salvation  attainable  by  faith  alone?  In  this  ques- 
tion, the  consistency  of  the  Christian  dogma  is  wholly 
involved ;  for  with  the  elements  of  the  Religious  Idea 
indwelling  Christianity,  is  this  question  closely  linked. 
In  consistent  Mahomedanism,  progress  or  development 
was  impossible ;  since  by  its  very  system,  all  such  pro- 
gress was  arrested  and  repressed.  A  human  being, 
whose  destiny  necessity  alone  determines,  can  do  nought 
save  believe,  and  if  he  have  the  power,  remove  the  un- 
believer from  his  path. 

To  Christianity  therefore,  the  road  to  the  Religious 
Idea  is  open;  for  the  Christian  system  gradually  re- 
solves itself  into  the  Religious  Idea.  Islamism  on  the 
contrary,  can  but  fall  into  decay  under  the  action  of 
the  Religious  Idea;  and,  the  point  of  annihilation  at- 
tained, must  be  succeeded  by  that  Idea  itself. 

The  final  result  of  this  inquiry  into  the  respective 
natures  of  Islamism  and  Christianity  is  then,  as  follows. 
The  Religious  Idea,  as  founded  by  Mosaism,  after  over- 
coming heathenism  in  the  Jewish  race,  and  securing  in 
that  race  depositaries  wholly  devoted  to  their  mission, 
passed  in  Christianity  and  Moslemism,  out  of  Judaism 
(only  as  an  Idea  however,  and  without  control  over 
material  life)  into  the  general  world  of  man.  Under 
the  form  of  Christianity,  it  overcame  the  disorganised 
Heathenism  of  the  West ;  under  that  of  Islamism,  the 
feebly  existing  remnants  of  Heathenism  in  the  East. 
In  both  religions,  the  Religious  Idea  was  so  amalga- 
mated with,  and  modified  by,  elements  of  the  heathen 
idea,  that  in  Christianity  it  retained  its  hold  on  the 
human  mind,  as  idea  only ;  while  in  rigidly  consistent 


Moslemism^  the  lieatlien  element  preponderated.  Ju- 
daism therefore  remained  the  bearer  of  the  Religious 
Idea,  whole  and  entire,  though  combining  it  in  Tal- 
mudism  with  a  newly-elaborated  code  of  enactments,  in 
order  to  preserve  it  in  the  dispersion  of  the  Jewish 
race,  from  the  new  antagonisms  of  Christianity  and 
Islamism,  for  the  future  of  mankind. 




In  the  foregoing  lectures  we  sought  to  elucidate  the 
relation  of  Christianity  and  Islamism  to  the  Religious 
Idea,  and  thence  to  deduce  the  necessity  for  the  con- 
tinued existence  in  Judaism  of  the  religious  idea  in  its 
completeness.  Were  I  to  adhere  strictly  to  the  natural 
order  of  the  subjects  to  be  treated  in  these  lectures,  it 
would  certainly  indicate  that  we  should  now  proceed  to 
consider  the  manner  and  mode  of  this  continued  exist- 
ence in  Talmudism  ;  and  also  (having  already  discussed 
the  rise  of  Talmudism  previous  to  Christianity)  the  pur- 
port and  character  of  Talmudism  itself. 

I  deem  it  advisable,  nevertheless,  first  to  call  your 
attention  to  the  phase  of  existence  exhibited  in  the 
receptacles  of  this  Talmudic- Judaism — Jewdom.  And 
for  what  reason  ?  you  will  enquire.  Talmudism  is  so 
peculiar  a  creation,  the  result  of  such  peculiar  intellec- 
tual tendencies,  that  it  is  impossible  to  comprehend  its 
nature,  unless  we  previously  understand  the  object  for 
which  it  was  designed — unless  we  have  previously  re- 
cognised its  aim,  its  scope,  and  its  indispeusability.  If 
it  has  been  ascertained — first,  that  the  preservation  of 
Jewdom  was  necessary  to  the  endurance  of  the  re- 
ligious idea;  and  secondly,  that  by  Talmudism  alone 


the  continued  existence  of  Jewdom  could  be  secured ; 
we  shall  have  possessed  ourselves  of  the  guiding  thread, 
without  which  we  might  wander  pathless  in  its  vast  and 
intricate  labyrinths. 

I  bespeak  your  attention  to-day  therefore  to  the  his- 
tory of  the  Jews  in  their  dispersion.  I  must  premise 
however,  that  it  is  foreign  to  the  task  I  have  undertaken 
to  give  utterance  to  the  just  lamentations,  which 
an  intimate  acquaintance  with  a  history,  whose  every 
page,  nay,  whose  every  line,  whose  every  letter  is 
written  in  blood,  may  well  wring  from  the  sincere 
friend  of  humanity.  This  blood  was  not  shed  on  the 
battle-field,  where  the  destinies  of  nations  were  decided  ; 
nor  was  this  martyrdom  endured  as  expiation  for  crime, 
but  this  life-stream  was  pressed  from  the  heart,  this  mar- 
tyrdom crushed  the  limbs,  of  a  race  of  men,  who,  guilt- 
less of  wrong  against  the  lives  or  the  property  of  their 
folio w-beings,  sought  but  liberty  to  live  true  to  their 
consciences  and  their  God.  History,  like  her  eternal 
sister.  Nature,  possesses  the  great  privilege  of  recording 
the  general  results  of  events,  and  of  passing  silently 
over  the  griefs  and  sufferings  laid  successively  by  in- 
dividuals on  the  altar  of  the  general  good.  The  unin- 
terrupted and  eternal  production  of  life  is  the  law  of 
nature.  But  life  necessitates  death.  Countless  old 
generations  must  die  that  countless  new  generations  may 
be  born.  In  order  to  sustain  life  nature  must  destroy 
life.  In  like  manner,  history  requires  the  suffering  and 
the  annihilation  of  millions  of  individual  men,  in  order 
to  secure  to  the  race  of  man  continued  and  progressive 
development,  and  to  prepare  for  it  an  ever  greater 
future,  an  ever  more  glorious  existence.  Judged 
according  to   this    standard,    the  thousand  holocausts 

186  LECTURE    IX. 

which  the  annals  of  every  people  record  axe  recognised 
to  have  been  offered  for  a  loftier  end.  History^  which 
would  otherwise  present  a  melancholy  picture  of  tyranny 
and  slavery,  of  force  and  thraldom,  of  human  suffer- 
ings and  passions,  becomes,  when  viewed  in  this  light,  a 
solemn  record  of  the  eternal  strivings  of  mankind  for 
higher  objects,  of  its  aspirations  for  the  conquest  of 
truth  and  right. 

Let  us  thus  look  upon  the  history  of  Jewdom  in  its  dis- 
persions, and  we  shall  at  once  perceive,  that  these  dis- 
persions had  for  aim  and  end  the  preservation  of  the 
Religious  Idea ;  and  that  all  that  the  Jews,  its  deposita- 
ries and  bearers,  were  called  upon  to  endure,  all  their  , 
sufferings  during  fifteen  centuries  (of  which  sufferings, 
alas  !  many  still  continue)  were  a  necessity  which  in  the 
fulfilment  of  their  sublime  mission  could  not  be  averted. 
Nay,  instead  of  the  remembrance  of  the  evil  treatment 
received  by  this  peaceable  people  causing  us  to  mourn, 
the  thought  should  rather  inspire  us  with  feelings  of  ad- 
miration at  the  inward  power  of  the  spirit,  enabling  a 
whole  race  to  conquer  all  disasters  and  defy  all  calamities. 
What  more  does  Jewdom  desire?  It  has  gained  the  vic- 
tory. The  world  sought  to  annihilate  it,  and  yet  Jewdom 
exists.  The  world  strove  to  render  it  dumb,  and  yet  Jew- 
dom speaks,  speaks  now,  even  louder  and  more  audibly 
than  ever,  in  the  ears  of  mankind.  Yet  more — Jewdom 
sees  the  animosity  which  prevailed  against  her  daily  di- 
minish— hears  the  world  rescind  daily  its  hostile  edicts — 
feels  her  sufferings  and  anguish  pass  away,  virulence  and 
oppression  gradually  die  out.  Jewdom  may  with  truth 
exclaim,  '  I  have  endured  to  the  end ;  and  this  en- 
durance has  won  its  reward.'  It  has  achieved  that 
which  it  was  its  task  to  accomplish ;  it  has  preserved  the 


religious  idea  for  the  great  future  of  mankind.  Let  us 
therefore  not  deem  the  history  of  Jewdom  in  its  dis- 
persions to  be  but  a  blood-stained  record  of  uniform 
oppression  and  violence.  Let  us  on  the  contrary,  re- 
cognise it  to  be  that  which  it  truly  is — the  conflict  of 
the  Spirit  with  its  antagonisms  for  the  eternal  preserva- 
tion of  the  Religious  Idea.  Seen  under  this  aspect 
the  existence  of  the  Jewish  people  is  neither  a  mystic 
riddle,  as  by  some  it  has  been  supposed  to  be,  for  the 
key  to  its  solution  lies  at  hand ;  nor  is  it  a  mom'nful 
picture  veiled  in  sadness;  it  is  a  brilliant  image,  de- 
lineating the  power  of  the  immortal  soul  of  man. 

We  repeat — the  sufferings  of  the  Jewish  race,  from 
the  fourth  century  down  to  the  present  time,  their 
exclusion  from  political  society,  the  persecutions  they 
have  endured  throughout  the  world,  were  the  necessary 
conditions  of  the  fulfilment  of  their  holy  mission.  This 
proposition  we  now  proceed  to  examine  and  to  verify. 

When  a  nation  loses  its  independence,  one  of  two 
consequences  must  ensue;  either  it  is  destroyed  in  the 
last  struggle,  or  (and  this  is  but  another  form  of  de- 
struction) it  is  amalgamated  with  its  conquerors.  The 
nation  may  be  preserved  in  its  separate  members,  but 
in  its  collective  form,  its  especial  purpose,  its  na- 
tionality in  fine,  it  exists  no  longer.  To  the  existence 
of  the  Jewish  race  no  such  close  was  appointed;  for 
the  fulfilment  of  its  lofty  mission  forbad  alike  its  anni- 
hilation and  its  amalgamation  with  its  conquerors.  That 
race  was  dispersed,  retaining  in  its  dispersion  its  pecu- 
liar character.  This  dispersion,  as  we  have  shown  in  a 
former  lecture,  was  the  instrument  of  its  material  sal- 
vation. Had  this  numerically  insignificant  nation  (the 
smallest  of  all  the  peoples  of  the  earth)  remained  in 

188  LECTURE    IX. 

Palestine,  it  could  not  have  retained  its  integrity  amid 
the  irruptions  of  the  barbarians,  the  conquests  of  the 
Mahomedan  Arabians,  the  incursions  of  Zhengiskhan 
and  of  the  Saracens  and  Turkomans.  That  it  had 
been  conquered  and  dismembered  by  the  tolerant  Ro- 
mans before  the  outbreak  of  these  wars  of  devastation 
and  of  the  Crusades,  was  a  beneficent  ordination  of 
the  Almighty  Ruler  of  the  Universe,  and  an  evidence  of 
His  governing  providence. 

The  existence  of  the  Jewish  race  as  a  people  was  not 
necessary.  Indeed  the  accomplishment  of  their  sacred 
task  was  far  more  powerfully  aided  by  their  dispersion. 
Through  the  absence  of  all  political  and  municipal 
vitality  in  the  numerous  isolated  communities,  was 
this,  their  task  more  promptly  and  efficiently  performed. 
The  religious  idea  was  freed  by  the  dispersion  of  the 
Jews  from  the  trammelling  influence  of  political  and 
municipal  life,  and  space  and  opportunity  were  secured 
to  its  depositaries  for  their  own  and  its  preservation. 

But  for  this  end  it  was  also  necessary,  that  the  Jews 
should  be  placed  in  a  position  which  would  prevent 
their  amalgamation  with  the  dominant  nation  in  whose 
centre  they  respectively  dwelt.  On  this  point  I  am 
anxious  to  avoid  misapprehension.  I  would  therefore 
observe,  that  I  here  refer  exclusively  to  the  times  at 
which  nations  were  specifically  ruled  by  the  two  new 
churches,  in  part  antagonistic  to  the  religious  idea, 
Christianity  and  Moslemism,  then  in  their  most  dog- 
matic stage  of  development :  an  era  at  which  the  political 
amalgamation  of  the  Hebrew  race  would  have  been  in- 
evitably combined  with  an  absorption  of  the  religious 
idea  into  the  forms  of  Christianity  and  Islamism ;  an 
age,  as  will  be  admitted,  wholly  difterent  in  its  character 


from  the  present  time,  and  inducing  consequently  wholly 
different  conditions  of  existence. 

That  the  Jewish  race  should  assume  in  their  disper- 
sions, a  distinctive  and  isolating  mental  costume  and 
character,  which  should  place  them  in  strong  contrast 
to  the  dominant  churches,  (and  this  idiosyncracy  was 
secured  to  them  by  Talmudism)  and  that  their  temporal 
position  should  be  exclusive  in  its  tendency,  so  as  to 
render  them  wholly  dependent  on  themselves  and  their 
own  resources,  (a  state  of  being  imposed  on  them  by 
the  iron  rule  of  the  middle  ages)  was  a  historical  ne- 
cessity. Both  conditions  were  indispensable  to  the  pre- 
servation of  the  Jewish  race  in  its  integrity,  and  both 
were  fulfilled. 

It  may  be  objected,  and  with  truth  if  the  material 
fact  be  alone  considered,  that  the  social  position  of  the 
Jews  and  the  oppression  and  suffering  to  which  they 
were  exposed,  were  virtually  induced  by  the  peculiari- 
ties to  which  the  race  so  pertinaciously  adhered.  But 
if  the  Jews  had  not,  both  from  choice  and  necessity, 
preserved  their  individuality,  their  fusion  with  the  other 
dominant  creeds  would  have  been  inevitable ;  and  true 
it  certainly  is,  that  in  their  new  garb  of  Christian  and 
Mahomedan  they  would  have  had  nothing  to  endure. 
The  service  of  the  Religious  Idea  rendered  this  immu- 
nity impossible.  Nor  does  this  afford  to  the  dominant 
churches  the  slightest  justification  for  the  tyranny  and 
cruelty  exercised  by  them  towards  the  Hebrew  race. 
The  peculiarity  of  my  fellow-man,  as  long  as  it  does 
no  injury  to  society,  in  no  way  gives  me  the  right  to  in- 
jure him  in  life,  property,  and  honour;  nor  to  beat 
him  to  death,  either  morally  or  physically.  The  pre- 
servation of  this  peculiarity  was  the  only  reproach  cast 

190  LECTURE    IX. 

upon  the  Jews  after  tliey  had  been  degraded  to  the  very 
lowest  social  position  by  their  oppressors.  It  has,  how- 
ever, I  trust,  been  clearly  shown,  that  for  this  con- 
dition of  things  there  existed  an  historical  necessity. 
To  the  Jewish  race  it  Avas  given  to  preserve  within  itself 
the  religious  idea,  unscathed  by  the  antagonisms  of  the 
dominant  Christian  and  Mahomedan  churches.  The 
only  means  by  which  this  could  be  carried  out  was,  the 
adoption  of  a  peculiar  external  form  of  religious  life. 
So  soon  as  the  dominant  churches  came  to  compre- 
hend the  antagonisms  to  their  own  system  inherent  in 
Judaism,  they  naturally  sought  to  annihilate  Judaism, 
or  to  thrust  aside  and  supplant  it.  The  necessaiy 
consequences  of  this  animosity  were  the  constant  per- 
secutions and  banishments  of  the  Jews,  and  their 
political  and  municipal  expulsion  Avhether  as  commu- 
nities or  as  individuals. 

Another  historical  feature  of  the  middle  ages  was  the 
feudal  system.  Its  most  marked  tendency  was  the  sub- 
diAdsion  of  the  state  into  guilds  or  companies.  Feudal- 
ism split  up  the  aggregate  of  society  into  many  separate 
bodies,  and  assigned  to  each  a  particular  position  and 
constitution,  and  individual  rights  and  privileges.  In- 
stead of  erecting  the  state  on  the  universal  basis  of 
equal  and  general  rights,  instead  of  comprehending 
each  and  every  portion  of  society  as  constituting  an 
integral  part  of  the  whole  social  fabric,  instead  of  recog- 
nising the  people  collectively  to  be  one  body  politic, 
feudalism  divides  and  subdivides  them,  according  to  a 
certain  fixed  scheme,  from  the  monarch  down  to  the 
serf,  into  classes,  guilds,  corporations,  and  arranges 
them  in  orders,  companies,  etc.,  that  stand  to  each 
other  in  the  relative  positions  of  inferior  and  superior. 


What  post  was  appointed  to  the  Jew  in  this  feudal 
state?  What  rank  was  he  to  hold  in  this  scheme? 
Neither  amid  the  nobles,  nor  the  guilds  of  the  towns, 
nor  the  serfdom  of  the  peasant,  would  it  concede  a  place 
to  the  Hebrew.  Feudalism  condemned  the  Jew  -to 
remain  a  foreign  excrescence,  an  outcast  from  them  all. 
By  feudalism  were  the  Jews  considered  to  be  but  appen- 
dages of  the  monarch,  who  in  his  gracious  clemency- 
tolerated  their  presence  as  imperial  or  royal  menials. 
They  paid  tribute  to  the  sovereign,  were  under  his  im- 
mediate protection,  which  he  could  grant,  or  rather  sell 
to  them,  or  withhold  from  them,  at  his  royal  pleasure. 
They  were  thus  denied  all  rights,  were  compelled  to 
dwell  in  separate  quarters  of  the  towns,  were  forbidden 
to  hold  land  and  to  pursue  any  trade.  But  one  alter- 
native was  allowed,  but  one  dark  retreat  afforded  them, 
whence  their  fellow-men  shrunk  in  disgust.  Permission 
was  accorded  them  to  wander  as  hawkers,  pedlars,  and 
money-lenders,  foot-sore  and  weary,  from  place  to  place.* 
So  abject  was  the  plight  to  which  the  feudal  system  had 
reduced  the  sons  of  Israel;  those  who  in  Palestine  had 
been  a  free  and  agricultui'al  people,  in  Rome  Roman  citi- 
zens, were  now  condemned  to  be  hirelings  and  menials, 
earning  their  exile's  bread  in  the  land  of  their  birth  by 
hawking  and  usury.  Princes  and  emperors  pledged 
their  right  to  the  tenure  of  Jews,  sometimes  to  towns, 
sometimes  to  feudal  lords  of  higher  or  lower  degree.  In 
other  instances  they  conceded  their  claim  to  the  servitude 
of  the  Jews  for  payment,  or  in  compliance  with  petitions 

*  True  were  then  the  poet's  words : — 

"  The  wild  dove  hath  her  nest,  the  fox  his  cave, 
Mankind  their  country,  Israel  but  the  grave." 

192  LECTURE    IX. 

or  threats,  to  certain  circles  and  towns.  From  this  arbi- 
trary and  lawless  rule  to  which  they  were  subjected, 
other  and  serious  evils  resulted  to  the  Jews.  The 
callings  they  were  permitted  to  pursue,  acted  prejudi- 
cially on  their  moral  condition.  It  may  with  truth  be 
asserted,  that  the  highest  credit  redounds  to  the  Jewish 
race,  that  under  the  pressure  of  circumstances  so 
degrading,  they  not  only  were  not  wholly  demoralised, 
but  preserved  a  freshness  of  spirit  and  a  strength  of 
character,  which  they  mainly  derived  from  the  peculiar 
constitution  of  their  spiritual  and  religious  life.  In 
other  instances  again,  these  pursuits  brought  them 
constantly  into  collision  with  great  and  small.  The 
borrower  hates  the  lender ;  the  more  deeply  he  is 
indebted,  the  more  entirely  he  is  in  the  power  of  his 
creditor,  the  more  anxious  is  he  to  set  him  aside  by 
physical  force,  particularly  in  an  age  when  might  made 
right,  and  when  that  lender  was  without  arms  and 
without  legal  defence.  Thus  the  longer  the  Jews 
remained  in  any  one  locality,  the  more  imminent  and 
certain  were  their  persecution  and  expulsion,  simply 
because  the  greater  was  the  number  of  those  whose 
interest  it  was  to  effect  their  removal. 

A  third  and  necessary  consequence  was,  that  as  the 
snail  ever  seeks  shelter  within  its  shelly  tenement  from 
the  bruising  heel  of  the  passer-by,  so  the  persecuted  Jew 
ever  withdrew  deeper  and  deeper  into  intellectual  seclu- 
sion. All  spiritual  connection  with  other  nations 
gradually  ceased.  An  attachment  to  scientific  pursuits, 
which  had  endured  to  a  much  later  period  (even  so 
late  as  the  commencement  of  the  fifteenth  century) 
among  the  Jews  than  among  the  Arabians  and  Chris- 
tians, expired  at  length  amid  the  universal  persecutions 


to  which  they  were  subjected,  particularly  those  which 
accompanied  their  expulsion  from  Spain.  At  the  era 
when  the  taste  for  classical  studies  was  revived,  and 
when  the  other  European  peoples  gladly  shook  off  their 
long  intellectual  lethargy,  no  ray  of  morning  light 
could  penetrate  into  the  dark  Ghetto  or  Jews'  quarter, 
and  dawn  on  the  mental  vision  of  the  crouching  and  hope- 
fallen  son  of  Abraham.  Even  religious  speculation  was 
arrested  in  the  crushed  spirits,  that  were  only  perma- 
nently saved  from  entire  paralysation  by  the  [exciting 
study  of  the  Talmud  whetting  the  edge  of  intellectual 
subtlety,  though  this  was  limited  to  the  analytical 
disquisitions  of  casuistry.  Of  this  the  result  is  mani- 
fest; the  ecclesiastical  system  of  the  middle  ages  sought, 
in  its  spirit  of  exclusiveness,  to  annihilate  the  Jews, 
since  in  Judaism  was  included'the  most  uncompromising 
antagonism  to  that  exclusiveness — the  Religious  Idea. 
Where  they  could  not  succeed  in  extirpating,  they 
tried  to  expel  them  from  municipal  society.  Feudalism, 
amid  its  divisions  and  subdivisions  that  virtually  denied 
the  equality  of  human  rights,  had  no  place  for  the 
outcasts  of  the  Church — the  rejected  Hebrews.  It 
placed  them  without  the  pale  of  law  and  right,  and  as 
it  transformed  the  peasantry  into  the  bondmen  (serfs) 
of  the  nobles,  so  it  made  the  Jews  to  be  the  bondmen 
(serving-men)  of  the  monarch.  Yet  as  compared  with 
the  Church,  the  feudal  system  was  the  salvation  of 
Jewdom.  From  the  personal  influence  of  the  monarch, 
they  often  derived  protection ;  seeing  that  as  occasion 
might  be,  the  sovereigns  either  thought  more  tolerantly 
or  felt  more  humanely  than  the  petty  tyrants,  their 
subjects ;  or  they  needed  the  gold  of  the  Jews,  their 
loans,    the   purchase-money   for   protection ;    or    they 

194  LECTURE    IX. 

were  impelled  to  xiphoid  them  by  a  spirit  of  opposition 
to  the  church,  which  spirit,  as  is  well  known,  was  not 
unfrequently  rife  in  Christendom.  And  the  Jews,  in 
truth,  required  nought,  save  according  to  the  necessities 
of  the  hour,  a  few  spots  of  earth  on  which  to  exist,  to 
weather  the  storm,  and  to  outlive  the  days  of  menaced 

If  we  have  now  made  clear  the  historical  necessity 
for  the  position  of  the  Jews  in  the  middle  ages,  as  also 
the  conditions  by  which  it  was  attained,  let  us  proceed 
briefly  to  review  the  facts  as  they  arose. 

After  the  final  conflicts  with  the  pagan  Romans, 
the  Jews  had  obtained  the  full  rights  of  lloman 
citizenship,  and  during  its  enjoyment,  gained  a  con- 
siderable degree  of  prosperity  and  possessed  entire 
civil  and  religious  freedom,  in  so  far  as  the  former  any- 
where existed.  The  first  Roman  emperors  who  adopted 
the  Christian  religion,  were  compelled  to  exercise  their 
rule  tolerantly,  in  their  half-heathen,  half-Christian 
dominions.  So  soon,  however,  as  the  Christian  church 
obtained  temporal  sway,  it  began  to  oppose  the  Jews, 
even  in  their  very  existence.  Bishops  who  were  held  to 
be  shining  lights  among  the  church  Fathers,  such  as  the 
holy  Ambrosius,  Cyril,  and  others,  hurled  anathemas 
and  excited  the  populace  against  the  Jews.  Synagogues 
were  reduced  to  ashes,  whole  communities  compelled  by 
means  of  murder  and  plunder  to  self-expatriation.  The 
councils  having  recognised  that  the  Jews  were  not  to 
be  won  over  to  Christianity  in  the  mass,  zealously 
opposed  all  peaceful  social  intercourse  with  them.  Mar- 
riages between  Jews  and  Christians  were  interdicted  ; 
the  Christians  were  forbidden  even  to  eat  with  the  Jew ; 
the  Jews  to  have  Christian  slaves  and  servants,  while 


the  Christians  were  allowed  to  employ  Jews  in  these 
capacities.  Under  such  influence,  the  emperors  issued 
successive  decrees,  by  which  the  municipal  condition  of 
the  Jews  became  more  and  more  fettered ;  they  were 
expelled  from  the  army,  excluded  from  the  civil  service, 
and  were  at  length  deprived  of  all  offices  of  honour  in 
the  municipalities  till  under  the  emperors  Honorius  and 
Arcadius  in  the  year  430,  they  were  wholly  despoiled 
of  all  civil  rights,  and  degraded  to  the  very  lowest  class 
among  the  people.  It  is  here  worthy  of  special  note, 
that  these  very  decrees  (preserved  to  us  in  the  Codex 
Theodosianus)  declare  the  Jews  to  be  innocent,  and  thus 
testify  that  they  were  issued  on  reHgious  grounds  only. 
For  these  decrees,  while  successively  depriving  the  Jews 
of  one  right  after  the  other,  contain  consolatory  and 
laudatory  expressions,  and  refer  to  such  remnants  of 
civil  liberty  as  were  preserved,  till  the  final  stroke  was 
put  to  this  cruel  spoliation.  Thus  the  church  had 
deprived  the  Jews  of  all  legal  rights,  had  excluded  them 
from  all  civil  society,  long  before  feudalism  had  come 
into  existence. 

When  Moslemism  subdued  and  overspread  the 
Eastern  world,  it  assumed  politically  only,  an  attitude 
hostile  to  the  Jews.  Islamism  sought  but  empire  and 
never  practised  religious  persecution  against  the  Israel- 
ites. When  excluding  the  Jews  from  public  functions 
(those  connected  mth  the  financial  administration  ex- 
cepted) and  even  when  depriving  them  of  privileges 
enjoyed  by  true  believers,  as  their  right,  Mahomedanism 
granted  to  the  Israelites  religious  toleration ;  but  when 
the  East  early  relapsed  into  a  state  of  stagnation  and 
non-progress,  when  the  elements  of  despotism  developed 
themselves  more  and  more   in   Mahomedan  rule,  the 

o  2 



Jews  participated  in  this  degeneracy,  and  became  an 
ignorant,  motionless,  spiritless  mass. 

In  Ganl  and  Sjiain,  the  Jews  enjoyed  under  the 
Goths  the  full  rights  of  citizenship.  This  rendered  it  the 
more  natural  that  the  Catholic  Franks  should  regard 
them  as  adversaries,  should  deprive  them  of  their  legal 
immunities,  and  in  obedience  to  the  behests  of  the 
clergy,  should  interfere  with  the  freedom  of  their  re- 
ligious worship,  encroach  upon  their  possessions,  and 
coerce  them  to  accept  baptism.  In  Spain,  therefore,  the 
Jews  hailed  the  advent  of  the  Moors  as  that  of  deliverers, 
who  ensured  to  them  renewed  security  and  peace. 

In  the  extensive  dominions  of  Charles  the  Great,  at 
the  time  when  feudalism  began  to  prevail,  the  Jews 
Avere  of  infinite  service  in  the  state.  Their  frequent 
journeys,  their  wide-spreading  connections,  their  ac- 
quaintance with  all  parts  of  the  empire,  their  dexterity, 
tact  and  activit}^  singularly  qualified  them  for  the 
performance  of  business  of  various  kinds ;  in  circum- 
stances too,  where  the  ignorance  of  the  great  and  even 
of  the  ecclesiastics,  and  the  abject  condition  of  the 
people,  would  have  given  rise  to  considerable  embarrass- 
ment. On  these  accounts  favour  was  shown  them ; 
permission  to  hold  landed  property,  and  protection 
against  encroachment  and  oppression  were  granted  them. 
The  weaker  however  the  royal  rule  of  Charles'  and 
Louis'  successors  became,  the  more  enmity  the  clergy 
and  councils  shewed  towards  the  Jews,  the  more  the 
feudal  system  developed  itself,  the  deeper  sank  the  Jew- 
ish race  into  the  condition  we  have  above  described ; 
demands  upon  them  for  money  became  more  and  more 
numerous;  taxes  on  beds,  parchments  and  kitchens, 
taxes  for  comings- in  and  goings-out,  followed  in  rapid 


succession,  and  formed  at  least  one  source  of  the  interest 
eatertained  by  tlie  monarch  in  the  presence  of  Jews  in 
his  dominions.  Scarcely,  however,  had  the  feudal  system 
assigned  to  the  Israelites  a  position  which,  though  deny- 
ing them  all  rights,  was  yet  determined  by  law,  when 
the  church,  to  whose  power  the  Crusades  had  given  a 
fresh  impulse,  reintroduced  in  an  extended  form  the  per- 
secution of  the  Jews  throughout  Europe.  The  first  out- 
break of  the  Crusades  reached  the  Jews,  and  the  flames 
spreadfrom  its  birth-place,  Treves,  over  the  whole  empire. 
Metz,  Cologne,  Worms,  Mayence,  Speyer,  prepared  de- 
struction and  death  to  the  proscribed  sons  of  Israel. 
They  fled  to  Moravia,  Silesia  and  Poland.  After  the  close 
of  the  Crusades,  the  revival  of  the  accusations  against 
them  of  purloining  the  host  and  of  drinking  the  blood  of 
Christian  children,  excited  the  people  to  frenzy  and  to 
deeds  of  blood,  and  thousands  of  Jews  without  distinction 
of  age  or  sex,  were  mercilessly  sacrificed.  The  carnage 
began  on  this  occasion  in  Switzerland  and  extended  to 
the  borders  of  Poland.  These  abominations  did  not 
cease  till  the  years  of  the  Reformation;  and  even  then 
were  occasionally  revived ;  while  in  their  social  position 
they  were  even  the  more  enslaved ;  they  were  denied  all 
connection  with  human  society,  they  were  excluded  from 
all  participation  in  the  world's  movements.  They  paid 
tribute  for  their  very  bodies  like  the  beasts  of  the 

While  often  exposed  to  murderous  violence  on  the 
blood-stained  soil  of  Germany,  but  allowed  to  exist  as  a 
a  race,  they  were  repeatedly  expelled  from  Spain,  France, 
and  England.  From  Spain,  where  under  the  Moorish 
rule  the  Jews  had  attained  a  high,  social,  literary,  and 
scientific  position,  they  were  in  the  year  1492  wholly 

198  LECTURE    IX. 

expelled  by  the  expeller  of  the.  Moors,  Ferdinand.  Three 
hundred  thousand  left  their  beautiful  fatherland;  of  these 
some  perished  by  the  way,  others  fled  to  Barbary,  and 
others  sought  refuge  in  Turkey  and  Holland.  Four  times 
were  the  Jews  banished  from  France,  and  as  frequently 
recalled.  In  1290,  they  were  driven  from  England, 
where  they  had  long  dwelt,  but  where  their  exclusion 
from  all  save  financial  business  had  especially  exposed 
them  to  the  exactions  of  petty  sovereigns.  In  the  time 
of  Cromwell  they  were  re-admitted  into  Great  Britain. 
After  the  successful  struggle  in  the  Netherlands,  against 
the  tyranny  of  Philip  II.,  they  found  a  ready  asylum  in 
that  country,  and  from  the  commencement  a  recogni- 
tion of  their  freedom  and  rights. 

We  thus  perceive,  that  until  the  close  of  the  last 
century,  the  Jews  remained  wholly  excluded  from 
municipal  society,  lived  in  separate  quarters  of  the 
town,  were  interdicted  from  holding  land,  from  exercis- 
ing certain  trades  and  calhngs,  from  pursuing  agricul- 
ture, from  entering  into  commercial  pursuits,  and  from 
adopting  the  vocation  of  teachers.  They  were  further 
excluded  from  the  civil  and  municipal  services  of  the 
State,  and  were  thus  forced  to  the  exclusive  assumption, 
as  the  sole  means  by  which  to  exist,  of  the  callings  of 
money-lenders,  hawkers  and  pedlars ;  and  even  in  these, 
were  subjected  to  enormous  taxes,  and  to  the  pay- 
ment of  protection- money  and  head-money.  It  may  be 
truly  said  with  respect  to  their  moral  treatment,  that 
they  were  everywhere  exposed  to  contempt  and  hatred, 
everywhere  despised  and  oppressed.  Forbidden  to 
approach  the  academies,  whether  of  science  or  art,  shut 
out  from  intellectual  communion  with  the  rest  of  the 
family  of  man, — they  were  thus,  for  mental  food,  cast 


upon  the  pages  of  the  Talmud  alone.  By  a  singular 
accident,  the  faculty  of  medicine  formed  the  sole  excep- 
tion to  this  wholesale  prohibition. 

Yet  notwithstanding  all  this,  notwithstanding  the 
fearful  passage  through  fifteen  hundred  years  of  misery, 
strong  elements  of  life  were  yet  latent  in  the  bosom  of 
Judaism.  The  first  of  these  was  their  inflexible  fidelity 
to  the  religious  idea,  and  its  elaboration  in  Talmudism, 
which  fidelity  neither  the  horror  of  death,  nor  the 
martyrdom  of  contempt  and  scorn,  nor  the  snare  of 
the  tempter  was  of  power  to  shake.  The  Jews  every- 
where saw  close  at  hand  the  boundary  line  over  which, 
if  they  passed,  sorrow  and  sufi'ering  were  left  behind — 
their  passage  to  Christianity  or  to  Mahomedanism ; 
but  over  that  boundary  they  passed  not.  And  this 
fidelity  was  not  the  appanage  of  the  chosen  few,  of 
the  best  spirits  among  them,  but  of  the  mass;  of  the 
last,  as  of  the  first  members  of  their  race.  Besides 
this,  they  found  within  their  own  communities,  cities 
of  refuge  to  which  to  flee,  which  ofi'ered  them  pro- 
tection from  the  infliction  of  outward  injustice  and  mal- 
treatment. Congregational  life  never  ceased  from  the 
midst  of  them.  Wherever  ten  Jews  were  assembled  in 
one  locality,  they  formed  themselves  into  a  congregation, 
as  though  they  had  been  dwelling  upon  the  free  soil  of 
Palestine; — a  congregation  whose  fundamental  prin- 
ciples were  everywhere  personal  equality,  free  choice  of 
their  officials,  in  which  dwelt  not  a  trace  of  the  custom 
of  life-tenure  or  hereditary  succession;  a  distinct,  yet 
powerful  echo  of  the  voice  of  Mosaism.  Within  such 
congregations,  the  synagogue  and  its  service  were  the 
first  objects  of  care ;  then  charitable  institutions  for 
the  relief  of  the  sick,  the  indigent,  the  old  and  the  im- 

300  LECTURE    IX. 

prisoned ;  for  poor  brides,  for  the  dying,  and  for  the  in- 
terment of  the  dead.  The  next  meteors  of  solicitude 
were  the  schools,  some  destined  for  the  instruction  of 
youth,  others  of  adults,  in  which  the  subjects  taught 
were  naturally  restricted  to  the  domain  of  Talmudic 
and  Rabbinical  learning.  In"  this  congregational  life, 
the  Jews  found  not  only  inexhaustible  sources  of  indem- 
nification for  external  evils  and  some  means  to  avert 
them,  but  also  partial  compensation  for  their  exclusion 
from  all  participation  in  general  and  political  existence. 
A  second  shelter  the  Jew  found  in  the  sanctuary  of 
domestic  or  family  life.  Repulsed  from  without,  man 
seeks  consolation  in  the  arms  of  those  dear  ones  be- 
longing to  him.  The  threshold  of  his  house  is  the 
boundary-stone  beyond  which  scorn  and  contumely 
cannot  pass.  Within,  he  finds  the  love,  esteem,  and 
reverence  denied  him  without.  Among  the  Jews  un- 
bounded was  the  intensity  of  family  ties  and  afi'ections. 
The  bond  between  parent  and  child,  and  the  conjugal 
relation,  were  alike  sacred  and  exalted,  prompting  to 
efforts  and  sacrifices  the  most  sublime.  The  exclusion 
from  society,  and  the  binding  Talmudic  statute,  neces- 
sarily co-operated  to  keep  the  Jews  removed  and  free 
from  the  great  vices  of  the  age.  On  the  one  hand 
temperance  and  chastity  disinclining  them,  to  excess ; 
on  the  other,  an  entire  indisposition  to  deeds  of  murder, 
rapine,  violence,  brutality,  and  combativeness,  Avere  deep- 
seated  qualities  in  the  Jewish  heart.  If  in  respect  of 
property  they  evinced  less  conscientiousness,  so  that  they 
were  too  often  prone  to  artifice,  deceit,  and  over-reaching; 
to  the  cu'cumstances  of  their  enforced  condition  may 
this  be  with  justice  imputed,  while  they  ever  abhorred  to 
raise  their  hands  against  the  lives  of  their  fellow-beings. 


and  never    abandoned   themselves   to   profligacy,   and 

All  this  in  combination,  my  hearers,  rendered  pos- 
sible and  efl'ected  the  preservation  of  the  Jewish  race 
during  the  seventeen  centuries  of  dii-est  persecution, 
through  which,  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  they 
struggled  as  for  existence,  till  a  new  time  dawned  upon 
them,  at  the  commencement  of  the  last  century.  The 
position  of  isolation,  exclusion,  and  repudiation,  in 
which  ever  dwelt  this  race,  rendered  its  amalgamation 
with  other  peoples  impossible, — the  Religious  Idea,  of 
which  the  Jewish  mind  held  tenacious  possession,  whose 
truth  had  permeated  the  very  being  of  this  race  from 
its  first  to  its  last  member,  and  endowed  it  with  re- 
sistless force  and  was  its  isolating  peculiarity, — the  dis- 
tinctive character  imprinted  by  Talmudism  on  daily 
existence,  —  the  acuteness  of  intellect  developed  and 
kept  alive  in  the  whole  mass  by  Talmudic  studies, — 
congregational  life, — the  depth  and  strength  of  family 
ties  and  affections, — the  freedom  from  the  coarsest  vices 
and  from  moral  depravity, — all  these  were,  I  repeat,  the 
elements  which,  in  combinatiou,  invested  the  Jewish 
body-politic  with  a  resisting  power,  that  enabled  them  to 
repel  and  defy  the  forces  external  to  themselves,  aiming 
at  their  annihilation.  Thus  the  Jews  furnish  historical 
proof,  that  not  only  the  individual  man,  but  whole  races 
of  men,  so  soon  as  they  have  truth  dwelling  in  them, 
cannot  be  subdued  by  any  power,  whetlier  of  Church 
or  State  —  by  any  oppression,  however  stringent  and 
enduring.  Jewdom  existed  not  only  during  the  whole 
of  the  middle  ages, — Jewdom  not  only  outlived  the 
dominion  of  the  Roman, — Jewdom  not  only  witnessed 
the  fall  of  all  peoples  of  antiquity,  the  migrations  of 

202  LECTURE    IX. 

countless  races^  and  the  irruptions  of  new  ones, — it  sur- 
vived not  only  the  rise  of  Christianity  and  Moslemism, 
but  it  still  lives  on  to  behold  the  dawn  of  a  new  era,  the 
development  of  new  social  and  religious  mutations.  It 
has  done  yet  more.  With  this  new  era  it  was  itself  born 
to  new  life ;  an  era  when  Judaism  and  Jewdom  have 
stepped  forth  from  their  isolation  and  exclusion  into  the 
general  world  of  man. 

Thus  the  great  import  of  these  fifteen  hundred  cen- 
turies is  this.  The  Christian  Church  sought  to  anni- 
hilate the  Jews,  and  with  them  the  antagonism  to 
itself,  of  which  they  are  the  depositaries.  Being  un- 
able in  consequence  of  the  dispersion,  to  accomplish 
its  aim,  it  condemned  the  Jews  to  unmerited  ex- 
clusion, of  which  the  Roman  emperors  and  the 
feudal  system  were  the  successive  instruments.  But 
the  Jews  overcame  all  obstacles  to  their  continued 
existence,  adhered  within  Talmudism  to  the  religious 
idea,  and  arose  at  the  dawn  of  a  new  era,  towards  the 
close  of  the  last  century,  to  re-enter  in  every  relation 
of  life  the  general  world  of  man. 




No  written  utterance  exists,  that  has  been  the  object  of 
more  wholesale  contumely  or  that  perhaps  less  merits 
such  blame,  than  the  Talmud ;  nor  is  there  any  work  that 
has  been  denounced  with  more  unmitigated  hatred,  from 
the  ignorance,  prejudice,  or  servility  of  its  denouncers. 
Thus  much  we  premise,  ere  we  proceed  to  pass  an  im- 
partial opinion  on  the  Talmud.  In  duly  weighing  its 
merits  and  defects,  it  is  far  from  our  desire  or  intention 
to  present  an  apology  for,  or  a  panegyric  on,  the  Talmud  ; 
but  we  deem  it  right  at  once  to  advance  the  above  pro- 
positions, and  then  conscientiously  and  unreservedly 
seek  to  pronounce  on  the  Talmud  a  just  judgment. 

The  opponents  of  Judaism  well  knew  what  they  were 
doing.  They  had  an  almost  instinctive  perception,  that 
in  the  Talmud  lay  the  best  chance,  the  most  powerftd 
means  of  self-preservation  for  Judaism  in  the  middle- ages. 
To  condemn  the  one  was  to  annihilate  the  other.  To  pro- 
nounce on  the  one  sentence  of  disgrace,  was  to  bring 
the  other  into  disrepute.  Even  at  the  present  day,  we 
see  that  the  opponents  of  the  measures  granting  civil 
equality  to  the  Jews,  betake  themselves  to  the  Talmud, 
(of  which  they  probably  are  wholly  ignorant,)  as  though 

204  LECTURE    X. 

the  emancipation   of  the  Jews  of  the  middle-ages  was 
the  matter  to  be  determined. 

The  Talmud,  my  hearers,  is  not  a  work  suited  for  the 
mass  of  mankind;  it  is  rather^  in  the  aggregate, 
calculated  to  give  a  false  bias  to  the  mind,  and  its 
general  perusal  would  probably  be  prejudicial  to  the 
mental  constitution  of  the  mass.  It  does  not  claim  for 
itself  general  acceptance,  like  the  New  Testament  and 
the  Koran ;  on  the  contrary,  it  at  once  recognises  that 
its  action  was  not  to  extend  without  the  Jewish  race. 
Within  these  limits  it  arose,  Avas  developed,  and  closes. 
Its  merits  and  defects  were  to  exert  an  influence  on  that 
race  alone.  It  is  perfectly  self-conscious  that  its  sway 
is  confined  within  the  narrow  boundary  of  Jewdom.  It 
thence  follows  that  the  standard,  and  the  only  standard 
by  which  it  can  justly  be  measured,  involves  a  familiar 
acquaintance  with  the  degree  of  civilisation,  the  cha- 
racter and  requirements  of  Jewdom,  at  the  period  of 
its  dispersion,  and  of  its  transition  into  its  middle - 
age  condition.  One  can  scarcely  therefore,  without 
betraying  manifest  disregard  for  justice  and  historical 
accuracy,  extract  certain  ambiguous  passages,  a  few 
simple  parables,  sundry  subtle  deductions,  tear  them 
forcibly  from  the  context,  and  then  quote  them  as 
standard  passages,  by  which  the  work  is  to  be  judged, — 
or  triumphantly  adduce  them,  as  incontrovertible  proofs 
of  the  intolerant  spirit  or  of  the  absurdity  of  the  Tal- 
mudic  writings.  We  will  not  here  even  insist  upon  the 
fact,  that  in  this  the  Talmud  could  well  sustain  com- 
parison with  the  20,000  commentaries  on  the  Koran,  or 
with  the  numberless  productions  of  the  Church-Fathers, 
both  of  which  lay  claim  to  exercise,  and  have  exercised, 
immense  influence  on  the  world  of  man.     The  merits 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  205 

and  defects  of  the  Talmud  are  much  more  deeply  seated 
than  in  a  dozen  sentences  and  myths.  This  false  mode 
of  treating  the  subject  would  be  corrected  by  an  ex- 
amination of  its  entire  constitution. 

In  a  previous  lecture"^  we  enquired  into  the  origin  of 
the  Talmud.  We  saw  that  it  arose  in  the  second  half 
of  the  existence  of  the  Jews  as  a  people^  (during  the 
continuance  of  the  second  temple)  at  a  period  when 
Mosaism  had  again  been  received  into  the  people's  mind 
and  heart,  but  at  which,  in  some  respects,  its  total 
fulfilment  in  practice  was  rendered  impossible  by  the 
then  altered  national  circumstances;  at  which,  in 
others,  the  change  wrought  by  time  and  exile  in  the 
manners  and  customs  of  those  who  returned,  rendered 
Mosaism  itself  inadequate  to  meet  all  the  exigencies  of 
life.  We  saw  further,  that  Talmudism  virtually  con- 
sists of  an  explanation  of  scripture.  It  is  scripture 
expounded  partly  according  to  the  letter,  and  partly 
according  to  the  arbitrary  notions  of  the  expounders ; 
so  that  the  rational  meaning  of  the  Avords  is  not 
preserved,  but  all  possible  deductions  from  the 
written  word,  all  possible  inferences  to  be  combined 
with  that  word,  are  therein  presented.  Not  all  these 
explanations,  deductions,  and  definitions  were  reduced 
to  writing ;  many  were  conveyed  century  after  cen- 
tury by  word  of  mouth  from  master  to  pupil — were 
therefore  traditional.  But  the  bulk  of  these  traditional 
commentaries  being  ever  on  the  increase,  and  the  wider 
dispersion  of  the  Jews  after  the  fall  of  Jerusalem 
(which  event  deprived  them  of  an  actual  central  point 
of  reunion)  endangering  the  transmission  of  these 
verbal  communications.  Rabbi  Jehuda  Hannasi  deter- 
*  See  Lecture  vi. 

206  LECTURE  X. 

mined,  in  the  years  after  Christ  220 — 246,  to  compile 
a  collection  of  the  opinions  and  teachings  of  the 
earlier  doctors.  In  this  collection,  called  '  Mischna/  the 
dates  of  the  authors  whose  names  are  cited  do  not 
come  down  lower  than  one  century  after  the  destruction 
of  Jerusalem,  and  the  age  to  which  the  anonymous 
passages  are  referred,  is  scarcely  later  than  the  time  of 
the  Maccabees.  The  work  is  divided  into  six  parts. 
The  first  part,  called  '  Seraim,'  though  beginning  with  a 
long  section  on  prayer,  treats  of  all  the  laws  affecting 
property  and  husbandry,  of  the  heave  offerings,  the 
tithes,  the  firstlings,  the  gifts  to  the  poor,  etc.  The 
second  '  Moed,'  treats  of  the  laws  of  the  sabbath,  and 
of  the  fasts  and  festivals.  The  third  '  Naschim,'  treats 
of  the  laws  of  marriage  and  divorce,  and  of  the  unions 
of  brothers  and  sisters-in-law ;  those  also  of  oaths  and 
vows  are  considered.  The  principal  sections  of  the  fourth 
part  '  Nesikim,'  treat  of  the  civil  and  criminal  law,  of  the 
forms  of  trial,  of  the  courts  of  justice,  and  of  oaths,  and 
it  has  a  minor  section  upon  idolatry  and  witchcraft.  The 
fifth  part  '  Kodaschira,'  collects  all  the  precepts  and 
ordinances  respecting  cleanness  and  uncleanness  of 
every  kind.  The  sixth  and  last  part  '  Tahasoth,'  treats 
of  the  sacrificial  worship.  This  synopsis  indicates  a 
specific  plan,  it  is  true ;  yet  must  we  especially  observe 
three  peculiarities  as  appertaining  to  the  Mischna. 
1st.  No  clear  and  distinct  definitions  are  presented;  on 
the  contrary,  varying  and  frequently  wholly  contradictory 
opinions  of  the  early  teachers  are  consecutively  quoted, 
while  no  decided  judgment  is  pronounced  between 
them.  It  is,  in  fact,  an  enumeration  of  various  re- 
plies given  to  one  question,  of  which  the  final  solution 
is  left  free  and    undetermined.      2nd.    The  treatment 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  207 

of  these  subjects,  though  they  are  specifically  enu- 
merated, is  wholly  devoid  of  arrangement;  and  the 
paragraphs  are  thrown  together  without  regard  to  the 
connection  between  them.  Besides,  we  observe  in  the 
Mischna  that  no  one  subject  is  pursued  to  its  close, 
but  that  the  most  trifling  incidental  allusion  gives  rise 
to  digressions,  and  that  a  singular  jumble  of  hetero- 
geneous matter  every  where  arises ;  for  example,  in  the 
section  upon  the  sacrifices,  many  questions  of  civil  law 
are  considered.  Thus  the  Mischna  is  essentially  un- 
systematic and  confused,  and  much  careful  and  patient 
examination  of  its  contents  is  necessary  for  the  dis- 
covery of  the  parts  between  which  connection  subsists. 
But  the  third  and  most  marked  characteristic  of  the 
Mischna  is,  as  we  perceive  by  glancing  at  the  above 
summary  of  its  contents  and  at  the  same  time  recalling 
to  our  minds  the  circumstances  of  the  age  in  which  the 
compilation  of  the  Mischna  was  effected  (an  age  when 
nearly  two  centuries  had  closed  above  the  ruins  of 
Jerusalem,) — its  most  marked  characteristic  is.  I  say, 
that  the  very  subjects  of  which  it  treated  were  no  longer 
in  existence — were  matters  of  the  past.  The  laws  of  pro- 
perty could  not  be  observed  in  an  age  of  dispersion.  The 
administration  of  the  criminal  law  had  been  wrested  from 
the  hand  of  the  Jew,  when  the  Romans  took  possession 
of  Palestine.  The  sacrificial  worship  had  necessarily  ceased 
when  the  second  temple  fell,  and  with  it  a  large  portion 
of  the  hygienic  laws  became  inoperative.  Thus  the 
only  portions  of  the  whole  of  the  Mosaic  code  of 
which  the  practical  fulfilment  was  then  possible,  were 
the  laws  of  the  sabbath,  fasts  and  festivals,  the  laws  of 
marriage  and  civil  justice,  and  a  part  of  the  hygienic  law, 
to  which  latter  belonged  the  laws  of  diet ; — so  that  in 

208  LECTURE  X. 

fact,  the  larger  portion  of  the  Mischna,  at  the  very 
time  of  its  compilation,  was  mere  matter,  in  part  of 
historical  interest,  and  in  part  of  antiquarian  research 
or  speculation. 

But   in    the   Mischna   itself,   the   resources   of  the 
Mischna    were    not    exhausted;     the    pupils    of    R. 
Jehuda,  E.  Chia,  and  R.  Oschja,  compiled  a  very  im- 
portant appendix  called  '  Beraita,'  of  which  several  rich 
and  lengthy  fragments  are  still  extant.     Out  of  these 
writings  arose  fresh  researches   and  discussions.     The 
various  conflicting  opinions  upon  which  the  Mischna 
and  Beraita  had  pronounced  no  final  judgment,  again 
gave  birth  to  new  questions,  as  to  which  were  the  false, 
which  the  true  of  these  opinions.     These  works  had  be- 
sides left  untouched  some  matters  relating  both  to  theory 
and  practice.     So  again  these  discussions  were  reduced 
to  writing  as  a  commentary  on  the  Mischna,  and  were 
designated  as  the  '  Talmud' ;  which  work  received  its 
final  completion  and  with  it  its  last  appellation,  '  Ge- 
mara,'  in  the  sixth  century.     After  the  death  of  Rabbi 
Jehuda,  two   grand  seats  of  Jewish  erudition  existed, 
one  in  Palestine,  the  other  in  Babylon;  and  consequently 
two  Talmuds  were  compiled,  one  less  voluminous  and 
of  which  the    greater  part  has  been  lost,  the  Jerusa- 
lem Talmud;    the    second   and   more   complete   work, 
called    either   the    Babylonian  or  oftener  simply   'the 
Talmud.'      The  Mischna   therefore  was  the  text,   the 
Talmud  the  commentary ;  the  latter  was  divided  under 
the    same   heads    and   has  the    same   general   plan  as 
the  Mischna,  though  it  far  exceeds  its  model  in  the 
chaotic  treatment  of  its  subjects,  and  is  wholly  devoid 
of  plan   and    arrangement.       The   Talmud    is    a  work 
whose  process  of  elaboration  lasted  through  seven  en- 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  209 

tire  centuries.  The  teachers  of  the  Mischna  were 
entirely  independent  and  self-relying  in  their  re- 
searches, copied  no  models,  and  expressed  their  own 
opinions — opinions  wholly  unsuggested  by  others.  The 
Talmud  teachers  on  the  contrary  were  bound  to  the 
Mischna,  merely  asserting  their  independence  in  mat- 
ters of  which  the  Mischna  had  omitted  the  investigation, 
or  in  cases  in  which  Mischnaic  opinions  needed  more 
precise  definitions. 

With  the  termination  of  the  Talmud,  this  self-reliance 
of  Jewish  polemical  writers  ceased ;  and  it  was  not  sub- 
sequently deemed  allowable  to  advance  any  opinion  not 
in  strict  conformity  with  those  of  the  Mischna,  Beraita, 
and  Talmud.  At  this  juncture  begins  '  Rabbinism,' 
whose  development  assumed  four  distinct  phases. — 1st. 
It  sought  to  reduce  the  unsystematic,  ill-arranged  dis- 
cussions and  controversies  of  which  the  Talmud  is 
composed,  into  a  systematic  statement  of  the  binding 
and  authentic  statutes;  and  this,  Alfosi  in  the  11th, 
Maimonides  in  the  12th,  Semas  in  the  13th,  Sur  in  the 
14th,  and,  finally,  the  Schulchan  Aruch  in  the  16th 
centuries,  consecutively  and  successfully  accomplished. 
2nd.  Rabbinism  produced  numberless  commentaries, 
either  on  the  whole  or  on  a  part  of  the  Mischna.  3rd. 
It  aimed  at  the  condensation  of  the  explanations,  which 
the  Talmud  conveys  in  innumerable  responses.*  And 
4thly,  it  sought  to  explain  away,  or  to  harmonise  by 
subtle  and  sophistical  arguments,t  the  innumerable  con- 
tradictions and  discrepancies  with  which  the  Talmud 
and  its  commentators,  particularly  Maimonides,  are 

This  intellectual  system  had  two  marked  results.     It 
*  T\"^  t  Pilpul, 


210  LECTURE    X. 

established  an  extended  and  accepted  dominion,  whicli 
(tliongli  its  boundary  line  was  clearly  defined)  exercised 
undisputed  and  unrestricted  rule  over  Judaism,  down  to 
the  middle  of  the  last  centur3^  Its  second  result  was 
the  opening  of  a  vast  field  of  literature,  a  portion 
of  whose  fruits  was  multiplied  by  the  press,  while  the 
rest  still  lies  hidden  in  manuscripts  on  the  neglected 
shelves  of  the  library. 

The  remaining  parts  of  the  sacred  writings  had  been 
at  the  same  early  period  subjected  to  the  like  process  of 
examination  and  amplification,  though  that  examination 
and  amplification  were  somewhat  more  imfettered  in 
their  character  and  spirit.  The  unshackled  creations  of 
the  intellect  were  here  put  forth,  under  such  limitations 
only  as  the  national  peculiarities  and  the  general 
laws  of  morality  imposed.  The  Agada,  or  to  use  its 
specific  appellation,  the  Midrasch,  thus  spontaneously 
resolved  itself  into  the  '  Mashal.^  In  it  parables, 
allegories,  and  allusions  were  combined  and  amalga- 
mated with  historical  truths;  and  to  these  were 
superadded  traditions  and  legends.  The  inherent  orien- 
tal genius  of  the  people  had  therein  wider  scope ;  and 
the  full  tide  of  myths,  gnomes  and  poesy,  gushed 
freely  forth.  The  greater  part  of  this  Midrasch  has 
been  lost,  having  been  partly  destroyed  by  the  vicis- 
situdes of  time,  partly  having  disappeared  in  the 
collection  of  extracts  —  Jalkut  Schimeoni.  The  Mi- 
drasch subsequently  assumed  two  successive  forms,  tlie 
first  being  the  irregular  'Drasli,'  or  lecture  of  the 
'  Magidim ' ;  the  second,  the  regular  sermon  of  the 
present  century. 

Although  therefore,  by  far  the  larger  portion  of  the 
Talmudic  discussions  had  no  relation  whatever  to  exist- 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  211 

ing  realities,  and  were  either  merely  incidental  to  the 
study  of  scripture  or  to  the  desire  for  consistency,  yet  do 
we  clearly  perceive,  that  the  Jews  sought  and  found  in 
the  Talmud  in  some  sort  a  new  intellectual  Palestine, 
which  afforded  them  partial  compensation  for  the  true 
Palestine  they  had  lost.  This  abstract  land  of  promise 
•possessed  the  one  great  advantage;  that  the  dweller 
therein  could  remain  undisturbed  by  the  neighbouring 
foe ;  that  of  its  treasures  he  could  not  be  deprived,  and 
that  he  could  carry  it  with  him  in  all  his  wanderings. 
The  more  cruel  the  persecutions  that  broke  in  upon  the 
Jew  from  without,  the  more  deeply  did  he  feel  the 
spiritual  elevation  which  a  withdrawal  into  the  dominion 
of  this  abstract  Talmudic  Palestine  afforded  him.  In 
that  land  of  dreams  the  temple  stood  unscathed,  the 
great  assembly  of  the  sages  uninvaded  — in  that  land 
the  examination  of  the  most  minute  point  of  contro- 
versy was  invested  with  the  same  importance  as  a  nego- 
ciation  of  which  the  issue  had  involved  the  fate  of  the 
whole  people.  In  that  land  the  despised  Jew  found 
renown  and  acceptance,  the  persecuted  Hebrew  conso- 
lation and  spu'itual  refreshment.  How  then  can  we 
wonder  that  the  Talmud  became  the  object  of  such 
profound  and  general  reverence  throughout  Jewdom? 
It  was  a  free  utterance  of  the  people,  not  of  any  sect  or 
of  any  class  ;  for  its  authors  were  children  of  the  people, 
and  for  the  people  the  Talmud,  with  all  its  pecidiarities, 
was  elaborated.  It  betrays  no  fancy;  it  has  at  most  some 
extravagancies,  and  a  few  images  taken  from  the  simplest 
forms,  but  no  poetic  flights.  In  it  we  find  sound  and  sig- 
nificant aphorisms,  but  no  sublime  and  elevating  words 
of  consolation;  and  yet  was  it  the  city  of  refu:o,  the 
asylum  of  the  way-worn  Jew  during  1500  years.     And 


313  LECTURE    X. 

wherefore?  Because  it  furnislied  occupation  for  the 
thoughts,  and  by  means  of  its  hair-splitting  distinc- 
tions, gave  acuteness  to  the  intellect,  and  thus  adminis- 
tered alike  intellectual  and  religious  nourishment.  Of 
such  labour  the  human  mind  does  not  weary.  Such 
being  the  conditions  of  its  formation,  the  occasional 
admixture  of  some  repulsive  phrases  ought  not  to  be 
matter  of  grave  and  general  reproach  to  the  Talmud, 
since  they  are  the  utterances  of  some  individual 
writer;  and  are  amply  counterbalanced  by  a  hundred 
healthy  and  sound  axioms  breathing  the  spirit  of  kind- 
liness and  justice,  furnished  by  other  contributors. 
We  must  in  fine,  in  passing  judgment  on  the  Talmud, 
endeavour  to  penetrate  the  depth  of  the  whole  system  and 
its  true  fundamental  idea. 

The  less  I  deem  myself  at  liberty  to  wander  amid  the 
mazes  into  which  a  detailed  delineation  of  the  whole  of 
the  Talmudic  civil  and  ritual  law  would  conduct  me, 
the  more  imperative  on  me  does  it  become  to  endeavour 
to  place  before  you,  my  hearers,  a  clear  conception  of 
the  leading  tenets  of  the  Talmudic  system.  Of  these 
there  are  two ;  the  first  that  pertains  to  the  past,  the 
second  to  the  future.  The  Talmudic  fundamental  prin- 
ciple as  to  the  past  is — the  preservation  of  Mosaism  in 
its  complete  integrity ; — that  for  the  future,  the  belief 
in  the  Messiah.  Talmudism  did  not,  like  the  Koran 
and  the  New  Testament,  proclaim  itself  to  be  a  new 
revelation,  by  which  Mosaism  was  to  be  superseded.  It 
claimed  to  be  but  an  exposition  and  interpretation  of 
Mosaism,  a  circumvallation  of  Mosaism  with  conser- 
vative enactments,  in  the  centre  of  which,  I  repeat, 
Mosaism  was  to  be  maintained  in  its  entire  integrity. 
Though  the  development  which  it  imparted  to  Mosaism 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  213 

was  wholly  directed  to  its  outward  form  and  not  to  its 
inward  spirit,  so  that  the  rank  weeds  of  the  former 
choked  up  the  growth  of  the  latter;  though  Talmudism 
and  its  results  led  far  away  from  the  religious  idea;  still 
Mosaism,  and  within  Mosaism  the  pure  Divine  Idea, 
remained  as  a  germ,  imbued  with  undiminished  vitality, 
waiting  a  resuscitation,  to  be  imparted  by  the  indwelling 
force  of  that  Idea  itself. 

Christianity  and  Mahomedanism  had  essentially  mo- 
dified the  religious  idea,  and  had  amalgamated  it  with 
heathen  elements.  Christianity  and  Mahomedanism 
had  wholly  destroyed  the  unity  of  the  idea  and  the  life. 
Talmudism  did  not  modify  the  religious  idea,  it  only 
surrounded  it  with  the  puerile  childish  extravagancies  of 
the  age.  Talmudism  enforced,  with  affecting  and 
almost  superstitious  devotion,  the  unity  of  the  idea  and 
the  life:  as  fragment  after  fragment  of  this  material 
realization  was  torn  asunder  by  a  force  from  without,  it 
sought  to  gather  the  scattered  morsels  within  its  fold, 
and  to  breathe  into  them  ideal,  if  not  real  life.  Talmudic 
conceptions  and  delineations  of  the  Divinity  are,  it  is 
true,  crude  in  their  Oriental  simplicity.  Sometimes 
God  laments  over  His  own  dispensations,  sometimes  He 
insists  on  the  most  trivial  ceremonial  regulations,  some- 
times He  discusses  and  teaches  like  a  Jewish  philosopher. 
But  God  is  ever  the  one  God,  in  His  absolute  unity  and 
immateriality,  ever  God  in  His  providence  that  ruleth 
all  things  for  the  good  of  man,  ever  God  the  revealer, 
who  leadeth  man  to  the  knowledge  of  truth.  In  the 
Talmud  we  find  no  original  sin,  no  Satan  with  his 
legions  of  fallen  spirits,  no  excommunication,  no  conflict 
with  unbelievers,  no  election,  no  exclusion.  Talmudism 
adheres  inflexibly  to  the  equality  of  justice  and  right, 

214  LECTURE    X. 

and  to  individual  freedom;  to  justice  stern  and  unbend- 
ing in  judgment,  without  respect  of  person  or  fortune. 
Entire  independence  of  the  judicial  and  the  political 
authorities,  open  courts,  verbal  procedure,  the  very  rare 
infliction  of  capital  punishment,"^  and  finally,  its  entire 
abolition ;  the  positive  claims  of  the  needy,  a  systematic 
development  of  the  regulations  for  the  relief  of  the  poor, 
suited  to  the  altered  necessity  of  the  age :  such  are  the 
adornments  of  the  Talmud,  which  entitle  it  to  be  con- 
sidered as  the  preserver  of  the  Life  of  Mosaism.  Thus 
Mosaism  was  bequeathed  to  modern  times  by  the 
Talmud,  not  as  a  worn-out,  superseded,  though  hitherto 
valuable  and  much-used  relique  of  antiquity,  but  as  the 
revelation  of  the  religious  idea,  as  the  foundation  of  the 
unity  of  the  idea  and  the  life,  as  a  wholly  valid,  life- 
ruling,  life-inspiring  truth. 

But  the  more  self-conscious  was  Talmudism  of  the 
uncertain  and  fragmentary  character  of  its  tenure  in 
reality,  the  more  numerous  were  the  obstacles  consequent 
on  the  loss  of  Palestine,  to  the  fulfilment  by  the  Jew  of  the 
Talmudic  law,  the  more  imminent  became  the  necessity 
that  Talmudism  should  seek  another  fundamental  prin- 
ciple in  the  Future.  Prophetism  had  paved  the  way 
for  this,  since  a  central  point  of  its  activity  was  the 
extension  of  the  Divine  Idea  to  the  whole  human  race.f 
Prophetism  had  connected  the  realisation  of  this  union 
of  mankind  in  the  Divine  Idea  of  a  one  and  only  God, 
of  universal  peace  and  love,  with  the  people  of 
Israel,  by  recognising  that  people  as  the  bearers  of  the 
religious  idea  until  it  should  universally  prevail  among 

*  Maccoth :  the  tribunal  that  once  in  seven  years  had  insti- 
tuted one  capital  punishment,  was  termed  sanguinary, 
t  Isaiah.     So  also,  5.  Moses  4.  5,  6. — A.M.G. 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  315 

men.  It  predicted  their  preparation  for  the  fulfilment 
of  their  holy  mission ;  their  restoration  after  they  should 
have  been  morally  purified  by  means  of  the  chastise- 
ment of  which  material  vicissitudes  had  been  the  instru- 
ments. Amid  the  then  general  oppression  of  Jewdom 
and  the  suspension  of  the  whole  Mosaic  system,  Tal- 
mudism  naturally  seized  upon  the  restoration  of  the 
people  of  Israel  as  the  one  essential  and  tangible  point 
of  all  the  doctrines  of  Prophetism,  and  enlarged  upon 
the  restoration  of  the  Hebrew  race,  combining  it  with 
glowing  descriptions  of  the  renewal  of  their  political 
power,  and  of  the  re-establishmcnt  of  the  Temple  and 
of  the  sacrificial  worship,  as  essential  elements  of  the 
fulfilment  of  the  whole  law;  associating  therewith  the 
advent  of  a  human  Messiah,  deputed  and  empowered  by 
God  to  be  the  instrument  of  this  consummation.  For 
Talmudism  this  was  doubly  necessary.  In  the  first 
place  it  was  compelled,  in  accordance  with  its  own  sys- 
tem, to  pre-suppose  the  assured  fulfilment  of  each  and 
all  of  its  own  enactments.  In  the  second,  the  condition 
of  the  Jewish  race  at  that  time  obliged  it  to  promise  to 
that  race,  for  self-sacrifice  a  reward — in  place  of  its  per- 
secuted present,  a  brilliant  future  existence— instead  of 
present  impotency,  future  authority — of  rejection,  resto- 
ration— of  scorn,  highest  honour.  Fm-ther,  the  belief 
in  the  coming  of  the  future  Messiah,  which  prevailed 
throughout  Talmudism,  assumed  the  same  direction  here 
as  was  imparted  to  it  by  Mosaism,  and  all  the  true  rami- 
fications of  Mosaism.  While  it  taught  that  for  the  indi- 
vidual man  the  immortality  of  his  soul  was  his  Futurity, 
it  taught  also  that  for  the  individuality  of  the  race  of 
Israel  was  destined  a  compensating  futurity  on  earth, — 
the   time  of  the  Messiah.      The   constitution   of  the 

216  LECTURE    X. 

Talmud  itself  will  at  once  lead  you,  my  hearers,  to  two 
evident  conclusions ; — that  it  adopted,  in  the  detailed 
descriptions  of  the  Messianic  age,  the  simple,  fanciful, 
metaphorical,  and  plastic  style  ever  peculiar  to  the 
East ;  and  secondly,  that  among  the  several  conceptions 
of  that  age  which  it  contains,  there  exist  numerous  and 
important  differences.  The  most  material  conception 
of  a  human  Messiah  and  of  the  political  restoration  of 
the  Jews,  and  the  most  ideal  conception  of  an  age  in 
which  the  religious  idea  shall  prevail  universally  among 
mankind,  and  in  which  the  ceremonial  law  shall  have 
been  wholly  abrogated,  are  equally  to  be  found  in  the 
pages  of  the  Talmud.  Nay,  in  some  passages  it  even 
goes  so  far  as  expressly  to  deny  the  prospective  coming 
of  a  human  Messiah,  without  (be  it  incidentally  re- 
marked) this  difference  of  doctrine  giving  rise  to  any 
polemical  conflict,  or  to  any  mutual  imputations  of 
heresy.  So  long  as  pure  Talmudism  survived  and  did 
not  petrify  into  Rabbinism,  it  granted,  while  displaying 
fanatical  zeal  for  the  law,  free  scope  to  the  idea. 

Thus  Talmudism  linked  itself  with  two  worlds, 
stretching  one  hand  over  the  Mosaic  past,  and  with  the 
other  embracing  the  Messianic  future ;  while  by  means 
of  its  materialised  daily  life,  it  incorporated  itself  mth 
the  present.  Whithersoever  turned  the  mental  glance 
of  the  Jew,  he  descried  objects,  attractive,  fascinating, 
and  of  overpowering  interest. 

Thus  we  recognise  Talmudism  to  have  been  the  pre- 
server of  the  religious  idea  in  its  integrity,  by  means 
of  the  protective  web  of  material  ordinances  which  it 
spun  around  it,  and  which  kept  it  (as  the  shell  keeps 
the  kernel)  from  corruption.  In  Talmudism,  we  fur- 
ther discern  the  sole  means  of  self-maintenance  left  to 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  217 

Jewdom  during  the  middle  ages,  since  it  secured  to  the 
Jew  in  the  first  place  an  intellectual  domain  whence 
he  drew  support  for  his  intellectual  vitality ;  and  secondly 
it  stamped  him  with  the  peculiar  character  of  its  re- 
ligious ceremonial,  which,  combined  with  his  political 
position,  preserved  the  Jew  from  amalgamation  with 
other  nations,  and  prevented  his  acceptance  of  their 
church  system; — a  system  presenting  a  direct  antago- 
nism to  the  religious  idea.  So  far  the  Talmud  is  per- 
fectly intelligible.  But  if  we  now  enquire  of  the 
Talmud,  in  Avhat  way  this  religious  idea  itself  was 
understood  by  its  compilers,  we  shall  at  once  perceive 
its  third  leading  principle,  which  confined  its  utility 
strictly  to  a  period  (though  a  lengthened  one)  of  transi- 
tion, and  renders  it  wholly  inapplicable  to  the  generality 
of  mankind.  Mosaism,  while  originating  and  pro- 
claiming the  religious  idea,  simultaneously  adapted  it 
in  form,  for  the  people  of  Israel  only.  It  invested  with 
a  national  law,  suited  to  the  idiosyncrasy  of  the  Hebrew 
race,  its  grand  principles  of  brotherly  love,  individual 
freedom,  equality  of  rights  and  of  property,  and  the 
subjection  of  the  temporal  and  sensual  to  the  dictates 
of  the  moral  consciousness.  The  national  existence  of 
the  people  of  Israel  closed,  and  the  form  of  the  con- 
tinued existence  of  that  people,  assumed  that  of  a 
federation  bound  by  community  of  race  and  religion. 
Instead  of  the  aim  of  Talmudism  being  directed  to  the 
extraction  of  the  Mosaic  idea  from  the  code  of  national 
laws  of  which  the  fulfilment  had  become  impossible, 
and  to  the  establishment  of  institutions,  which  should 
combine  the  two  necessary  conditions  of  being  suited 
to  th* exigencies  of  the  time,  and  of  realising  the  idea 
of  Mosaism, — it  adhered  closely  to  the  letter  of  the  law. 

218  LECTURE    X. 

and  transformed  it,  the  Mosaic  national  code,  as  far  as 
it  was  possible,  into  a  law  for  individuals. 

The  measures  to  be  taken  in  following  this  course,  were 
twofold,  ru'st,  Talmudism  held  fast  to  the  fulfilment  of 
every  possible  fragment  of  the  Mosaic  law,  even  where, 
by  the  departure  from  Palestine,  their  actuating  idea  and 
their  true  connection,  were  wholly  abrogated.  For 
instance,  with  the  cessation  of  sacrificial  worship,  the 
idea  of  the  priesthood  as  a  class  must  have  ceased  Hkewise; 
in  fact,  Talmudism  had  virtually  superseded  it,  by  the 
Talmudic  writers'  free  assumption  of  the  office  of  people- 
teachers.  Still  Talmudism  maintained  the  priestly  order 
in  full  force,  not  only  in  respect  of  descent,  but  in 
respect  of  the  individual  and  restrictive  ordinances  as  to 
marriage  and  the  burial  of  the  dead  to  which  the  priest- 
hood were  subjected,  and  which  were  referable  merely  to 
the  sacrificial  service  in  the  temple.*  2ndly.  Where  a 
Mosaic  institution  had  fallen  into  complete  and  unavoid- 
able desuetude,  the  Talmud  replaced  it  by  another  that 
accorded  with  it  in  form  but  not  with  its  idea,  and  made 
it  binding  on  the  individual,  instead  of  the  whole  people. 
We  instance  in  proof  of  this  what  follows.  The  sacrificial 
service  had  ceased,  amidst  which  (as  we  have  remarked 
in  an  earlier  lecture)  entire  freedom  was  allowed  to  the 
individual  in  the  matter  of  divine  worship,  but  in  which 
meanwhile  the  intimate  national  gen(>ral  religious 
connection  of  the  whole  people  was  embodied.  Tal- 
mudism replaced  the  off'erings  by  prayer,  imposing 
certain  prayers,  nay  more,  a  certain  number  of  words 
of  prayer,  as  a  duty  on  the  individual,  in  lieu  of  the 
prescribed  amount  of  ofi'erings;  thus  annulling  per- 
sonal freedom.  From  the  smooth  texture  of  the 
♦  According  to  Mosaism  itself. 

THE    CONTENTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  219 

Mosaic  national  code,  Talmudism  and  Rabbinism  in 
succession,  thus  drew  ligatures  with  wbicb  to  bind  tlie  in- 
dividual ;  attached  to  these  other  threads ;  and  of  these 
again,  wove  the  thick  fabric  whose  ample  folds  en- 
veloped the  whole  life.  All  matters,  from  the  most 
important  to  the  most  trivial  incidents  of  life,  were  thus 
invested  for  the  Jew  in  a  certain  determinate  legislative 
form.  All,  all  was  subjected  to  the  dominion  of  this 
law  of  form,  from  the  first  breath  which  he  drew  at 
birth,  to  the  last  which  closed  his  career  in  death ;  with- 
out these  forms  retaining  any  real  religious  character 
or  any  real  religious  purport,  except  just  so  much  as 
they  derived  from  the  circumstance  of  their  fulfilment 
being  thus  legislatively  considered  an  act  of  religion. 

Though  we  have  adduced  repeated  proofs  that  this 
direction  was  a  historical  necessity,  and  that  by  virtue 
of  this  direction  Talmudism  became  the  means  by  wliich 
the  Divine  Idea  was  preserved  in  its  integrity,  and  by 
which  Jewdom  during  its  dispersion  in  the  middle  ages 
was  enabled  to  survive,  yet  do  we  clearly  and  fully  recog- 
nise the  fact,  that  thus  the  Idea  became  subservient  to 
the  Form.  In  pure  Talmudism,  all  vitality  of  the 
Idea  ceased.  For  example,  Talmudism  is  inimical  to 
the  explanation  of  the  principles,  the  thought,  in  the 
commandments;  and  notwithstanding  the  production 
of  the  Kabbalah,  in  connection  with  the  Talmud,  as 
a  fanciful  mystic  dogma  on  the  one  hand,  and  the 
rise  and  progress,  on  the  other,  of  the  Aristotelian 
philosophy  of  Maimonides ;  Talmudism  remained  un- 
shaken, scarcely  taking  note  of  the  existence  of  its 
rival,  until  the  latter  expiring  through  inanition,  left 
it  to  the  strong  arm  of  the  Talmudic  ceremonial  law  to 
wield  the  sceptre  unopposed.     One,  and  only  one  bene- 

220  LECTURE    X. 

ficial  effect  thence  ensued.  Out  of  Talmudism  no  contro- 
versial conflict  ever  arose,  since  in  it  there  was  no  idea  of 
power  enough  to  sustain  such  a  contest.  In  the  second 
place  it  followed^  that  all  personal  freedom  was  annulled 
in  the  enforced  obedience  to  the  ritual.  The  most  im- 
minent danger  to  life  Avas  the  only  condition  which 
exonerated  the  follower  of  the  Talmud  from  perform- 
ance of  the  smallest  ritual  observance,  and  then  only  in 
the  moment  of  danger  and  in  the  slightest  degree. 

If  we  now  again  refer  to  the  facts  deducible  from  our 
examination  of  this  third  Talmudic  principle,  we  shall 
find  that  the  chief  was  the  extraction,  from  the  Mosaic 
national  code,  of  a  law  of  form  for  the  individual,  in 
which  the  religious  idea  lay  as  in  an  inner  germ,  by 
which  its  general  character  was  for  a  time  destroyed. 
Talmudism  thus  became  the  exact  contrast  to  Prophet- 
ism,  since  the  latter  extracted  the  ideal,  the  former  the 
material  portion  only  of  Mosaism.  Talmudism  circum- 
scribed material  life,  adapting  it  to  Jews  only. 
Prophetism  developed  the  ideal  conception.  Thus  both 
individually  prepare  the  way  for  a  fourth  grand 
phase  in  which  the  unity  of  the  Idea  and  the  Life, 
according  to  the  spiritual  conception  of  Mosaism,  shall 
again  develop  itself  and  prevail.  This  Talmudism  ad- 
mits. It  recognises  the  future  union  of  mankind  as 
a  bequeathed  truth  ;  but  it  does  not  demand  universal 
acceptance  of  its  ritual  by  mankind.  On  the  contrary, 
it  expresses  the  belief  that  its  law  will  be  no  longer  in 
force  among  the  Hebrew  race  itself.  Talmudism  was 
adapted  in  its  whole  system  to  a  transition  period  only, 
of  the  religious  idea;  it  protected  it  with  the  shield 
of  its  ritual,  till  the  latent  vitality  of  that  idea  should 
be  aroused  into  all  its  activit3\ 

THE    CONTEXTS    OF    THE    TALMUD.  221 

We  have  now,  my  hearers,  passed  through  the  three 
great  historical  epochs  of  Judaism;  Mosaism,  Pro- 
phetism,  and  Talmudism.  We  have  recognised  in  Mo- 
saism  the  establishment  of  the  Religious  Idea,  in  the 
unity  of  the  idea  and  the  life;  in  Prophetism  the 
victory  of  the  religious  idea  over  heathenism,  its  in- 
strument being  the  Jewish  people :  the  separation  of 
the  idea  and  the  life,  and  the  development  of  the 
religious  idea,  being  the  conditions  of  its  universal 
acceptance  by  mankind.  We  have  further  determined 
Talmudism  to  have  been  the  preserver  of  the  religious 
idea,  by  investing  and  surrounding  it  with  a  ritual 
of  observances.  We  have  seen  that  Christianity  and 
Moslemism  were  meantime  the  disseminators  of  the 
religious  idea  among  the  human  race.  In  the  funda- 
mental view  promulgated  by  them  they  overcame  hea- 
thenism ;  but  in  its  development,  they  combined  it  and 
modified  it  with  Heathen  elements,  and  thus  completed 
the  separation  of  the  Idea  and  the  Life. 

We  have  now  my,  hearers,  reached  modern  times, 
the  present  age.  It  remains  for  us  to  consider  our  own 
existence  in  the  present  and  in  the  future,  in  the  two 
concluding  lectures  of  our  proposed  course. 




From  the  investigation  we  have  thus  far  pursued  in 
these  Lectures^  into  the  development  of  the  Religious 
Idea,  what  are  the  deductions  to  be  drawn?  It  has 
been  seen  that  the  Religious  Idea  was  first  set  forth  in 
Mosaism ;  taking  as  its  foundation  the  oneness  of  the 
idea  and  the  life,  yet  clothing  itself  in  the  reality  of  a 
national  code.  It  has  been  also  seen,  that  from  this 
starting  point  it  came  by  means  of  Prophetism  to  per- 
vade the  Jewish  race ;  that  it  afterwards  disseminated 
itself  by  the  medium  of  Christianity  and  Islamism, 
among  mankind,  though  in  consequence  of  the  existing 
historical  conditions  necessarily  assuming  a  one-sided 
form.  Its  progress  has  ever  been  marked  by  two  features. 
First,  it  has  had  periods  of  strife  in  which  the  Religious 
Idea  was  in  conflict  with  the  Human  Idea,  or  Paganism ; 
and  during  which  therefore,  unembodied  in  any  tangi- 
ble shape,  it  developed  its  abstract  strength  only.  Of  this 
Prophetism,  when  seeking  to  overcome  Heathenism  in 
the  Jewish  race  itself,  furnishes  an  example ;  as  again 
the  early  ages  of  Christianity  and  Islamism,  when  the 
Religious  Idea  was  to  win  for  itself  an  entrance  into  the 
world  of  man.     Then  when  the  tendency  towards  the 


Religious  Idea  began  to  prevail,  it  everywhere  subsided 
into  a  fixed  but  one-sided  form.  Thus  Prophctism 
passed  into  Talmudism,  which  while  preserving  the 
Religious  Idea  entire,  shrouded  it  in  a  formula  that 
repressed  and  fettered  the  idea.  Talmudism  therefore 
limited  individual  freedom,  by  deducing  from  the 
Mosaic  national  law  a  law  of  material  life  for  the 
individual.  Christianity  on  its  side  passed  into  dogma- 
tism and  the  church;  Islamism,  into  dogmatism  and 
hierarchical  government,  that  vitiating  the  Religious 
Idea  with  Pagan  elements,  sought  to  endue  traditional 
interpretation  with  the  validity  of  a  ruling  principle  of 

A  fixed  and  thence  from  historical  necessity  an 
imperfect  form,  presupposes  coming  periods  of  struggle 
in  which  old  and  worn-out  formulas  will  be  superseded 
by  new  spiritual  movements.  Hence,  by  the  new  du'ec- 
tion  taken  by  human  intellect,  a  new  era  of  struggle 
was  necessarily  prepared  for  the  tliree  great  spiritual 
theories,  Christianity,  Islamism,  and  Talmudism, 
which  has  rendered  their  stability  doubtful  and  which 
tends  to  the  evolution  of  some  new  mental  phase  in  the 
world  of  man.  This  age  of  struggle  is  come ;  in  it  we 
live  and  have  our  being.  Christianity  was  the  first 
subjected  to  these  con\'ulsive  movements,  because  its 
home  was  amid  those  races  of  men,  the  races  of  Europe, 
which  have  always  been  the  most  accessible  to  intel- 
lectual activity  and  the  especial  vehicles  of  intellectual 
progress.  Then  followed  Talmudism  in  such  parts  of 
Jewdom  as  had  become  European.  It  is  true,  that  in 
consequence  of  the  complete  social  exclusion  and  spi- 
ritual isolation  of  the  Jews,  Talmudism  stood  unmoved, 
much  longer  (full  300  years  longer)  than  Christianity. 

224  LECTURE    XI. 

But  as  soon  as  the  exclusion  and  isolation  of  tlie 
European  Jc^vs  were  disturbed,  the  prevailing  intellec- 
tual movement  forced  the  combat  into  the  very  camp 
of  Talmudism.  Islamism  lastly  remains  unchanged  up 
to  the  present  day.  The  Asiatic  knows  nought  of  a 
gradually  and  slowly  developed  intellectual  progress — 
he  knows  only  storm  and  calm ;  no  thunder-cloud  has 
as  yet  burst  on  the  Eastern  world.  There  are  indeed 
difterent  and  very  hostile  sects  in  Islamism ;  but  these 
came  into  existence  soon  after  the  rise  of  Islamism 
itself,  and  have  ever  since  remained  unaltered. 

The  movements  and  conflicts  within  the  pale  of 
Christianity  and  Talmudic- Judaism,  their  several  epochs 
and  their  respective  imports,  are  what  we  now  have  ex- 
clusively to  consider. 

This  is  not  the  place  in  which  to  trace  the  course  of 
events,  that  from  the  middle  of  the  fourteenth  to  the 
sixteenth  century  caused  the  mind  of  Europe  to  awaken 
from  the  dull  sleep  of  the  middle  ages,  and  to  shake  off 
the  incubus  that  had  oppressed  it.  These  causes  ex- 
isted, as  ever,  both  within  and  without.  The  revived 
study  of  Greek  and  Roman  antiquity,  a  knowledge  of 
nature  in  its  various  branches  induced  by  the  extension 
of  navigation  and  commerce,  the  discovery  of  America, 
and  some  important  inventions,  had  given  the  impulse ; 
and  the  state  of  philosophy,  just  preparing  to  emerge 
from  dry  scholasticism  into  a  new  phase,  produced  the 
internal  momentum.  The  external  causes  were  two : 
the  conflict  between  Church  and  State  now  pressing 
towards  a  decision,  and  the  condition  of  society  strug- 
gling to  free  itself  on  the  one  hand  from  feudalism, 
and  on  the  other  from  absolute  monarchical  rule,  by 
means  of  constitutional  government.     The  new  move- 


ment  succumbed  at  its  commencement  to  tlie  force  of 
existing  institutions  and  authorities,  as  the  Spanish 
Inquisition  and  the  Council  of  Constance  testify ;  but 
by  means  of  its  very  reverses  it  gained  strength,  and 
took  root  in  the  hearts  of  the  people.  The  Reformation, 
attacking  Catholicism  in  its  extreme  points,  such  as  the 
sale  of  indulgences  etc.,  was  victoriously  achieved; 
Christianity  had  shaped  itself  into  three  powers,  namely, 
dogma,  church  and  formula.  As  regards  dogma,  the 
unity  of  God  had  resolved  itself  into  the  Trinity ;  the 
creation  of  man  in  the  image  of  God,  into  the  doctrine 
of  original  sin ;  the  possibility  of  sin,  into  Satan  the 
principle  of  evil ;  the  direct  relation  of  God  to  man, 
into  the  redemption  of  man  through  the  human  death 
of  the  one  Divine  Being  incarnated.  Religious  know- 
ledge was  replaced  by  faith;  love,  by  the  election  of 
believers.  The  church  had  raised  itself  above  the  com- 
munity, and  had  placed  in  opposition  to  the  laity,  a  priest- 
hood as  the  vehicle  of  the  Divine  Spirit;  and  to  all  state 
authorities,  a  hierarchy,  at  whose  head  was  elevated 
a  visible  representative  of  God  on  earth,  invested  in  the 
person  of  an  infalliljle  Pope  with  authority  to  bind  and 
to  loose,  with  undisputed  religious  sway  over  the  bodies 
as  over  the  spirits  of  believers.  The  formula  had  em- 
bodied hypocrisy,  and  had  substituted  the  adoration  of 
saints,  images,  and  relics,  the  remission  of  sin  and  a 
multitude  of  symbolic  ceremonies,  for  heartfelt,  inward 
piety  and  devotion. 

Let  us  now  examine  the  significance  of  the  Re- 
formation. It  began  with  the  sixteenth  century,  and 
employed  as  its  instruments  of  success,  bitter  and  san- 
guinary conflicts.  The  Reformation,  when  historically 
established,    laid   low   the  Church  and  its  ceremonial, 


226  LECTURE    XI. 

but  left  the  dogma  untouclied,  or  rather  b_y  means  of 
the  full  development  of  so-called  symbols,  for  the 
first  time  invested  that  dogma  with  a  fixed  and  deter- 
minate form.  The  Reformation  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury in  its  essential  purport,  was  far  more  a  social  than 
a  religious  reformation.  The  oppressive  power  of  the 
Chm'ch  had  to  be  destroyed,  and  with  it  necessarily  fell 
the  ecclesiastical  formula.  Necessarily  too,  the  Re- 
formation, for  the  sake  of  contrast,  gave  to  dogma 
increased  prominence.  Again  we  see,  that  as  soon  as 
the  struggle  had  taken  a  decisive  turn,  a  distinct 
character  manifested  itself;  and  this  was  severe  dog- 
matic form.  Hence  we  perceive,  that  from  its  very 
commencement,  either  the  Reformation  called  the  state 
authorities  to  its  aid,  or  the  Government  claimed 
the  Reformation  as  their  own ;  that  soon  were  formed 
evangelical  states  and  Catholic  states  ;  that  these  states 
took  up  arms  against  each  other ;  and  that  it  was  not 
the  power  of  intellect,  but  the  chances  of  war,  by 
which  the  extent  of  the  Reformation  was  determined. 
This  was  the  more  natural  as  the  Reformation  took 
place  at  a  period  of  social  agitation,  during  which  the 
feudal  system  in  its  decline  and  fall  had  resolved  itself 
into  the  absolute  sovereignty  of  the  reigning  princes. 
Hence  we  see,  that  the  first  reformers  bound  themselves 
to  symbols  and  to  creeds  worded  with  stringent  exact- 
ness, and  that  after  the  Reformation,  the  strictest  dog- 
matism wielded  its  barren  sceptre. 

The  same  causes  operated,  even  in  those  very  countries 
Avhere  the  Reformation  had  fought  and  conquered,  to 
render  the  victory  over  the  Church  and  its  formula  but 
a  partial  one.  For,  in  the  place  of  the  Catholic,  or 
Church- Universal,    was   erected   the   national    Church, 


based  on  dogmas  and  symbols.  In  the  place  of  the 
chief  Bishop  or  Pope,  we  find  the  Sovereign  Prince,  or 
in  his  default  the  consistory ;  instead  of  the  consecrated 
priests,  ordained  clergy  ;  and  in  lieu  of  a  gorgeous  cere- 
monial, certain  sacraments  which  were  held  to  pertain 
to  the  very  essence  of  Christianity.  From  all  this  it  is 
evident,  that  by  means  of  the  Reformation  the  Religious 
Idea  gained  merely  outward  although  important  ad- 
vantages, and  had  encountered  a  fresh  antagonism  in 
the  dogmatism  of  that  Reformation  itself. 

But  the  severe  dogmatic  character  of  the  Reforma- 
tion, necessarily  in  itself  became  the  condition  of  a  new 
struggle,  the  more  inevitable  because  at  this  time,  in 
the  seventeenth  century,  the  intellectual  movement 
experienced  a  much  briefer  interval  of  repose,  and  at 
the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century  received  a  most 
powerful  impetus.  This  rigid  dogmatism  it  was,  that 
first  called  forth  its  opposite  extremes  scepticism  and 
materialism,  developed  in  the  last  century,  as  is  well 
known,  into  dilettantism,  in  the  writings  of  Voltaire 
and  those  of  his  followers  the  Encyclopedists.  The 
more  unsatisfactory  these  were  felt  to  be,  the  sooner  did 
they  pave  the  way  to  what  has  been  termed  rationalism, 
which  by  means  of  the  Kantean  philosophy  gained 
ground  rapidly  and  invaded  the  territory  of  the  Chris- 
tian religion.  Again  here,  we  must  not  overlook  the 
great  social  movement  which  was  going  on  at  the  same 
period.  During  the  second  part  of  the  last  and  the 
first  of  the  present  century,  absolute  government  was 
struggling  with  constitutional  government.  In  like 
manner,  there  were  and  are  active  the  desire  and  the 
attempts  of  rationalism  to  overcome  the  dogmatism  of 
the  Reformation,  to  substitute  for  the  state  church,  an 

Q  2 

228  LECTURE    XI. 

independent  free  church,  for  the  consistory,  Presbyterian 
assemblies  and  congregational  church-government,  and 
to  declare  the  sacraments  mere  form.  Eationalism 
itself  has  lived  through  a  twofold  period ;  the  first 
which  was  merely  an  analytical  criticism  of  dogma; 
the  second  and  present  period  marked  by  the  efforts  to 
combine  out  of  the  elements  left  after  this  critical 
analysis,  something  new  and  determinate,  something 
more  humanizing  and  gentle  in  its  character  and  in  its 
mental  influence.  Allow  me,  my  hearers,  to  endeavour 
to  make  this  somewhat  clearer. 

It  has  been  seen  that  Christianity  was  combined  out 
of  these  antagonistic  elements,  of  which  the  historical 
causes  have  been  elucidated  in  their  proper  place. 
Christianity  adopted  from  the  Mosaic  precepts  as  the 
universal  principle  of  morals,  "Thou  shalt  love  thy 
neighbour  as  thyself,^'  making'  love  the  life-principle  of 
the  human  being.  Yet  it  simultaneously  renounced  all 
influence  over  human  society  in  its  collective  form. 
While  Mosaism  comprehended  this  love  to  our  neigh- 
bour to  be  a  declaration  of  equal  jiglits  to  all  men 
members  of  the  national  polity,  Christianity  being  a 
subjective  religion,  only  enforced  unconditional  sub- 
mission, under  every  governmental  and  constitutional 
form  of  society.  This  introduced  the  first  contradiction 
into  the  Christian  system  ;  for  the  whole  of  society,  as 
it  has  existed  from  the  origin  of  Christianity  up  to  the 
present  day,  has  been  the  complete  reverse  of  that 
moral  axiom ;  and  I  do  not  hesitate  to  assert,  that  the 
precept,  "Love  thy  neighbour  as  thyself,"  throughout 
the  whole  of  the  middle  ages  up  to  the  present  time, 
has  been  one  monstrous  falsehood.  Christianity  adopted 
from  Mosaism  the  unity  of  the  Divine  Being,  but  so 


modified  its  clear  attestation,  that  Christianity  became 
a  mystery  and  took  its  stand  thenceforth  on  that  which 
is  the  opposite  of  actual  knowledge — faith.  All  the 
specific  doctrines  of  Christianity  are  opposed  to  reason^ 
and  are  consequently  obliged,  in  order  to  maintain  their 
ground,  to  deny  the  sufficiency  and  the  rights  of  reason. 
Christianity  aimed  at  the  destruction  of  Paganism  ;  yet 
it  taught  a  trinity  of  the  Divine  Being  and  an  incarna- 
tion of  the  Godhead.  It  sought  to  abnegate  the 
heathen  notion  of  fate;  yet  it  replaced  it  by  another 
sort  of  fate,  the  doctrine  of  original  sin,  and  of  belief 
to  which  mankind  must  be  subject.  Christianity  sought 
also  to  rescind  Jewish  ceremonial;  yet  substituted  for 
it  another  ceremonial,  baptisms,  communion,  the  mass, 
liturgies,  fasts,  etc.  Thus  into  Christianity  were  intro- 
duced many  inconsistencies ;  to  reconcile  which  and  to 
secure  their  continued  existence,  it  became  necessary  to 
set  aside  human  reason,  or  in  other  words  their  own 
agreement  with  the  whole  organization  of  the  human 
mind,  and  to  assert  Christianity  to  be  a  tliird  revealed 
fact.  Accordingly,  so  soon  as  reason  acquired  such  a 
preponderance  in  the  developed  intellect  of  man  as  to 
be  no  longer  ignored,  all  the  irreconcilable  inconsisten- 
cies of  Christianity  became  apparent,  and  the  original 
elements  adopted  by  it  from  the  Religious  Idea,  were 
seen  to  be  in  direct  contradiction  to  the  modifications 
evolved  in  its  historical  progress.  What  course  did  this 
impose  on  its  followers  ?  When  any  great  and  widely- 
spread  institution  has  reached  the  point  at  which  all  its 
contradictions  and  incongruities  come  to  be  displayed 
to  the  world's  view,  recourse  is  had  to  a  solution  in 
Avhich  three  contradictions  are  ever  apparent ;  and  three 
parties  always  hold  their  ground  on  the  great  battle- 

230  LECTURE    XI. 

field.     One  party  endeavours  to  uphold  at  all  costs  that 
which  is,  and  to  set  aside  all  innovation ;  this  one  has 
on  its  side  all  the  powers  appertaining  to  the  institution, 
so  far  as  it  still  predominates.      The  second  party  is 
desirous  of  yielding  at  once  to  the  attack,  and  of  per- 
mitting the  total  subversion  of  an  institution  that  has 
lost   its   unity    and   position.     On  its  side   it  has  the 
strength  and  prestige  of  a  new  and  powerful  intellectual 
movement ;  opposed  to  it,  not  only  the  existing  state  of 
things,  but   also  the  great  mass  of  the  people,  prone 
ever  to  remain  in  a  condition  of  repose  and  neutrality. 
Lastly,  the  third  party  is  composed  of  those  who  recog- 
nise the  inconsistencies  of  the  institution  as  a  whole, 
yet  wish  to  preserve  such  portions  of  it  as  can  be  re- 
tained, in  order  not  to  endanger  their  own  tranquillity 
and  safety.     The  first  and  second  parties  know  exactly 
what  they  seek ;  while  this  third  or  middle  party,  having 
no  clear  consciousness,  are  ever  trimming  and  wavering, 
inclining  first  to  one  side  then  to  the  other  and  split- 
ting at  length  into  several  parties,  according  as  their 
views  approach  more  or  less  to  the  one  or  the  other  of 
the  two  above  described. 

This,  my  hearers,  is  the  picture  of  Protestantism  at 
the  present  day.  The  first  or  orthodox  party,  up- 
holding the  rigid  dogmatism  of  the  Reformation  in 
its  fullest  extent  and  holding  fast  to  existing  insti- 
tutions as  the  only  true  Christianity,  reject  reason  as 
uncalled  for  and  incompetent  to  the  criticism  of  this 
divine  revelation.  They  further  assume  themselves  and 
claim  to  be,  the  national  church,  and  call  as  such,  the 
state  to  their  aid.  The  second  party  are  directly 
opposed  to  this  system  and  reject  everything  that 
reason  does  not  bring  as  true  to  their  convictions  and 


entire  consciousness.  Hence  they  set  aside  all  historical 
Christianity  as  untrue  and  inconsistent  with  reason, 
and  seek  to  substitute  for  it  their  self-attained  con- 
victions and  the  general  consciousness  of  mankind. 
Finally,  the  third  or  middle  party  select  from  out  of 
historical  Christianity  certain  fundamental  elements, 
declare  them  to  be  true  Christianity,  and  so  far  as 
reason  can  accept  it  in  the  elements  thus  selected  by 
them,  endeavour  to  uphold  this  Christianity. 

On  closer  examination,  we  find  that  the  first  or 
orthodox  party  is  the  only  one  which  has  a  fixed  well- 
ordered  basis;  but  its  adversary  Reason  has  acquired 
so  vast  a  preponderance  in  every  other  department  of 
human  affairs,  that  by  the  exercise  of  arbitrary  power 
alone,  can  it  be  excluded  from  the  domain  of  religion. 
Orthodoxy  is  truth  to  those  only  who  still  retain  a 
child-like  simplicity  of  intellect.  Those  only  whose 
whole  life  is  passed  in  a  condition  of  continued  intel- 
lectual childhood,  can  be  really  satisfied  with  orthodoxy. 
The  more  developed  man  either  forces  himself  back  to 
this  position,  for  the  sake  of  the  peace  which  he  has  not 
the  energy  to  seek  for  elsewhere,  or  adheres  to  it  from 
obstinacy  or  in  pursuit  of  worldly  advantage.  In  the 
first  case  he  is  honest,  albeit  somewhat  egotistical  in 
his  nature ;  in  the  second,  he  is  a  hypocrite. 

The  second  or  anti-Christian  party  possesses  a  clearly 
defined  knowledge  of  its  own  ends,  but  has  no  deter- 
mined basis  of  operation.  It  is  directly  opposed  to  the 
historical  party,  of  Avhich  it  desires  to  achieve  the  anni- 
hilation. It  acknowledges  no  authority  and  no  revela- 
tion; it  insists  on  the  self-origin  of  all  convictions 
and  on  according  to  these  convictions  full  weight,  even 
in  the  religious  community.      This  is  the  institution 

232  LECTURE  XI. 

termed  free  congregations ;  bat  in  this  also  the  elements 
of  dissension  are  present.  For  whither  must  the  system 
of  this  party  lead  if  perfectly  consistent  with  itself? 
Manifestly  to  a  return  to  the  human  idea, — to  Heathen- 
ism, though  necessarily  and  evidently  to  a  modern 
Heathenism.  For  whereas  ancient  Heathenism  saw 
warring  principles  in  nature,  and  thence  deduced  the 
plurality  of  the  gods,  Man  in  recent  ages  has  learnt 
to  look  on  nature  as  a  whole,  and  hence  to  recognise  the 
God  whom  she  discloses  to  him,  to  be  One  God,  a  Unity. 
The  most  important  point  is  however  that  the  view  he 
takes  of  the  Godhead  in  nature,  is  identical  with  that 
held  by  the  heathenism  of  old.  God  and  nature  with 
him  are  one  and  the  same  thing  ;  whereas  the  Religious 
Idea  teaches  us  that  God  is  supermundane,  and  that 
nature  is  the  work  of  God.  Setting  forth  from  this 
principle,  the  inevitable  sequence  is  that  man  being 
the  highest  organism,  full  validity  will  be  restored  to  the 
motive  principle  of  selfishness;  love,  justice,  purity  and 
morality  Mall  lose  their  foundation  in  God,  in  whom  the 
Religious  Idea  places  them,  and  will  become  mere 
relative  conditions  and  aspects  of  man's  being  in  regard 
to  himself.  It  is  but  recently  that  this  has  for  the  first 
time  been  openly  avowed  as  the  basis  of  a  religious 
system,  by  the  '  Marbourg  Friends  of  Light,'  a  body 
which  though  scattered,  is  more  numerous  than  it  is 
supposed  to  be.  Another  large  party,  repelled  by  the 
comfortless  character  of  these  views,  stop  half-way  on 
a  path  in  the  same  direction,  and  profess  Deism,  that  is 
the  God  of  the  Religious  Idea,  while  they  refuse  to  be 
indebted  to  history  for  their  knowledge  of  Him,  and 
declare  that  knowledge  to  be  a  native  growth  of  their 
own  minds.     These,  however,  want  a  firmer  foundation 


for  their  system.  They  accept  nothmg  that  is  not 
proved.  Yet  they  take  for  granted  as  proved,  that  which 
is  not  susceptible  of  proof,  (as  Kant  shows)  and  then 
impute  to  it  the  same  validity  as  though  it  had  been 
demonstrated.  Besides,  to  combine  the  complete  suffi- 
ciency of  individual  conviction  with  any  universal  doc- 
trine is  per  se  a  contradiction,  since  the  right  of  private 
judgment  assumes  the  severing  of  the  general  bond  of 
a  common  belief  Here  then  as  well  as  in  the  orthodox 
party,  we  encounter  elements  arbitrarily  combined. 

We  come  lastly  to  the  third  and  middle  party,  those 
who  chose  to  remain  Christians  yet  reject  historical 
Christianity.  In  their  system  also,  a  weak  point  may 
be  found;  that  point  is  the  absence  of  any  fixed  and 
determinate  standard.  They  aim  at  separating  from 
historical  Christianity,  so  much  as  they  deem  to  be  true. 
But  what  is  their  ground,  what  is  their  measure  of 
acceptance  or  rejection?  The  ground  and  measure  are 
the  Scriptures,  they  reply ;  that  is,  the  New  Testament. 
But  the  New  Testament  as  a  whole  furnishes  the  mate- 
rials of  all  the  Cliristian  doctrines.  Dogmatism  has  its 
entire  foundation  in  the  New  Testament.  This  being 
an  accepted  fact,  the  phrase  so  constantly  employed, 
'  The  Scriptures  according  to  the  spirit,  not  according  to 
the  letter,^  are  words  without  meaning.  For  either  I 
put  into  them  whatever  my  mind  is  compelled  or  wills 
to  find  in  them,  or  I  leave  out  whatever  my  mind  is 
compelled  or  wills  to  reject.  Both  these  operations 
transform  the  Scriptm-es  into  something  I  have  willed 
them  to  be;  and  thus  all  becomes  individual.  My 
idiosyncrasy  comes  therefore  to  be  my  motive  principle, 
and  not  the  Scriptures;  and  to  the  whole  system  is 
thus  given  the  instability  of  a  mere  delusion.     Finally, 

234  LECTURE  XI, 

another  course  is  to  seek  a  primitive  or  original  Chris- 
tianity ;  the  later  Avritings,  the  Gospel  of  St.  John  and 
the  Epistles  are  severed  from  the  New  Testament  the 
more  ancient  portions  only  being  retained,  in  order  to 
establish  this  primitive  Christianity.  But  where,  as  a 
historical  truth,  is  this  primitive  Christianity  to  be 
found?  At  its  rise  out  of  Judaism;  for  tracing  the 
course  of  Christianity  back  to  its  source,  we  arrive  at 
Judaism  as  it  existed  in  Mosaism  and  Prophetism.  But 
there  too  at  the  point  where  Christianity  flows  out  of 
Judaism,  we  have  already  recognised  that  severance 
of  the  Here  from  the  Hereafter,  that  breach  between 
the  Idea  and  the  Life,  that  sacrificing  of  the  Present  to 
the  Future,  in  which  assuredly  truth  whole  and  entire 
cannot  be  comprehended.  "We  are  therefore  compelled 
to  further  retrace  our  steps,  until  we  reach  Mosaism, 
Again  here,  be  it  observed,  the  arbitrary  assumption  of 
the  individual  determines  both  the  ground  and  the  mea- 
sure, and  a  halting  point  is  sought  on  a  road  on  which 
it  is  not  to  be  found.  This  is  just  Avhat  we  perceive  to 
be  actually  the  case  among  the  "^Protestant  Rationalists' 
and  '  Friends  of  Light.'  These  two  sects  have  the  merit 
of  asserting  the  rights  of  reason  as  opposed  to  ortho- 
doxy ;  they  have  further  the  merit  of  desiring  to  protect 
the  Religious  Idea  against  the  assaults  of  Pantheism. 
But  with  these  negative  services  they  have  never  been 
able  to  combine  any  positive  benefits,  the  specific  one 
excepted,  of  maintaining  the  rights  of  the  community 
in  opposition  to  the  encroachments  of  State  Churches. 

Upon  these  movements  a  fi'esli  one  has  recently  super- 
vened, on  a  territory  which  had  hitherto  remained 
unshaken  by  mutations,  that  of  Roman  Catholicism. 
While  it  was  really  Protestantism  that  fought  the  battle 


above  described,  it  is  nevertheless  certain  that  very 
many  individuals,  though  for  various  and  manifold 
reasons  nominally  remaining  within  the  pale  of  Roman 
Catholicism,  were  not  uninfluenced  by  the  movements 
around.  As  at  the  time  of  the  reformation,  a  number 
of  CathoHcs  separated  themselves  from  orthodox  Catho- 
licism, and  attacking  one  of  its  extreme  doctrines,  the 
adoration  of  the  coat,*  abandoned  the  ranks  of  the 
church  and  formed  themselves  into  a  new  community. 
The  movement  was  rapid,  the  agitation  it  produced 
spread  rapidly,  and  was  rapidly  brought  under  certain 
regulation  and  control.  But  as  rapidly  was  it  out- 
wardly checked,  and  confined  within  prescribed  limits. 
It  must  here  be  observed  that  it  doubtlessly  gained 
most  ground  in  those  parts  of  Germany  where  Pro- 
testantism chiefly  prevailed.  It  is  vain  to  object  that 
its  progress  was  forcibly  arrested  by  state  authorities. 
For  in  the  first  place,  in  several  Protestant  countries 
even,  it  had  to  overcome  the  hostility  of  the  respective 
Governments;  and  in  the  second,  when,  we  would  ask, 
was  ever  any  religious  movement  suppressed  by  the  exer- 
cise of  political  power,  if  it  had  deeply  imbued  and  exten- 
sively pervaded  the  mind  of  the  masses  of  the  people  ? 
Never !  On  German  Catholici  sm  this  good  fortune  attended 
not.  And  wherefore  ?  The  development  of  the  Protestant 
struggle  was  naturally  progressive,  and  its  instruments 
were  therefore  always  ready  prepared  and  available  for 
immediate  use.  The  road  fi'om  Catholicism  to  dogma- 
tism, from  dogmatism  to  rationalism,  from  rationalism 
to  the  Free  Communities  and  the  '  Friends  of  Light,' 
is  one  definite  onward  path.   Now  German  Catholicism 

*  A  relic  whose  periodical  exhibition  attracts  numerous  pil- 
grims to  Treves. — A.M.G. 

23  3  I.KCTUllE    XI. 

had  to  overstep  this  development^  and  found  in  the 
Catholic  mass  very  little  prepared  material.  Here 
then  was  their  first  stumbling-block.  Again  the  Ger- 
man Catholics^  like  the  reformers  of  old,  were  precipi- 
tately urged  on  to  decide  at  once  on  their  futiire  course. 
Was  it  not  then  probable  that  they  would  fall  into  one 
of  the  phases  of  Protestantism  ?  And  into  which  ?  A 
form  as  elastic  as  possible  Avas  therefore  sought  which 
should  admit  within  its  limits  the  greatest  possible 
number  of  individual  sympathies,  and  in  which  should 
be  preserved  something  of  the  old  Catholicism  in  a 
modern  dress.  But  this  proved  another  stumbling 
block.  For  the  mass  of  mankind  require  something 
tangible,  something  that  they  can  grasp  and  hold  by ; 
they  want  not  to  seek  but  at  once  to  find,  So,  as  was 
inevitable,  no  members  of  the  Catholic  Church  gave  in 
their  adhesion  to  the  new  community,  except  such  as 
had  long  previously  had  a  Protestant  bias.  And  very 
few  of  the  Protestant  party  joined  it,  since  they  found 
it  nothing  more  than  what  they  akeady  possessed. 
German  Protestantism,  it  is  true,  endeavoured  to  gain 
a  certain  footing  by  means  of  a  more  outward  elabora- 
tion. It  aimed,  as  its  name  implies,  at  uniting  in  one 
universal  German  Church,  all  those  who  had  outgrown 
Catholicism  and  Protestant  orthodoxy.  But  under  ex- 
isting circumstances  this  great  idea  could  not  be  car- 
ried into  eftect.  The  age  is  as  yet  unprepared  for  the 
realisation  of  a  task,  which  is  in  truth  the  mission  of 
Protestantism  itself. 

What  is  then  the  result  of  the  whole  Christian  deve- 
lopment, from  the  Reformation  to  the  present  time  ?  It 
is  this ;  that  reason  has  made  good  its  claims  against 
dogmatism   and    has    separated    from    it   the   specific 


elements  of  Christianity.  Hence  results  again  a  two- 
fold effort ;  on  tlie  one  hand  has  been  attempted  the 
re-edification  of  the  Religious  Idea  divested  of  its  speci- 
fically Christian  elements,  by  the  '  Friends  of  Light ;' 
on  the  other^  the  '  Free  Communities'  have  dissolved 
all  common  bond  of  union,  by  establishing  the  validity  of 
private  judgment  or  individual  reason;  and  thence  has 
been  evolved  its  extreme  result — Pantheism  or  modern 

Let  us  now  direct  our  attention  to  the  movements 
which  have  taken  place  within  Judaism,  of  which  we 
must  date  the  commencement  from  the  middle  of  the 
last  century.  In  so  doing,  we  at  once  bring  into  strong- 
relief  two  distinct  and  characteristic  features,  that  neces- 
sarily and  essentially  distinguish  the  Jewish  from  the 
Christian  movement.  First,  in  Judaism  there  has  been 
no  controversy  as  to  doctrine;  the  relative  obligation 
of  observance  of  the  ceremonial  law  or  of  adherence  to 
the  idea,  forms  the  chief  ground  of  debate.  2ndly.  The 
change  produced  by  the  social  movement  was  necessarily, 
within  Judaism,  far  more  decisive,  and  effected  a  far 
more  marked  transformation.  For  the  social  and  reli- 
gious movements  of  Christianity  proceeded  simultane- 
ously, were  the  outpourings  of  one  and  the  same  spirit ; 
but  in  those  of  Judaism,  the  social  element  was  in  itself 
the  primary  cause,  and  became  in  fact  the  umpire  in 
the  dispute.  These  two  characteristics  have  a  close 
mutual  connection;  for  the  social  movement  met  a 
decided  obstacle  in  the  Talmudic  ceremonial,  which  it 
had  to  break  through  and  which  it  has  in  fact  brought 
into  desuetude;  a  task  it  had  in  a  great  measure 
achieved,  while  the  intellectual  movement  remained  yet 

238  LECTURE    XI. 

We  have  seen  viz.,  that  Talmudism  preserved  the 
whole  of  the  Religious  Idea  as  Mosaism  and  Prophctism 
had  handed  it  down,  but  hedged  it  round  with  an  exten- 
sive ceremonial ;  weaving  at  the  same  time  out  of  the 
Mosaic  national  law  a  law  of  material  life  for  the  indi- 
vidual, by  which  the  Idea  was  thrust  into  the  back- 
ground and  individual  freedom  annulled.  To  this 
ceremonial,  Talmudism  attributed  imperative  sway, 
partly  by  referring  it  to  the  Scriptures,  partly  by  de- 
claring it  to  be  a  traditional  interpretation  handed 
down  orally  from  Moses  himself,  and  partly  in  fine  by 
asserting  the  claim  of  the  Talmudic  teachers  to  absolute 
and  uncontested  authority. 

It  was  dui'ing  the  first  half  of  the  last  century  that 
the  first  rays  of  light  fell  oii  the  benighted  isolation  of 
the  Jews.  The  dissemination  of  these  stray  beams  was 
aided,  by  the  position  of  some  among  them  as  memlDers 
of  the  medical  profession.  Then  the  intellectual  culture 
of  the  Jews  increased  both  within  and  without,  with 
almost  magical  rapidity.  Mendelssohn  became  as  it 
were,  the  type  of  Jewish  cultivation.  He,  the  son  of 
a  Jewish  scribe,  brought  up  in  the  midst  of  Talmudism, 
instructed  only  in  Hebrew  lore,  attracted,  ere  many 
years  had  elapsed,  the  attention  of  the  whole  world  of 
letters  by  the  fluent,  sweet,  and  elegant  style  in  which 
his  learned  and  instructive  works  were  composed; 
works  conceived  in  the  spirit  of  the  Grecian  writers, 
and  subsequently  translated  into  all  living  languages. 
What  was  at  that  time  the  attribute  of  few  Jewish 
intellects,  became  in  the  course  of  the  century,  the 
universal  property  of  the  Jewish  mass,  thereby  raising 
the  whole  of  the  next  generation  to  the  intellectual 
European   standard,   and    consequently  far    above   and 


beyond  the  domain  of  Talmudism.  This  intellectual 
cultivation  could  not  fail  to  re-awaken  tlie  Ideaj  and  to 
cause  the  right  of  private  judgment  and  the  claims  of 
individual  freedom,  in  opposition  to  Talmudism,  to  be 
fully  recognised. 

Eut  at  the  same  period  viz.,  the  latter  half  of  the 
last  century,  came  to  pass  that  revolution  in  municipal 
society  which  transformed  absolute  into  constitutional 
government.  This  was  not  a  change  in  social  forms 
merely,  but  in  society  itself.  The  state  ceased  to  be 
expressed  by  the  person  of  the  monarch  alone,  [Vetat 
c'est  moi)  and  extended  itself  to  every  part  of  the  social 
edifice.  The  state  became  an  organism,  to  which  all  its 
members  belonged  equally  as  integral  parts.  For  all 
those  members,  the  ground-work  of  the  state  thus  be- 
came one  universal  rule  of  right.  Among  the  rest,  the 
Jew  quitted  his  isolated  position,  and  was  incorporated 
with  the  state.  As  one  of  its  members,  he  lost  the 
miserable  privileges  granted  to  him  in  the  exercise  of 
usury  and  hawking,  and  inherited  all  the  duties  belong- 
ins:  to  a  member  of  the  state  and  with  them  all  the 
rights  appertaining  to  such  members.  Hence  as  this 
view  of  national  existence  became  general,  its  applica- 
tion to  the  Jews  could  not  long  remain  disregarded. 
If  to  ^  Germany  belongs  the  merit  of  having  first  given 
it  written  utterance,  (Dohm,  1781)  it  was  North 
America,  1785,  and  Holland,  1796,  that  first  carried 
the  principle  into  practice,  and  placed  the  Jews  as 
citizens,  in  a  position  of  perfect  civil  and  legal  equality 
with  the  members  of  all  other  religious  denominations. 

The    attainment   by   the    Jews  to    a   like    condition 

*  Alas!  that  to  tliis  time  it  should  liave  in  Germany  remained 
for  the  most  part,  a  theory  devoid  of  fulfihnent.— A.  M.  G. 

240  LECTURE    XI. 

has  been  in  the  other  countries  of  Europe  a  matter 
far  more  difficult ;  in  them  the  progress  of  emancipa- 
tion has  been  gradual.  Prussia  conceded  some  very 
unimportant  municipal  rights  in  1812  and  has  since 
withdrawn  them.  Denmark  followed  the  example  in 
1814  by  more  extensive  grants.  That  equality  which 
was  established  by  the  French  in  Westphalia  and  Italy, 
was  subsequently  partially  rescinded  in  the  former; 
wholly  in  the  latter  of  these  states.  Hesse-Cassel  is 
now  the  only  place  in  Germany  where  the  Jews  are 
legally  on  the  same  footing  with  other  communities. 
In  the  other  German  states  a  varying  scale  of  freedom 
has  been  adopted.  In  Bavaria  and  Austria,^  the  con- 
dition of  the  Jews  is  yet  marked  by  many  exceptional 
laws.  In  Poland  and  Russia  the  mediaeval  state  of  the 
law  has  not  yet  yielded  to  the  intelligence  of  the  age. 
In  Mahomedan  countries  the  position  of  the  Israelites 
has  remained  unchanged  for  centuries. 

If  the  Jews  haA^e  legally  taken  their  place  in  the  civil 
communityj  they  have  done  so  far  more  socially.  The 
particular  callings  to  which  they  had  been  exclusively 
condemned,  have  been  abandoned  by  them :  every  branch 
of  trade,  commerce,  science  and  art,  has  been  opened  to 
them,  while  in  each  succeeding  generation  they  have 
availed  themselves  more  and  more  extensively  of  the 
new  fields  thus  granted  to  their  activity  and  intelligence. 
And  as  during  the  past  thirty  years  of  peace  commerce 
and  industry  have  undergone  a  complete  revolution, 
and  the  spirit  of  castes  and  corporations  has  gradually 

*  Under  the  paternal  government  of  Austria  the  Jews  are 
yet  subjected  to  vexatious  laws,  bootless  and  eruel  restrictions, 
which  in  their  spirit  are  worthy  of  the  darkest  of  the  middle 
ages. — A.  M.  G. 


died  away^  so  have  the  Jews  been  led  on  further  and  fur- 
ther into  these  new  phases  of  life.  The  more  clearly  im- 
possible it  was  to  arrest  this  onward  course,  the  more  the 
necessity  or  the  desire  of  self-maintenance  impelled  him 
forward  Avho  had  once  entered  on  it,  the  sooner  did  the 
Jew  find  an  obstacle  arise  to  the  pursuits  of  his  daily  life, 
in  the  requirements  of  the  Talmudic  ceremonial.  This 
ceremonial  law,  especially  calculated  for  an  isolated  and 
retired  existence,  could  not  in  many  cases  be  made  to 
agree  Avith  a  life  merged  in  the  pursuit  of  worldly  gain 
and  the  duties  of  citizenship.  To  such  a  life  it  was 
opposed.  Numerous  individuals  were  soon  carried  by 
the  force  of  the  current  over  this  Talmudic  dyke.  Thus 
two  great  causes  operated  to  cause  the  Jews  to  demur 
as  to  Talmudic  Judaism.  Their  intellectual  cultivation, 
which  infused  new  vitality  into  the  Idea,  awakened 
their  sense  of  right  to  li])erty  of  thought  and  to  indi- 
vidual free  agency,  and  their  social  life  imbued  them 
with  a  desire  to  break  through  the  Talmudic  ceremonial 
law,  by  which  that  life  was  so  trammelled. 

Long  did  this  contradiction  exist,  long  did  these 
elements  of  strife  operate,  before  the  mental  struggle 
gave  outward  signs  of  its  inward  being.  Existing 
authorities  that  had  remained  unshaken  and  inviolate  as 
the  ruling  power,  during  fifteen  hundred  years,  and  the 
indifference  towards  religious  matters  necessarily  result- 
ing from  the  latent  contradictions, — an  indifference 
which  carried  religious  earnestness  and  religious  needs 
and  aspirations,  to  an  alarming  extent,  without  and 
beyond  the  pale  of  the  Jewish  community,  caused  the 
actual  inward  strife  to  be  hushed  up,  the  discrepancies 
to  be  concealed  by  silence.  Individuals  sought  to 
regulate  their  religious  practices  according  to  their  own 


242  LECTURE    XI. 

convenience,  a  process  the  more  easy,  since  the  doctrine 
of  Judaism  was  never  subjected  to  any  open  attack. 

Tliis  state  of  things  could  not  long  continue.  The 
extended  mental  cultivation,  itself  generated  the  re- 
quirement for  the  more  earnest  working  out  and  solution 
of  the  religious  problem.  The  first  opportunity  Avas  af- 
forded by  the  mode  of  religious  worship,  which  retaining 
the  form  it  had  received  in  the  middle  ages,  denied  all 
satisfaction  to  the  improved  taste  and  the  refined  feelings 
of  the  present  age.  This  controversy  arose  twenty 
years  ago  and  is  only  now  approaching  to  an  issue. 
Yet  this  strife  about  the  worship,  like  that  of  the 
Reformation,  refers  only  to  outward  forms.  The  history 
of  Jewish  worship  lies  pretty  clearly  before  us.  To  the 
Mosaic  revelation  it  has  no  relation,  since  in  the  Law  of 
Moses  no  specific  form  of  worship  is  prescribed.  Nor 
did  it  institute  any  form  of  divine  service  for  the 
individual.  The  question  therefore  respecting  worship, 
was  not  a  question  of  principles ;  the  attack  was 
directed  not  against  law,  but  against  custom ;  it  took 
place  in  fact  on  neutral  ground.  But  it  soon  gave  rise 
to  a  second  question  as  to  the  obligatory  force  of 
customs  unconnected  Avith  divine  worship.  Upon  this  a 
third  question  speedily  supervened,  a  question  as  to  the 
compulsory  and  binding  character  of  the  Talmudic  law. 
History  was  appealed  to,  and  by  it  the  alleged  uninter- 
rupted oral  tradition  from  Moses  down  to  the  writers, 
of  the  Mischna  and  Gemara,  was  not  established;  on 
the  contrary,  it  was  disproved.  The  Talmudic  law 
therefore  could  claim  no  decided  authority,  excepting 
so  far  as  it  is  confirmed  by  the  Scriptures.  But  the 
Talmudic  interpretation  is  a  free  interpretation,  without 
regard  to  the  rational  sense  of  the  sacred   text.     Here- 


upon  arose  the  fourth  question.  Moses  laid  down 
certain  general  principles,  the  principles  of  the  Re- 
ligious Idea  and  the  religious  life ;  these  he  immediately 
embodied  in  a  code  for  the  nation  and  the  state ;  but 
the  nation  and  the  state  no  longer  exist.  The  greater 
portion  of  this  national  and  state  law,  lost  its  actuality 
when  the  nation  lost  its  independence.  Now  the  greater 
the  truth  indwelling  in  the  general  principles  embodied  in 
the  national  and  state  laws  when  consistently  developed, 
the  sooner  arises  the  inquiry  :  '  Is  the  extant  portion  of 
the  Mosaic  national  law,  which  became  by  the  over- 
throw of  the  Jewish  national  life  a  mere  dead  letter, 
still  binding  in  its  literal  acceptation'  ?  Or  does  it  stand 
in  so  integral  a  connection  with  the  whole,  that  both  it, 
and  the  rest  of  the  code,  have  lost  their  uncondi- 
tional validity  in  real  life  ?  For  instance,  it  is  asked. 
Were  the  dietetic  laws  of  Moses  only  a  part  of  the  law  of 
sacrifice  and  purification,  so  that  they  have  lost  their 
vahxe  with  the  present  non-application  of  that  law,  or 
have  they  so  important  and  independent  a  significance, 
that  the  Jew  of  the  present  day  should  consider  them 
as  binding?  Have  they  or  have  they  not,  like  the 
sprinkling  the  water  of  purification  after  contact  with  a 
dead  body,  only  a  symbolical,  devotional  character  ? 

Such  have  been  and  are  still  the  questions,  that  have 
arisen  among  the  Jews  and  have  taken  a  character 
more  or  less  prominent,  according  as  they  refer  to 
matters  more  or  less  important;  for  example,  the 
question  as  to  the  laws  for  the  Sabbath,  and  the  customs 
relating  to  the  day  of  mourning.  From  all  this  col- 
lectively considered,  results  this  particular  and  essential 
inquiry  :  How  far  is  the  Mosaic-Talmudic-ceremonial 
law  binding  on  us,  in  our  present  condition  of  intellectual 

R  3 

244  LECTUKi-:  XI. 

and  social  developmeut  ?  And  from  these  elements  came 
into  existence  in  Judaism  also^  different  parties  respec- 
tively formed  of  individuals  holding  and  professing  certain 
shades  of  opinion.  These  parties  may  be  thus  described. 
First,  there  are  the  orthodox  Talmudists,  who  insist  on 
upholding  the  binding  force  of  the  Talmudic  law  entire 
and  the  unconditional  authority  of  the  Talmud.  This  party 
is  again  divided  into  two  sections,  one  enforcing  a  literal 
fulfilment  of  the  laws  of  the  Talmud  according  to  the 
signification  of  the  Rabbins;  the  other  and  smaller 
section,  while  inclining  to  the  Idea^  seek  a  new  inge- 
nious and  artificial  foundation  for  the  Talmudic  law. 
Secondly,  The  Reformers,  who  refuse  to  the  Talmud,  not 
only  all  authority  but  all  value,  set  the  ceremonial 
entirely  aside,  and  insist  on  the  recognition  of  individual 
freedom  as  the  first  and  highest  of  all  principles.  This 
party  are  likewise  devoid  of  a  consistent  foundation  for 
the  theory  they  would  establish ;  for  they  deny  at  once, 
all  that  was  established  by  Mosaism  as  an  essential 
element,  viz.  the  union  of  the  idea  and  the  life.  They  in 
fact  elevate  themselves  above  Mosaism,  and  adhere  only 
to  an  arbitrary  interpretation  of  Prophetism.  The  ground 
on  which  they  thus  place  themselves  affording  no  firm 
footing,  in  the  extremes  of  this  party  has  naturally  been 
betrayed  a  tendency  towards  modern  Paganism  or 
Pantheism,  leading  them  directly  away  from  and  out  of, 
the  Religious  Idea.  Thirdly,  midway  between  these 
two,  is  the  so-called  moderate  party,  which  might 
more  justly  be  termed  the  historical  party.  Their 
specific  purport  and  aim  are,  the  upholding  of  Judaism 
as  the  special  vehicle  of  the  Religious  Idea.  They 
desire  on  the  one  hand,  the  development  and  elevation 
of  the  Religious  Idea ;  on  the  other  the  maintenance. 


as  far  as  is  possible  under  the  circumstances  of  these 
times,  of  the  historical  form  of  Judaism.  According 
to  their  view,  the  ceremonial  law  has  no  real  and  abso- 
lute value,  but  is  to  be  upheld  as  the  means  of  preserv- 
ing the  independence  of  Judaism,  by  combining  with 
it  the  antagonism  to  its  surroundings.  How  im- 
portant soever  this  pai'ty  may  be  in  the  present  time, 
they  are  seen  to  be  ever  involved,  for  want  of  an 
abstract  principle,  in  internal  contests.  For  if  subser- 
vience to  the  age,  which  must  always  coerce  them  to  ^ 
fresh  concessions,  is  to  be  their  leading  principle,  what 
they  hold  fast  to-day,  to-morrow  they  will  find  escaping 
from  their  grasp.  Each  day  they  would  fain  cry,  '  Halt !' 
but  the  halt  is  ever  being  further  postponed.* 

I  have  thus,  my  friends,  endeavoured  to  give  you  an 
impartial  sketch  of  the  condition  of  the  age  and  of  the 

*  It  may  perhaps  be  desirable  to  state  for  the  information  of 
the  non-Jewish  reader,  that  the  congregation  of  British  Jews  to 
whom  the  designation  of  '  Eeformers '  has  been  applied  by  their 
brethren  in  this  country,  are  not  identical  either  in  tlie  principles 
they  profess,  or  in  their  practice,  with  any  one  of  the  parties 
described  above  by  our  author.  Their  principles  are,  unconditional 
beUef  in  the  divine  inspiration  of  Moses  and  the  Prophets,  and 
of  them  only  ;  in  the  duty  of  obedience  as  unconditional  to  the 
whole  moral  code  of  Moses,  and  to  all  the  laws  which  admit  of 
individual  observance,  and  which  are  not  by  their  very  nature 
and  by  Moses  himself,  restricted  in  their  fufilment  to  the  existence 
of  the  Israelites  as  a  nation,  to  the  soil  of  Palestine,  and  to  the 
I)reciucts  of  the  temple.  The  objects  the  ministers  and  their  con- 
gregants place  before  themselves,  cannot  be  better  defined  than 
they  are  by  our  author  in  the  words  *  '  To  work  out  within  us 
into  clear  consciousness,  fixed  and  definite  ideas  of  Mosaism,  and 
to  give  those  ideas,  so  far  as  it  is  possible  under  the  conditions 
of  our  present  existence,  life  and  form  ;  to  make  them  actual  and 
active,  in  us  and  among  us. — A.  M.  G. 

*  Lecture  T.,  page  19. 

246  LECTURE  XI. 

controversies  which  mark  it  in  the  domains,  both  of 
Christianity  and  of  Judaism.  I  must  beg  your  indul- 
gence, if  the  space  of  one  lecture  has  afforded  time  for 
a  mere  sketch,  rather  than  a  regular  and  complete 
analysis.  I  have  only  indicated  the  questions  and  the 
difficulties  they  involve ;  viz.  in  Christianity,  the  restora- 
tion ultimately  of  the  Religious  Idea,  without  the 
specifically  Christian  elements ;  and  in  Judaism,  the 
divesting  the  Religious  Idea  of  the  ceremonial  law.  I 
have  shewn  how  in  Christendom,  Christianity  is  evolving 
itself  into  the  Religious  Idea  predicated  by  Mosaism ; 
how  in  Judaism  the  ceremonial  law  is  merging  into  the 
Religious  Idea  ;  how  in  Christendom,  the  Religious  Idea 
itself  is  still  matter  of  debate,  while  in  Judaism  the 
Religious  Idea  is  ever  extant  ever  openly  expressed, 
ever  uncontested ;  but  clothed  in  a  ceremonial  law 
which  forms  the  subject  of  dispute.  And  lastly,  I  have 
shewn  how  the  task  of  Judaism  is,  as  it  has  ever  been, 
to  preserve  the  Religious  Idea  perfect  and  entire ;  and 
how  that  of  Christianity  is  to  arrive  at  the  complete 
Religious  Idea  by  the  path  of  free,  independent  self- 
development.  What  is  the  solution  of  these  problems? 
What  is  the  future  of  religion  ?  What  is  the  goal  ? 
These  questions  press  upon  us ;  they  rise  unbidden,  as 
the  result  of  our  previous  enquiry.  Assuredly,  to  these 
questions  no  simple  and  unconditional  answer  can  be 
fifiven.  The  child  of  earth  cannot  raise  the  veil  of  the 
future.  Nevertheless,  at  the  point  of  the  world's  history 
at  which  we  have  arrived,  it  may  perhaps  be  permitted 
to  us,  when  once  we  have  taken  our  stand  on  ground 
above  the  level  of  parties,  to  derive  from  history  some 
insight  into  that  which  is  to  come.  We  seek  our  clue 
in  the  Past,  and  then  guided  by  it,  pursue  our  onward 
path  into  the  Future. 




After  having  traversed  with  you,  in  so  far  as  it  has 
been  permitted  me,  the  great  '  Past '  of  the  Religious 
Idea,  I  purpose  to-day,  my  respected  hearers,  directing 
your  attention  to  the  domain  of  the   Future.     Let  me 
first  remove  everything  which  may  become  an  obstacle 
on    our   onward    path,    which    may   divert   the   actual 
inquiry  from  its  true  starting-point  and  goal.     It  has 
been  asked  : — Will  Judaism  continue  to  exist  ?     Will 
Christianity  or  the  positive  religions  in  general,  endure 
in  the  future  ?     The  solution  of  this  question  has  been 
attempted  and  contested  by  each  party  and  confession 
in  turn.     The  Christian  has  predicted  the  approaching 
end  of  Judaism.     The  Jew  has  foretold  the  resolution 
of  all  religions  into  his  belief.     The  Moslem  equally 
proclaims  the  future  dominion  of  the  Crescent  over  all 
the  countries  of  the  earth.     These  are  not  the  decisions 
at  which  prejudice  only  arrives ;  they  are  the  expres- 
sion of  the  indwelling  convictions  which  each  respec- 
tively holds.     They  are  also  evidences  of  the  ignorance 
of  each,  of  that  which  fills  the  mental  being  of  the 
others.     Yet  we   perceive   nevertheless,  that   the   out- 
ward  boundaries   of  each   religion    remain    unmoved. 

248  LECTURE    XII. 

We  see  tliat  notwithstanding  the  compulsion  and  per- 
suasion exerted,  those  who  do  change  their  religion  are 
not  after  all^  objects  of  especial  consideration  and  esteem. 
Besides  these  respective  predictions  of  existing  faiths, 
by  which  to  each  confession  in  its  turn  all  endurance 
in  the  future  has  been  refused,  it  has  been  foretold 
that  a  new  and  totally  distinct  religion  will  rise  and 
develop  itself  triumphantly  out  of  the  wreck  of  former 
faiths,  that  we  shall  behold,  instead  of  the  Future 
of  religion — the  religion  of  the  Future. 

All  these  questions  and  answers  may,  my  hearers,  at 
least  be  designated  as  premature  and  illogical ;  they  give 
evidence  of  imperfect  acquaintance  with  the  spirit  of 
history,  with  the  course  of  development  of  mankind, 
and  with  the  ways  of  Divine  Providence.  God's  pro- 
vidence, if  I  may  be  permitted  the  expression,  is  no 
charioteer  that  suddenly  overturns  the  vehicle  entrusted 
to  his  guidance  when  too  heavily  laden.  The.  march 
of  human  development  is  no  spring  hither  and  thither, 
follows  no  zig-zag,  uncertain  path.  As  we  see  in  nature, 
so  we  see  in  the  grand  universal  progress  of  the  world's 
history  ;  that  everything  has  its  appointed  place,  every- 
thing is  self-supporting  and  independent  although  a  niem- 
ber  of  the  great  organism,  and  is  gradually  prepared  and 
developed  from  step  to  step,  tiU  it  reaches  its  highest  and 
ultimate  degree  of  perfectibility.  According  to  our  view 
therefore,  the  question  assumes  far  higher  import  if  thus 
framed.  Will  men,  will  all  the  members  of  the  great 
human  family,  ever  be  united  in  one  only  I'cligious  be- 
lief, and  how  is  the  possibility  of  attaining  this  great  end 
demonstrable?  For  in  this  question  is  included  the 
result  of  a  vast  development  of  that  which  is ;  in  it  is 
involved,  not    the    direct    annihilation    of   all    existing 


religions,  but  their  resolution  into  something  universal ; 
in  it  is  enfolded  something  which  surpasses  far  the  fixed 
knowledge  and  conceptions  of  the  present  time ;  so 
that  we  need  not  say,  to-morrow  we  reach  to  the  end 
of  our  journey,  and  what  will  ensue  ?  In  this  question 
again,  we  encounter  the  ancient  predictions  of  the  pro- 
phets, who  in  an  age  when  the  dominion  of  the  Religious 
Idea  was  limited  to  the  smallest  spot  of  earth,  yet 
recognised  the  conquering  force  of  that  idea,  and  de- 
clared this  to  be  its  far  distant  yet  ultimate  goal.  In 
this  we  express  the  desire  of  every  friend  of  human-kind, 
who  feels  that  the  highest  of  all  aspirations  is  the  hope 
that  the  bond  of  truth  will  one  day  encircle  and  unite 
all  the  sons  of  men.  But  is  this  question  in  the  category 
of  human  aspirations,  destined  ever  to  remain  un- 
reahsed  ?  Is  it  devoid  of  reahty,  having  a  place  in  the 
domain  of  Poetry  alone  ?  Or  does  the  certain  march  of 
history  show  us  that  mankind  under  the  action  of  these 
contrasts,  long  since  set  forth  on  their  appointed  course 
to  this  goal  ?  So  that  when  we  are  enabled  to  elevate 
ourselves  above  the  troubled  and  misty  atmosphere  which 
surrounds  the  present,  we  clearly  discern  the  path 
leading  to  that  issue.  This  proposition  it  is  now  our 
task  to  analyse. 

For  its  fulfilment,  it  will  be  necessary  that  we  should 
bring  the  process  of  development  of  the  human  race 
once  more  clearly  before  us.  The  intellect  of  man 
generated  imiversally  and  instinctively  the  '  Human 
Idea.'  Making  the  ego  the  starting  point,  he  invested 
the  powers  of  nature,  according  as  their  relation  to 
himself  was  pernicious  or  beneficial,  with  a  higher 
power  which  exceeding  his  own  he  deemed  a  divinity. 
His  views  of  nature  determined  his  conceptions  of  the 

250  LECTURE    XII. 

Deity.  Man  in  his  earliest  stage  perceived  conflict  in 
nature^  the  contrasts  of  production  and  dissolution,  of 
growth  and  decay,  of  existence  and  non-existence,  of 
life  and  death ;  these  again  being  upheld  in  their 
counter-action  by  a  third  yet  incomprehensible  power. 
In  ancient  heathenism,  God  and  nature  were  held  to  be 
identical;  and  thence  ensued  the  conception  of  tAvo 
conflicting  divinities,  of  a  third  and  mediating  Divine 
power,  as  also  the  supposed  connection  with  every  form 
in  nature,  of  a  special  divinity.  Modern  heathenism  is 
the  second  step,  which  having  a  similar  origin  yet 
conceives  nature  to  be  a  unity.  In  its  system,  nature 
is  a  uniform  whole  in  which  all  specialities  neutralise 
or  resolve  each  other.  In  this  the  Divinity  is  a  unity, 
but  identical  with  nature,  indwelling  nature  and  having 
its  whole  existence  within  nature.  While  in  ancient 
heathenism  the  ego  was  the  starting-point,  in  modern 
heathenism  the  ego  is  a  part  of  the  whole,  and  only  as 
such  member,  claiming  to  render  his  existence  valid ;  so 
in  both  the  individual  has  no  other  relation  to  society 
than  that  founded  on  his  individuality,  (or  ego)  and  can 
develop  justice  and  morality,  only  in  their  relation  to  his 
individuality  and  its  relation  to  them.  So  the  content- 
ment of  the  individual  ego  in  the  fluctuating  conditions  of 
this  existence,  becomes,  albeit  mutable  and  most  variable, 
the  highest  object.  Egotism  is  then  the  sole  principle 
of  justice  and  morality.  This  human  idea  first  en- 
countered the  Religious  Idea  in  Mosaism.  The  Re- 
ligious Idea  assumes  the  Deity  to  have  been  made  known 
to  us  by  revelation.  It  recognises  the  world  as  pro- 
ceeding from  Him,  to  be  the  work  of  God,  the  aggregate 
of  all  specialities,  and  man  to  be  the  speciality  endowed 
with  a  spirit  created  in  the  image  of  God.      God  is 

THE    FUTURE    OF    RELIGION,  251' 

therefore   supermundane,  holy,  perfect,  eternah      The 
world  is  sustained  by  God  indirectly  by  the  laws   of 
nature.     With  man  God  is  in  direct  connection,  since 
He  conducts  man's  destiny  to  perfectibility,  judges  his 
actions,  purifies  and  pardons  him,  and  has  bestowed  on 
him  the  Religious  Idea.      Thence  it  becomes  evident 
that  to  approximate  ever  more  to  God,  to  assimilate 
with  Him,  is  man's  destination,  and  that  justice  and 
morality  have  their  immutable  basis  in  God  Himself. 
Man's  appointed  task  therefore,  is  to  render  himself 
holy  as    God   is   holy.      This    sanctification   manifests 
itself  in  love  to  God,   to  his  fellow-man,  and  in  the 
continual  exercise  of  the  moral    consciousness  by  the 
human  being.     Thence  is  deducible  that  all  men  are 
equal,  having  equal  rights,  and  that  all  are  destined  to 
possess  individual  freedom.     Equal  rights,  all  possibly 
equal  possessions,  and  personal  freedom  in  accordance 
with  these  two  conditions,  must  form  the  ground-work 
of  all  human  society. 

These  then  my  hearers,   are  the   two   Ideas  which 
have  come  in  the  world  of  man,  into  violent  collision. 
But   how  did   this   conflict    arise?     Not   as   a   naked 
abstract  dogma,  but  incorporated  with  the  very  life  of 
the  peoples  of  the  earth.     So  that  Mosaism  shoidd  be 
for  ever  combined  with  a  national  code  was  indispensable, 
in  order  that  it  should  under  that   form,  imbue   the 
Jewish  people  with  the   Religious  Idea.     Without  its 
limits,  the  Human  Idea,  ancient  heathenism,  exercised 
entire  sway  over  aU  the  races  of  men,  gave  tangible 
existence   to   polytheism,   idolatry    and  slavery    intro- 
duced the  authority  of  certain  races,  and  an  unstable 
and  varying  civil  and  state-government,  as  the  basis  of 
human  societv. 

252  LECTURE    XII. 

After  the  Religious  Idea  on  the  one  hand  had  over- 
come heathenism  in  the  Jewish  race  by  means  of 
Prophetism^  and  had  by  its  severance  of  the  Life  and 
the  Idea,  become  fitted  to  enter  the  general  world  of 
man;  after  heathenism  on  the  other  hand,  had  in  the 
natural  course  of  its  suicidal  development  attained  the, 
point  of  dissolution;  the  Religious  Idea  ensured  its  own 
integrity  by  the  means  it  employed,  Talmudism  and  its 
code  of  material  laws  in  Judaism;  and  its  introduction  into 
the  world  of  man  in  Christianity  and  Mahomedanism;  by 
setting  forth  its  abstract  elements  only,  by  acquiring 
independent  existence  as  the  Idea  severed  from  the  Life, 
by  rejecting  the  '  Here  '  and  making  the  '  Hereafter ' 
its  centre  of  gravity,  did  it  alone  gather  sufficient  force 
firmly  to  take  root  in  the  general  world,  where  it  was 
modified  by  combination  with  elements  of  the  Human 
Idea.  There  it  not  only  developed  dogma  and  the 
Church,  but  likewise  permitted  the  action  of  heathenism 
to  continue  and  to  produce  the  feudal  system  in  society, 
while  addressing  itself  exclusively  to  the  world  beyond, 
in  the  individual.  But  after  the  intellectual  develop- 
ment of  mankind  had  recovered  somewhat  of  enerj^v 
and  strength,  and  had  opened  out  for  itself  new  paths, 
then  uprose  the  Religious  Idea,  prepared  for  a  fresh 
conflict.  In  Christianity  it  first  shook  the  sway  of  the 
Church,  then  re-asserted  the  validity  of  the  claim  of 
reason  as  opposed  to  dogma,  and  produced  a  new  phase 
in  society  based  on  the  principle  of  universal  human  rights, 
in  a  constitutional  state-government.  In  Judaism,  the 
Religious  Idea  rose  against  the  binding  Talmudic  formula 
that  trammelled  all  individual  freedom  of  the  spirit  and 
of  the  intellect,  it  sought  to  re-establish  the  validity  of 
the  Idea  and  to  restore  it  to  its  place,  invested  with 

THE    FUTURli:    OF    RELTGIO>f.  253 

all  its  original   and  natural  purity.     This,  my  hearers, 
is  the  historical  juncture  at  which   we  have  arrived; 
this  is  the  present.     What  are  the  conclusions  as  to 
the  future,  which  may  be  drawn  from  this  process  of 
development  ?     The  first  question  is ;  will  the  Religious 
or  the  Human  Idea,  as  we  have  above  portrayed  it, 
obtain    empire   over  mankind?      For  notwithstanding 
the  victorious  issue  of  the  E-eligious  Idea,  it  may  be 
advanced  that  the  Religious  Idea  is  only  an  educational 
means  for  the  human  race,  by  which  to  train  them  to 
self-dependence  in  the  human  idea ;  and  that  conse- 
quently all  useless  matter  will  at  the  right  time  disap- 
pear.    To  this  the  prominent  objection  is;  1st,  that  the 
human  idea  always  produces  with  itself  its  own  abne- 
gation.     Every  explanation  of  birth  and  existence  is 
abrogated  by  its  antagonistic  principle ;  every  presump- 
tion of  an  original  cause  pre-supposes  something  that 
has    preceded    it,    which   proves    the   first   to   be   but 
secondary  and  derivative.     But  in  the  Religious  Idea 
there  is  complete  congruity;    for  every  created  thing 
finds  its  origin  in  God  the   Creator.     All  specialities 
have  their  resolution  in  the  absolute  Being  of  God,  all 
special  powers  their  source  in  the  universal  power  of 
of  God.     Secondly,  we  thence  perceive  that  the  Human 
Idea  ever  produces  its  own  resolution  into  its  various 
successive  phases ;  that  each  of  these  phases  too  abro- 
gates that  which  it  followed,  till  it  reaches  its  ultimate 
stage,  the  virtual  disavowal  of  its  own  system.      Such 
was   its    course   in   the   religions  of  antiquity;  in  the 
philosophemes    of    the    Greeks;    in    the    later    philo- 
sophemes  of  Des   Cartes    and    Spinoza,    as  in  that  of 
Hegelism.      It    is   a   circle    that   ever    terminates  in 
itself,  the  serpent  that  holds  its  own  tail  in  its  mouth. 

254  LECTURE    XII. 

The  valid  results  of  this  iutellcctual  activity,  are  the 
development  of  the  powers  of  thought  and  the  ever 
strengthening  and  deepening  self-consciousness  of  the 
reason — logic.  But  beyond  this  there  is  no  result.  We 
see  that  the  Religious  Idea  on  the  contrary,  is  ever 
consistent,  ever  the  same ;  that  it  outlives  in  their  rise 
and  fall,  all  the  successive  phases  of  the  Human  Idea, 
and  that  it  displays  in  truth  the  greatest  vigom',  at 
junctures  when  the  Human  Idea  is  in  process  of  resolu- 
tion. On  which  side  will  be  the  victory,  which  will 
obtain  dominion  over  mankind,  cannot  be  a  matter  of 
uncertainty.  The  end  will  assuredly  be  that  the 
Human  Idea  will  eventually  resolve  itself  into  the 
Religious  Idea,  not  as  a  lifeless,  soulless  acceptance,  but 
as  a  living  conscious  amalgamation.  This  is  a  Avork  yet 
to  be  achieved. 

The  second  question  hence  follows  : — In  what  manner 
will  the  Religious  Idea  manifest  itself  to  mankind  in 
its  completeness,  in  its  entire  integrity  ?  The  Religious 
Idea  arose  in  Mosaism  on  a  Jewish-national  basis,  in 
Talmudism  on  a  Jewish-individual  basis,  on  a  heathen 
basis  in  Christianity  and  Mahomedanism ;  Prophetism 
even,  in  proclaiming  the  Religious  Idea  to  be  destined 
one  day  to  become  the  common  property  of  all  mankind, 
did  not  abandon  the  national  ground.  Under  no  one 
of  these  specific  aspects  can  the  Religious  Idea  belong  to 
the  universality  of  the  hiiman  race.  Yet  has  it  been 
evident  that  Judaism  throughout  all  its  phases,  has 
preserved  the  Religious  Idea  intact;  that  Talmudism 
also  is  but  a  web  spun  around  that  idea  with  a  view  to 
its  protection ;  that  Judaism  will,  after  this  Religious 
Idea  shall  have  cast  off  the  cocoon  of  individuality, 
deliver  it  over  to  all  mankind ;  and  in  Judaism  should 


we  seek  it^  in  the  uniformity  which  it  will  one  day 
assume  as  the  possession  of  all  mankind.  Let  us  in 
order  to  remove  all  doubt  from  our  minds^  remark :  1st. 
In  the  form  with  which  historical  Christianity  has 
clothed  the  Religious  Idea,  that  Idea  demands  faith, 
is  opposed  to  reason,  disallows  inquiry.  2ndly.  In 
historical  Christianity,  one  portion  only  of  man's  nature 
can  unite  itself  with  the  Religious  Idea.  Therefore  is 
the  regenerated  man  of  Christianity  ever  in  a  state  of 
conflict  with  Christianity  itself.  If  we  consider  all 
Christian  sects  and  parties  in  the  aggregate,  we  perceive 
that  the  Religious  Idea  itself,  is  still  combatted  in 
Christianity.  Srdly.  The  Religious  Idea  within  Chris- 
tianity is  still  in  a  condition  of  inconsistency  and  self- 
conflict.  It  has  therefore  before  it  in  Christianity, 
the  task  of  self-evolution.  4thly  and  lastly.  In  Islamism, 
are  extant  the  very  first  conceptions  of  the  Religious 
Idea,  which  immediately  and  consistently  lapsed  into 
the  purely  heathen  conception  of  Fate,  or  necessity.  So 
that  Islamism  presents  no  development  of  the  Religious 
Idea ;  it  presents  only  a  phase  of  self-annihilation. 

The  Religious  Idea  in  Judaism  assumes  a  wholly 
opposite  direction.  1st.  It  appeals,  not  to  one  side  of 
man,  but  to  the  entire  human  being ;  it  appeals,  not  to 
the  belief,  but  to  reason,  to  actual  knowledge.  The 
Religious  Idea  in  Judaism  insists  on  comprehension  and 
acceptance  by  means  of  reason ;  seeks  by  means  of  nature, 
to  demonstrate  itself  to  the  understanding,  seeing  it 
contains  no  element  susceptible  of  denial  by  the  power 
of  reason.  The  Religious  Idea  is  in  Judaism  objective 
in  that  which  pertains  to  the  intellect,  subjective  in 
that  which  belongs  to  the  heart  of  man.  2ndly.  The 
Religious  Idea  has  never  been  controverted  by  Judaism 

256  LECTURE    XII. 

itself;  is  not  and  has  never  been  inconsistent  with 
itself,  or  in  conflict  with  itself.  The  central  point  of 
of  the  present  struggle  in  Judaism  is  not  the  Religious 
Idea  and  its  purport,  but  the  binding  nature  of  the 
ceremonial  law  on  the  Jews  ;  the  conflict  therefore 
refers  to  that  and  i;hat  only,  by  which  the  Religious 
Idea  is  individualised  in  Judaism,  and  which  yet 
separates  Judaism  from  the  rest  of  human  society. 
3rdly  and  lastly.  Judaism  has  never  declaimed  itself  to  be 
in  its  specific  forms,  the  religion  of  all  mankind;  but 
has  ever  asserted  itself  to  be  the  religion  of  all  man- 
kind in  and  by  the  Religious  Idea.  Judaism  has  ever 
expressly  said,  'My  specific  character,  my  law,  my 
forms  are  destined  for  the  sons  of  Israel  only,  as  bearers 
of  the  Religious  Idea ;  my  purport,  my  significance, 
the  Religious  Idea  itself,  are  for  the  whole  race  of  man.' 
Talmudism  itself  admits  that  he  even  who  no  longer 
observes  one  law,  but  who  utters  as  his  confession 
of  faith  the  words,  "Hear,  O  Israel,  the  Lord  our 
God,  the  Eternal  is  one,"  may  be  considered  still  to  be 
a  Jew.  With  small  variation  may  we  say,  '  He  is  to  be 
considered  a  Jew,  Avho  confesses  his  belief  in  the  One, 
only,  supermundane  God ;  not  as  a  Jew  in  race  but  as 
a  Jew  in  kind,  as  professing  the  Religious  Idea  as  it 
is  contained  in  Judaism.'  Thus  Judaism  has  claimed,  not 
in  its  special  character  but  truly  in  and  by  the  Re- 
ligious Idea,  to  be  the  destined  portion  of  all  mankind ; 
while  historical  Christianity  claims  to  win  all  men  to 
itself  in  its  individual  form,  notwithstanding  its  self- 
inconsistency  and  the  discrepancies  which  it  contains. 

Judaism  therefore,  my  hearers,  asserts  itself  to  be 
only  the  bearer  of  the  Religious  Idea.  It  docs  not 
say,    *Ye    children    of    other    creeds,   ye    Christians, 

THE    FUTURE    OF    RELIGIOX.  2') 

ye  Mussulmans,  ye  must  avow  yourselves  of  my  faitli 
ye  must  become  Jews/  It  says  on  tlie  contrary, 
^Tlie  other  religions  that  were  born  of  me,  that  have 
modified  my  purport,  must  freely  develop  themselves, 
must  resolve  these  their  own  modifications,  and  must 
by  an  individual  process  of  self-enlargement,  reach  the 
final  goal  of  that  free  development,  the  Religious  Idea. 
Then  will  my  special  form  become  superfluous,  then 
can  I  divest  myself  of  my  garb,  for  then  will  the 
whole  of  man  be  united  in  the  knowledge  and  acknow- 
ledgment of  the  One  only,  supermundane,  holy  God, 
whose  work  the  universe  is,  who  gave  unto  man  a  soul 
created  in  His  own  image;  who  therefore  stands  in 
direct  relation  to  man  as  Providence,  Judge,  Pardoner, 
Revealer ;  who  will  consecrate  man  unto  Himself  in  love 
and  moral  consciousness,  by  means  of  a  human  society 
founded  on  the  eternal  principles  of  equality  of  right, 
aU  possible  equality  of  possession,  and  personal  free- 
dom. Thus  will  the  world  arrive,  not  at  the  specific 
Judaism  of  the  Jews  as  it  has  been ;  but  at  the  Re- 
ligious Idea  such  as  Judaism  through  all  its  phases  has 
ever  borne  within  itself  unchanged,  unpolluted ;  though 
brought  into  the  world  of  man  by  Christianity  and 
Moslemism,  in  an  imperfect  form.  In  this  manner  all 
will  we  perceive  be  fulfilled,  that  we  have  seen  to  be 
indicated  in  history.  The  question  as  to  the  necessity 
for  the  continued  existence  of  Judaism  after  the  pro- 
mulgation of  Christianity  and  Moslemism,  has  been 
satisfactorily  solved.  It  has  become  clear  to  us  that 
Judaism  has  in  the  present  and  in  the  future,  an  all- 
important  mission,  even  that  which  she  has  ever  had,  to 
fulfil.  "When  Christianity  in  its  process  of  self-develop- 
ment shall  have  finally  rejected  its  specific  Christian 

258  LECTURE    XII. 

elements  and  shall  seek  a  fitting  basis  for  the  Religious 
Idea,  Judaism  will  be  there  to  bestow  on  it  that  posses- 
sion. For  that  which  in  Christianity  is  the  work  of 
free  development  only,  of  the  victory  of  reason  over 
dogma,  will  be  found  in  Judaism  alone,  to  be  the  firm 
foundation,  the  sole  material  for  the  historical  super- 
structure. Reason  will  there  solemnise  her  imion  with 
History,  the  acquisitions  of  reason  will  become  identical 
with  the  facts  of  history,  the  result  identical  with  the 
true  basis  of  all  human  development.  Here  then  the 
destination  of  Judaism  to  receive  and  to  bear  the 
Religious  Idea  for  all  mankind,  meets  our  view  in  its 
historical  completeness.  It  existed  and  was  fulfilled  as 
confronting  Heathenism;  it  existed  and  exists  confront- 
ing Christianity  and  Moslemism.  Tlie  struggle  Avhich 
the  Jews  have  had  to  maintain,  first  with  their  heathen 
neighbours,  then  with  the  Greek-Syrians  and  Romans, 
and  finally  during  the  last  fifteen  consecutive  centuries 
in  Christendom,  has  been  maintained  on  behalf  of  the 
Religious  Idea,  its  purport  and  scope.  It  has  been  the 
sublime  conflict  of  the  Religious  Idea  with  its  antago- 
nisms. The  inflexible  pertinacity  with  which  the  Jews 
have  remained  stedfast  to  their  faith  is  not  obstinacy  ; 
it  is  more,  it  is  the  most  meritorious  fidelitj^,  an  in- 
ward necessity  :  for  man  cannot  renounce  the  complete 
Religious  Idea,  in  order  to  apply  himself  to,  and  accept 
it  in,  its  modifications.  Judaism  and  its  professors  the 
Jews,  must  continue  to  exist  till  the  conflict  within 
Christianity  itself  shall  be  decided,  and  till  the  victory 
over  the  antagonisms  to  itself  within  Christianitj',  shall 
have  been  achieved  by  the  Rehgious  Idea  in  its  en- 
tirencss  and  purity. 

But,  my  respected  hearers,  after  having  thus  treated 


of  a  union  of  mankind  in  the  Religious  Idea^  we  must 
not  overlook  another  essential  point.  If  truly  in  the 
great  battle-field  of  life  and  in  the  struggling  cause  of 
human  development,  something  more  than  a  set  of 
doctrinal  precepts  he  at  stake,  if  that  stake  be,  to  in- 
troduce into  man's  being  by  their  means,  the  great 
truths  of  morality  and  justice,  as  his  only  safe  and  firm 
possessions ;  surely  something  more  than  the  mere 
abstract  and  theoretical  acceptance  of  these  great  pre- 
cepts must  be  designed.  Here  then  let  us  not  fail 
once  more  to  place  before  us  that  truth,  which  we  have 
everywhere  sought  to  elucidate, — '  the  unity  of  the 
Idea  and  the  Life,*  a  unity  established  by  Mosaism, 
but  apparently  impaired  by  Prophetism  and  wholly 
dissolved  by  Christianity.  The  goal  of  mankind's 
destiny  cannot  assiu'edly  only  be  to  produce  the  ac- 
cordance of  all  men  in  a  set  of  doctrinal  precepts. 
No !  the  goal  of  mankind's  destiny  must  be,  to  establish 
the  unity  of  the  Idea  and  the  Life,  and  in  that  very 
unity  to  prepare  and  produce  the  unity  of  the  whole 
race  of  man.  And  this,  my  respected  hearers,  is 
manifestly  a  work  far  more  difficult  of  achievement 
than  a  union  in  the  Idea.  When  the  prophet  predicted 
that  mankind  collectively  would  one  day  acknowledge 
the  One  only  God,  and  that  an  age  of  universal  peace, 
of  universal  justice  woidd  commence,  that  prophecy 
could  be  but  imperfectly  and  partially  understood.  For 
be  it  admitted  that  diS'erences  of  religion  have  given 
rise  to  discord,  deeds  of  violence  and  war,  that  belief 
and  its  exclusions  have  furnished  the  pretext,  and  have 
been  the  cloak  or  the  reason  for  enduring  enmity 
and  countless  horrors,  and  that  of  these,  the  union 
of    mankind    in    one   faith   could    alone   prevent    the 

s  2 

260  LECTURE    XII. 

recurrence ;  still  there  remaiu  too  many  other  ele- 
ments of  strife  among  mankind,  and  human  passions 
too  frequently  obtain  the  mastery  even  over  that  known 
to  be  good,  to  admit  a  mere  recognition  of  the  principle 
of  universal  peace,  being  of  power  to  ensure  the  exer- 
cise of  universal  justice  and  universal  love.  The 
essential  reason  of  the  powerlessness  of  that  recognition, 
is  to  be  found  in  the  severance  of  the  Idea  and  the 
Life.  How  far  soever  mankind  may  have  progressed  in 
ideal  religious  cognition,  in  life  they  still  remain  for 
the  most  part  bound  by  the  trammels  of  heathenism. 
While  in  theory  heathen  egotism  is  recognised  to  be 
bad  and  is  rejected  as  wrong,  it  yet  remains  the  basis  of 
of  human  society,  the  life  principle  of  the  individual. 
Heathen  egotism  had  built  up  the  social  edifice  of  in- 
equality of  justice,  complete  inequality  of  possession, 
and  of  the  total  separation  between  governors  and 
governed,  between  the  freeman  and  the  slave.  Under 
the  action  of  those  principles,  the  individual  must  have 
been  wholly  filled  with,  and  influenced  by,  egotism ;  the 
individual  man  mvist  have  sought  before  all  things,  and 
with  all  his  power,  to  secure  to  himself  all  possible 
rights,  the  largest  possible  possessions,  the  gi'catest 
possible  power  and  dominion ;  and  thus  must  the  actual 
condition  of  inequality  and  servitude  have  been  in- 
creased and  embittered  to  an  incalculable  and  fearful 
extent.  Thus  in  truth  was  developed  that  inexplicable 
confusion  of  human  relations,  which  transforms  life  in 
our  sight  into  an  enigma.  True  it  is  that  even  then, 
the  Religious  Idea  in  Mosaism  had  declared  the  true 
foundations  of  human  society  to  be,  equality  of  right, 
all  possible  equality  of  possession,  and  personal  freedom 
for  the  individual,  and  had  rendered  imperative  as  moral 

THE    FUTURE    OF    RELIftlON,  261 

lawSj  the  exercise  of  justice  and  compassion ;  but  that 
the  heathenism  that  had  shown  itself  in  the  Jewish  race, 
had  from  the  very  commencement  counteracted  the 
entire  realisation  of  these  principleSj  even  in  the  race 
itself.  Further,  though  the  later  Jewish  polity- 
adopted  as  many  as  possible  of  these  principles,  and  at 
any  rate  adliered  firmly  to  equality  of  right  in  all  its 
phases;  yet  later  the  Jewish  race  came  under  the 
dominion  of  other  peoples,  and  were  fettered  by  it. 
Finally  Talmudism,  in  consequence  of  its  comprehension 
of  Mosaic  law  according  to  the  letter-,  permitted  but  a 
very  limited  realisation  of  the  Mosaic  principles  under 
the  new  conditions  called  for  by  the  altered  position  of 
the  Hebrew  race.  Christianity  meantime  adopted  per- 
sonal freedom  and  equality  as  abstract  principles  only, 
and  denied  them  all  direct  influence  and  action  upon 

The  old  Heathen  rule  that  had,  as  in  India  and 
Egypt,  in  part  established  castes,  and  with  them  the 
respective  authority  of  the  different  classes  and  orders 
among  each  other,  in  part  the  dominion  of  races,  as  in 
Greece  and  Rome,  resolved  itself  at  last  into  the  un- 
divided sway  of  the  Roman  Emperors.  With  the 
Middle  Ages  arose  the  second  form  of  Heathen  rule — 
the  Feudal  system ;  which  divided  society  into  noble 
and  serf,  and  made  the  one  possessor,  the  other  the 
possession,  the  one  a  freeman,  the  other  a  serf. 
At  their  side  stood  the  Church,  independent  of  both 
in  its  organ  the  Priesthood.  Then  when  corporations 
and  municipalities  developed  themselves  in  the  midst  of 
both  these  classes,  when  replete  with  vigour,  and  aided 
by  the  force  of  other  circumstances,  they  grew  into 
a  powerful  third  estate,  the  Feudal  system  succeeded  in 



introducing  within  all  these  several  members  of  the  body- 
politic,  strong  lines  of  demarcation.  It  also  reproduced 
the  old  heathen  institutions  of  castes,  by  the  subdivi- 
sion and  arrangement  of  the  nobles  into  classes  of 
nobility ;  of  the  burghers  into  guilds  and  corporations ; 
and  by  renewing  the  vitality  of  a  priesthood  in  a  hier- 
arcliical  chief  or  head.  Thus,  nowhere,  in  such  a 
condition  of  things,  could  the  realisation  of  the  re- 
ligious idea  be  thought  of.  For  heathen  egotism  must 
have  everywhere  generated  struggles  and  conflicts  among 
the  several  classes  between  each  other,  and  also  between 
the  individuals  of  which  each  class  was  composed. 
These  constant  collisions  reduced  human  society  to  a 
state  well-nigh  of  barbarism,  in  Avhich  force  and  fraud 
were  held  in  check  (and  often  but  imperfectly  in  check,) 
by  the  power  of  the  state  alone.  The  Feudal  system 
of  government  at  length  resolved  itself  into  the  despotic 
rule  of  the  sovereign,  without  however  the  Feudal  sub- 
divisions in  human  society  being  thereby  superseded. 
Notwithstanding  this,  when  a  more  developed  stage  of 
human  reason  rose  into  activit}^,  and  the  general  mind 
began  to  perceive  the  contrast  presented  by  the  idea 
and  actual  life,  the  principle  indwelling  the  religious 
idea  of  the  equality  and  universal  rights  of  men,  could 
not  fail  ever  more  powerfully  to  impress  mankind  and 
to  call  forth  a  strong  reaction  in  material  life.  This 
reaction  was  further  stimulated  by  that  dire  oppression 
of  the  masses  generated  by  the  feudal  system.  The 
long-prepared  storm  burst  upon  society  towards  the 
end  of  the  last  century,  in  the  thunders  of  the  French 
revolution.  The  objects  to  be  attained  were  declared  to 
be  three-fold  : — 1st.  The  general  acknowledgment  of 
the  universal  rights  of  men ;  2nd.  the  actual  re-edifi- 

THE    FUTURE    OP    RELIGION.  263 

cation  of  society  on  tLis  foundation ;  and,  aid.  the 
regulation  of  all  the  consequences  which  heathen  rule 
had  left  and  still  produced,  in  the  existing  relations 
of  men.  In  these  three  several  and  naturally  con- 
secutive processes,  difficulties  of  no  ordinary  kind  were 
to  be  surmounted.  For  this  a  long  future  lay  before 
the  world :  a  future  that  was  to  be  marked  by  a  total 
subversion  of  all  existing  circumstances ;  a  future  which 
should  realise  that  condition  of  universal  peace  and 
love  so  often  painted  as  belonging  to  the  world  of 
fancy  alone,  to  the  land  of  dreams.  For  though  the 
general  acknowledgment  of  human  rights  and  human 
equality  has  but  very  partially  obtained  the  victory 
even  up  to  the  present  day,  yet  far  more  limited  is  its 
sphere  of  actual  practical  realisation.  Consequently, 
the  question  cannot  yet  be  entertained  of  the  total 
annihilation  of  the  traces  of  heathen  rule,  of  the  en- 
tire levelling  of  all  distinctions  and  divisions.  We  are 
now  but  at  the  opening  of  the  vista ;  yet  may  we  deem 
om'selves  happy  and  blessed  in  being  able  to  perceive 
from  afar,  the  high  and  sublime  goal  towards  which 
mankind  is  slowly  travelling;  albeit  we  have  no  pre- 
cise knowledge  as  to  the  path  which  shall  conduct  them 
thither.*  For  would  we  enquire;  how  will  mankmd 
reach  the  term,  where  the  Idea  and  the  Life  shall  form 
a  unity  within  the  religious  idea ;  where  equality  of 
right,  all  possible  equality  of  possession,  and  personal 
freedom  shall  be  realised  in  human  society ;  and  Avhere, 
under    these    conditions,    these    principles   shall   have 

*  Or  rather,  we  have  our  place  at  the  lowest  point  of  the 
upward  path,  and  catch  the  first  rays  of  the  orb  of  day  gilding 
that  mountain's  top,  whose  ascent  is  the  task  of  mankind  for 
future  ages,  and  on  whose  summit  alone,  the  full  refulgence  can 
be  beheld.— A.M.G. 

264  LECTURE    XII. 

entirely  imbued  and  shall  wholly  govern  individual  man? 
We  reply ;  here  again  the  only  deduction  applicable,  is 
that  at  which  We  arrived  in  discussing  material  re- 
ligions. No  sudden  subversion,  no  violent  revolutions, 
are  inherent  in  the  nature  of  man,  are  the  necessary 
conditions  of  his  development.  Subversion  and  revo- 
lution destroy  that  which  exists  but  do  not  construct 
a  really  new  edifice.  Subversion  and  revolution  are  the 
crisis  of  a  disorder,  but  the  convalescence  is  slow  and 
progressive  and  may  have  been  imperilled  or  postponed 
by  the  violent  crisis.  The  right  is  slowly  prepared 
and  developed ;  slow  is  its  victory  over  the  wrong ; 
slowly  does  it  displace  the  wrong  and  obtain  final 

But  who  can  close  his  eyes  to  the  truth,  that  in  the 
domain  of  the  actual,  the  enduring  tendency  and  efi'ort 
are  every  where  manifest,  for  the  realisation  of  this  union 
of  mankind  in  the  unity  of  the  idea  and  the  life,  in 
equality  of  right,  all  possible  equality  of  possession,  and 
personal  freedom?  Who  can  deny  that  these  have  be- 
come a  want,  a  necessity  for  the  human  race  ?  This  is 
evident.  Constitutional  government  is  the  first  step 
taken.  The  basis  it  has  assumed  is  already  dilferent 
from  that  of  the  feudal  and  despotic  forms  of  govern- 
ment. The  vast  institutions  for  the  relief  of  the  poor, 
the  efibrts  made  to  remove  pauperism,  the  attempted 
elevation  of  the  masses,  especially  the  awakening  and 
increasing  vitality  perceptible  in  municipal,  parochial, 
and  corporate  bodies,  are  actual  palpable  signs.  All  these 
it  is  true,  are  but  insufficient  and  palliative  measures. 
Yet  are  they  the  first  important  steps,  which  in  their 
onward  progress  will  assuredly  indicate  the  Avhole  road 
by  which  the  grand  consummation  will  be  reached. 


Here  again  let  us  not  be  unmindful  of  the  Jews^  of 
whom  tlie  civil  and  religious  emancipation^  the  recognition 
as  citizens^  are  pledges  for  the  future  spread  of  liberty  of 
conscience  and  belief.  The  right  to  existence  being 
conceded  in  that  recognition,  to  the  ancient  antagonism, 
the  views  entertained  by  society  in  general,  have  thereby 
undergone  a  considerable  change.  And  the  Jews  may 
be  congratulated  on  being  again  herein,  as  bearers  of  this 
acceptance  of  the  principle  of  freedom  of  conscience, 
an  important  historical  instrument  in  the  hand  of 
Divine  Providence. 

After  having  thus  endeavoured  to  elucidate  and  deter- 
mine the  Future  of  mankind,  permit  me,  my  respected 
hearers,  once  more  to  bestow  a  glance  on  the  Present. 
Judaism  then  is  about  to  cast  off  the  veil  of  Talmudic 
ceremonial  law.  To  this  course  the  Jews  are  compelled 
by  the  part  they  have  assumed  in  active  life,  by  the  de- 
velopment of  History,  whose  current  for  them  had  long 
been  arrested,  and  by  the  newly  aroused  freedom  and 
activity  of  the  soul  and  the  intellect?  But  what  is  the 
danger  incurred  by  this  movement?  That  Judaism  in 
thus  enfranchising  itself,  should  also  discard  its  greatest 
characteristic,  one  which  has  never  wholly  disappeared 
from  Judaism,  one  without  which  it  would  be  de- 
fective Judaism,  an  imperfect  substitute  for  that  which 
it  is  appointed  to  be.  That  characteristic  is  the  unity, 
the  mutually  vivifying  amalgamation  of  the  Idea  and 
the  Life.  If  Judaism  were  reduced  to  the  condition  of 
a  mere  passing  exposition  of  certain  general  dogmas 
and  were  denuded  of  all  external  forms,  it  would  no 
longer  possess  that  consistency,  firmness  and  self-depen- 
dence which,  until  the  final  issue  of  all  conflicts  on  be- 
half of  the  Religious  Idea  shall  be  attained,  will  ever  be 


indispensable  to  Judaism.  This  then  is  our  task  ; — to 
work  out  our  conception  of  the  thoughts  indwelling 
Mosaism,  into  ever  increasing  purity,  and  to  give  to 
those  thoughts,  by  means  of  the  unity  of  the  Idea  and 
the  Life,  their  fitting  active  realisation,  their  true  em- 
bodiment. Not  alone  the  dogma,  not  the  worship  alone, 
but  the  great  social  thoughts  of  Mosaism,  are  to  be 
brought  as  institutions,  into  actual  operation. 

Christianity  on  its  side,  is  about  to  witness  the  reso- 
lution of  the  specifically  Christian  dogmas  and  their 
transmutation  into  the  pure  Eeligious  Idea.  The 
danger  incurred  is,  that  on  the  one  hand,  all  that  is 
general  will  be  resolved  into  the  individual,  that  the 
individual  will  make  itself  valid  as  the  sole  claimant  to 
dominion,  and  that  thus  there  will  ensue,  instead  of 
union,  a  disruption  of  the  general  into  its  elements,  and 
a  consequent  chaotic  confusion  of  those  elements.  The 
danger  on  the  other  hand  is,  that  in  the  rushing  away 
from  dogma,  a  refuge  will  be  sought  in  pantheism  or 
modern  heathenism.  The  task  of  the  Christian  there- 
fore is  to  find,  by  a  return  to  original  Christianity,  or 
rather  to  the  sources  whence  Christianity  flowed,  the 
pure  and  undefiled  Religious  Idea;  to  free  it  from 
heathen  modifications,  and  to  attach  to  it  the  positive 
firm  ground-work  of  Judaism.  In  both  these  processes 
are  both  these  religions  engaged,  and  at  these  final 
points  will  they  meet. 

Here  my  hearers  I  have  done.  We  have  recognised 
the  great  goal  of  mankind,  to  be  the  whole  Religious 
Idea,  and  its  realisation  in  the  unity  of  the  Idea  and 
the  Life.  We  have  endeavoured  to  make  clear  to  our 
comprehension,  the  paths  of  history  which  up  to  the 
present  have  led,  those  which  out  of  the  present  into 


the  future  ivill  lead,  to  this  end.  These  are  the  gradual 
but  sure  development  of  existing  religions  from  heathen- 
ism to  the  entire  and  piire  Religious  Idea ;  the  progress 
of  existing  society,  from  its  heathen  constitution,  to  the 
unity  of  the  Idea  and  the  Life;  that  is,  to  the  three  great 
principles  of  equality  of  right,  all  possible  equality  of 
possession,  and  all  personal  freedom  compatible  with 
the  two  previous  conditions.  We  have  seen  how  from 
the  beginning  Divine  Providence  has  conducted  man- 
kind on  this  course,  thus  slowly  and  simultaneously 
working  out  the  union  of  free  development  and  of  the 
given  Religious  Idea  A  rich  and  rare  grain  of  seed 
did  God's  Providence  sow,  in  a  remote  corner  of  the 
globe.  There  He  watered  and  fructified  it,  till  it  burst 
through  its  earthy  covering ;  until  it  sent  up  a  shoot, 
and  put  forth  a  stem  that  has  ever  since  been  rising 
higher  and  higher,  ever  spreading  out  new  branches,  rich 
in  foliage  and  fruit;  until  at  length  the  giant  tree  shall 
behold  all  mankind  meeting  in  close  brotherhood  under 
the  broad  shade  of  its  mighty  growth  of  ages.  This 
majestic  tree  is  called  '  The  Religious  Idea,  realised 
in  the  universal  life  of  man.' 

My  respected  friends,  may  I  have  succeeded,  even 
though  imperfectly,  in  accomplishing  the  high  and 
important  task  I  undertook,  when  commencing  these 
Lectures !  I  desired  not  to  propound  anything  singular, 
anything  new ;  I  sought  not — even  had  I  had  the  means 
of  so  doing — to  found  any  new  sect,  to  proclaim  any 
new  doctrine.  I  have  only  sought  to  bring  to  bear,  so 
far  as  in  me  lay,  on  the  darkened  and  entangled  maze 
of  the  present,  the  broad  light  of  history,  and  thus  to 
render  it  clear  to  you,  that  there  where  endless  con- 
fusion and  conflict  seem  to  prevail,  really  exist  design 

268  LECTURE    XII. 

and  an  appointed  end  ;  that  something  higher  is  extant, 
which  exalted  far  above  parties,  is  destined  to  prevail 
over  them  all ;  which  will  assign  unto  each  its  certain 
task,  until  all  shall  be  united  in  the  two  most  precious 
gifts  vouchsafed  to  man, — Freedom  and  Truth. 

THE    END. 

piiiN'jnn   nv    wj.utiieimeii  and  co.,   piNsnunY  circits. 







Agriculture    and    Rural 

Rivldon  On  valuing  Rents,  &c.    - 
Cadd's  Letters  on  Agriculture 
ttcil's  Stud  Farm  -         -        . 

Loudon's  Agriculture      .        -        - 
'*         Self-Instruction 
"         Lad  v's  Country  Compan. 

esticiited  An 

Lrts,    Manufactures,    and 



Catechism  of  the  Steam 

On  the  Screw  Propeller    -  4 

Brandt's  Dictionary  orScience,&c.  4 

"        Ori/anic  Chemistry-        -  4 

Chtvreul  on  Colour    -     -        .        -  6 

Cresy's  Civil  I-;ns!ineering       -        -  6 

Eastlalie  On  OilPainting       -         -  7 

Gwilt's  F.ncvclo.  of  Arcliitecture   -  8 

Jameson's  Sacred  &  Legeudarv  Art  10 

"          Commonplace  Bo.'k      -  lU 

Konig's  Picto  iai  Life  of  Luther    -  8 

Loudon's  Hural  Architecture         -  13 

Mosi  ley's  Engineering   -        -        -  16 

Richardson's  Art  of  Horsemanship  18 

Steam  Engine, bv  the  Artisan  Club  4 

Tate  on  Strength  of  Materials        -  21 

Ure's  Dictionary  of  Arts,  &c.          -  23 


Bmlenstedt  and  "Wagner's  Schamvl  24 

Brielit.vells  Memorials  of  Opie    '-  17 

Bunsi'n's  Uippolytus      -         -        -  5 

(  hesterton's  Autobiography  -        -  6 

Clinton's   (Fynesj    Autobiography  6 

Cockayne's  Marshal  Tureune         -  24 

Freeman's  Life  t.f  Kirby         -  U 

Havdoii's  Autobiography, by  Taylor  8 

Holcroft's  Memoirs         -        -        -  24 

Holland's  (Lord)  Memoirs     -        -  9 

Lardner's  Cabinet  Cyclopaedia      -  12 

Maunder's  Biographical  Treasury-  IS 

Memoir  of  the  Duke  of  Wellington  ':4 

Memoirsof  James  Montgomery     -  15 

Merivale's  Memoirs  of  Cicero          -  15 

Russell's  Mtmi  irs  of  Moore  -        -  16 

LiieofLordWm.RosseU  19 

Southey's  Life  of  Wesley        -        -  20 
*'           Life  and  Correspondence  20 

Stephen's  Ecclesiastical  Biography  21 

Taylor's  Loyola       -        -        -        .  21 

Weslev     -         -        -        -  21 

Townsend's  Eminent  Judges          -  23 
Waterton's  Autobiography  &  Essays  23 

Books  of  General  Utility. 

L  Brewing  ■ 

Acton's  Cooke 
Black's  Treatise  I 
Cabinet  Gazettee 

•*         Lawyer      -         .         -         _ 
Cust's  Invalid's  Own  Book 
Hints  on  Etiquette 
Hudson'sExecutor's  Guide     - 

'•      On  Making  Wills 
Lardner's  Cabinet  Cyclopaedia 
Loudon's  Self- Instruction 

'*         Lady's  Companion 

"        Amateur  Gardener 
Maunder's  Treasury  of  Knowledge 
Biograpliical  Treasury 
Sci.iit.ftc  Treasury       - 

"  Treasury  of  History 

"  Natural  History   - 

Pocket  and  the  Stud 
Pycroft's  English  Heading     - 
Recce's  Medical  Guide  - 

Rich's  Comp,  to  Latin  Dictionary  18 

Richardson's  Art  of  Horsemanship  18 

Riddle's  Latin  Dictionaries     -        -  18 

Rogefs  English  Thesaui  us  -        -  19 

Rowton'i  Debater  -        -        -         -  19 

Short  Whist 20 

Thomson's  Interest  Tables  -  -  22 
Traveller's  Library  -  23  &  24 
Webster's  Domestic  Economy  -  22 
Willich's  Popular  Tables  -  -  34 
Wilmot's"  Abridgment  of  Black- 
stone's  Commentaries         -        -  24 

Botany  and  Gardening. 

Conversations  on  Botany         -        -  6 

Hooker's  British  Flora    -         -        -  9 

"        Guide  to  Kew  Gardens    -  9 

Lindley's  Introduction  to  Botany  11 

"          Theory  of  Horticulture  -  11 

Loudon's  Hortus  Britannicus         -  la 

"           Amateur  Gardener         -  13 

"          Self-Instruction      -        -  13 

Trees  and  Shrubs  -        -  13 

*'          Gardening      -        -        -  13 

"          Plants     -                 .        .  13 

Rivera's  Rose  Amateur's  Guide      -  lb 


Blair's  Chronological  Tables          -  4 

Bunsen's  Aneient  Egypt         -         -  5 

Haydn's  Beatson's  Index        -         -  » 

Nicolas's  Chronology  of  History  -  12 

Commerce  and  Mercantile 

Atkinson's  Shipping  Laws      -        -  3 

Francis  On  Life  Assurance   -        -  8 

Loch's  Sailor's  Guide     -        -        -  l3 
Lorimer's    Letters     to    a     Young 

Master  Mariner  -         -        -        -  13 

M'Culloch'6Commerce&  Navigation  14 

Thomson's  Interest  Tables    -        -  32 

Criticism,     History,     and 


Austin's  Germany  -        -        -        -  3 

Balfour's  Sketches  of  Literature    -  3 

Blair's  Chron.  and  Histor.  Tables  -  4 

Bunsen's  Ancient  F.gvpt        -        .  5 

Hippolytus'    -        -        -  5 

Burton's  History  of  Scotland          -  5 
Chalybaeus's  Modern  fepeculati\e 

Philosophy           -        .         -        .  6 

Conybeare  and  Howson's  St.  Paul  6 

Eastlake's  History  of  tlil  Painting  7 

Erskine's  History  of  India      -        -  7 

Francis's  Annals  of  Life  Assurance  7 

Gleig's  Leinsic  Campaign      -        -  24 

Guriiey's  Historical  Sketches         -  8 
Hamilton's  Essays  from  the  Edin- 

burgli  Review       -        -        .        -  8 
Haydon's  Autobiography, by  Taylor  8 
Holland's    (Lord)  Foreign  Remi- 
niscences     _        -         -                  -  9 
"                 Whig  Party      -  9 
Jeffrey's  (Lord)  Contributions        -  10 
Kemble's  Anglo-Saxons                  -  11 
Lardner's  Cabinet  Cyclopaedia      -  12 
Macaulay's  Crit.  and  Hist.  Essays  14 
History  of  England      -  14 
'*          Speeches       -        -        -  14 
Mackintosh's  Miscellaneous  Works  14 
"            History  of  England  -  14 
M'Culloch'sGeogiaphicalDictionary  14 
■■        Mean's  Cjjurch  History  -        -  15 


of  Hii 



Jlenioir  of  tlie  liuke  of  Wellington    24 

Merivale's  History  of  Rome  -        -     15 

'*         Roman  Republic  -  15 

Milner's  Church  History 
Moore's  (TliomasJ  Memoir8,&c.    - 
Mure's  Greek  Literature 
Kanke's  Ferdinand  &  Maximilian 
Ricii's  Comp.  to  Latin  Dictionary 
Riildle's  Latin  Dictionaries  - 
Rogers's  EssaysfromtheEdin  burgh 

Review         -        -        . 
Roget's  English  Thesaurus   - 
Russell's  {Lady  Rachel)  Letters    - 

"         Life  of  Lord  W.  Russell 
St.  John's  Indian  Archipelago 
bchmitz's  History  of  Greece 
Smith's  Sacred  Annals    -        -        . 
Southey's  The  Doctor  &c.      - 
Steplieii's  Ecclesiastical  Biography 
'*     Lectures  on  French  Historv 
Sydney  Smith's  Works  - 

"  Select  Works 

**  Lectures 

Taylor's  Loyola     -         -        .        - 

**        Wesley    .        -       .        - 
Thirlwall's  History  of  Greece 
Townsend's  State  Trials 
'I'urkey  and  t:hristendoin 
Turner's  Anglo  Saxons 
Middle  Ages     - 

"        Sacred  Hist,  of  the  World 
Zumpt's  Latin  Gr 

Geography  and  Atlases. 

Butler's  Geography  and  Atlases    -  5 

Cabinet  Gazetteer  -        -        -        -  5 

Durrieu's  Morocco          -        -       -  24 

Hall's  Large  Library  Atlas    -       -  B 

Huglies's  Australian  Colonies       -  24 

Jesse's  Russia  and  the  War   -        -  10 

Johnston's  General  Gazetteer         -  11 
M'CuUoch'b  Geographical  Dictionary  14 

*'           Russia  and  Turkey     -  24 

Milner's  Baltic  Sea         -        -        -  15 

Murray's  Encyclo.  of  Geography   -  17 

Sharp's  British  Gazetteer       -        -  19 

Wheeler's  Geography  of  Herodotus  24 

Juvenile  Books. 

Amy  Herbert            -         -         -         -  19 

Corner's  Children's  Sunday  Book  6 

Earls  Daughter  (The)   -        -        -  19 

Experience  of  Life           -                 -  '20 

Gertrude          -        -                 -        -  19 

Howitt's  Boy's  Country  Book        -  10 

"        (Mary)  Children's  Vear    -  10 

Katharine  Ashtcm           -        -        -  20 

Lady  Una  and  her  Queendom        -  11 

I.aneton  Parsonage                  -        -  19 

Mrs  Marcet's  Conversations  -        -  15 

Margaret  Percival  -        -        -        -  20 

Pycroft's  English  Reading     -        -  18 

Medicine  and  Surgery. 

Bull's  Hints  to  Mothers  -        -        -  4 

"      Managemtutof  Children     -  4 

Copland's  Dictionary  of  Medicine  -  6 

Cust's  Invalid's  Own  Book     -        -  0 

Holland's  Mental  Physiology         -  9 

Latham  On  Diseases  of  the  Heart  -  11 

Little  On  Treatment  of  Deformities  U 

MooreOn  Health, Disease ,&Remedy  IB 

Pereira  On  Food  and  Diet      -        -  17 

Psychological  Inquiries          -        -  18 

Recce's  Medical  Guide  -        -        -  18 

Miscellaneous  and  General 

Atkinson's  Sheriff- Law  -        -       3 

Austin's  Sketches  of  German  Life        3 
Carlisle's  Lectures  and  Addresses      24 


ChalvbaeuB'9  Modern  Speculatire 
F'li'.lnRopl.y  -         .        .        . 

Dekinn  tl  t:elipse  of  Faith    . 

Eclipse  of  Failh      - 

Greg's  Essays  on  Political  and 
Social  Science      .        -        .        - 

Hayrtn'8  Book  of  Dignities 



Essay  on  Meclianics'  Insti- 

Holland's  Mental  Physiology         -  0 

Hoolier's  Kew  Guide       -        .        -  9 

Howitt's  Rural  Life  of  England     -  9 
"         Visitsto  RemarkablePlaces    9 

Jameson's  Commonplace  Book      -  10 

Jetlrcy's  (Lord)  Contributions       -  10 

Last  of  the  Old  Squires           -         -  17 

Loudon's  Lady's  Companion          -  14 

Macaulay's  Crit.  and  Hist.  Essays  14 

*'          Speeches       -        -        -  14 

Mackintosh's  M  iscellaneous  Works  1 4 

Memoirs  of  a  Maitre-d'Armes        -  24 

Maitland's  Churcli  in  the  Catacombs  14 

Pascal's  Works,  bv  Pearce     -         -  17 

Pycroft's  English  Kea.lin?     -        -  18 

Rich's  Comp.  to  Latin  Dictionary  19 

Riddle's  Latin  Dictionaries  -        -  18 

Rowlon's  Debater                   -        -  19 
Seaward 's  Narrativeof  his  Shipwreckl9 

Sir  Roger  de  Coverley     -         -         -  20 

Smith's  (Rev.  Sydney)  Works         -  21 

Southey'8  Common -place  Booka     -  21 

"          The  Doctor  &c.       -        -  21 

Souvcstre's  Attic  Philosopher         -  24 

"  Confessions  of  a  Working  Man  24 

Stephen's  Essays     -        -         -        -  21 

Stow's  Training  System          -        -  21 

Thomson's  Laws  of  Thought         -  21 

Town^end's  State  Trials        -        -  22 

Willich's  Popular  Tables        -        -  24 

Yonge's  English- Grei'k  Lexicon  -  24 

"        Latin  Gradus            -        -  '24 

Zumpt's  Latin  Grammar        -         -  24 

Natural  History  in  general. 

Callow's  Popular  Conchology        -  6 
Ephemera  and  Young  tin  the  Salmon    7 

Gosse's  Nat.  Hist,  of  Jamaica        -  8 

Kemp's  Natural  Hist,  of  Creation  24 

Kirby  and  Spence's  Entomology     -  11 

Lee's  Elements  of  Natural  History  U 

Maunder's  Natural  History    -        -  15 

Turton's  Shells  oftheBritishlslands  22 

Waterton's  Essays  on  Natural  Hist.  22 

Toualf  s  The  Dog  .        -        -  24 

"        The  Horse        .        -        -  24 

1-Volume   Encyclopaedias 
and  Dictionaries. 

Blaine's  Rural  Sports      -        -        -  4 

Bramles  Science,  Literature,*  Art  4 

Copland's  Dictionary  of  Medicine  -  6 

Cresy's  Civil  Engineering                -  6 

G  wilt's  Arfcbitecture       ...  8 

Johnston's  Geographical  Dictionary  11 

Loudon's  Apiculture     -       -        -  1:3 
"          Riiral  Architecture 


-  13 

-  13 

Plants     - 
"         Trees  and  Shi  ubs    -        -     1.1 
M'CuUoch'sGeo»raphical  Dictionary  14 
"  Dictionary  of  Commerce  14 

Murray's  Encyclo.  of  Geography  -  17 
Shaip's  British  Gazetteer  -  -  19 
Ure's  Dictionary  of  Arts,  &c.-  -  22 
Webster's  Domestic  Economy        -    22 

Religious  &  Moral  Works. 

Amv  Herbert            -        ...  19 

Atkinson  On  the  Church        .        .  3 

Bloomficid's  Greek  Testament         -  4 

"             Annotations  on  do,    -  4 

Calvert's  Wife's  Manual          -        ■  5 

Conylieare  and  Howsou's  St.  Paul  6 

Corner's  Sunday  Book    -         -        -  6 

Dale's  Domestic  Liturgy         -        -  7 

Defence  of  Eclipse  oj  faith   -        -  7 
Discipline        -         -         - 
-  rl's  Daughter  (Thel    - 



of  ^  aith 

Englishman's  Greek  Concordance  7 

Englishman'sHeh&f'hald. Concord.  7 

Experjenceof  Life  (The)                -  20 

Gertrude 19 

Harrison's  Light  of  the  Forge        -  8 

Hook's  Lectures  on  Passion  Week  9 

Home's  Introduction  to  Scriptures  9 

"        Abridgment  of  ditto          -  9 

HulSerton  Job       .         .         -        -  lU 

Jameson's  Sacred  Legends     -        -  10 

"          Monastic  Legends-        -  1(1 

<<          LegcadsuftheMiidonna  10 


Jeremv  Tajlor's  Works-        -        -  10 

K.ith.i'rine  Asliton            -         -         .  2(1 

Kl,ipis's  Hvnliis      .         .         -         .  U 

K6nigs  Lii'c  of  Luther  -        -        -  t 

Lady  Una  and  her  Queendom        -  1 1 

Laneton  Parsonage         -         -        -  19 

Letters  to  My  Unknown  Friends    -  11 

"      on  Happiness      -        -        -  11 

Litton's  Churcli  of  Christ  -  -  13 
Maitland's  Church  in  theCatacombs  14 

Margaret  Perciva!  -        -        -        -  20 

Maitineau's  Church  History  -        -  15 

Milner's  Churcli  of  Christ       -         -  15 

Montgomery's  Original  Hymns      -  16 

Moore  On  the  Use  of  the  Body        -  Ifi 

"          "       Soul  and  Body          -  16 

"    '8  Man  and  his  Motives       -  16 

Monr.onism              -        -        -        -  24 

Neale's  Closing  Scene     -        -        -  17 

"  Renting  Places  of  the  Just  17 
Riches     Uial       Bring     no 



Risen  from  the  Ranks  -  17 

Newman's  iJ.  H.;  Discourses  -  17 

Ranke's  Ferdinand  &  Maximilian  24 

Readings  for  Lent  -        -        -  20 

"  Confirmation    -        -  20 

Robinson's  Lexicon  to  the  Greek 

Testament 18 

Saints  our  Example       -        -        -  19 

Self  Denial      -  -        -        -  19 

Sermon  in  the  Mount  -        -  19 

Sermon  on  the  Mount  illuminated  19 

Sinclair's  Journey  of  Liie        -         -  20 

Smith's  {Svdney)'Moral  Philosophy  20 

"        (G'.)  Sacred  Annals        -  20 

Southey's  Life  of  Wesley        -       -  20 

Stephen's  Ecclesiastical  Biography  21 

Taylor's  Lovola       -  -        -  21 

"         Wesley      -         -        -        -  21 

Theologia  Germanica    -        -       -  21 

Thumb  Bible  (The)  -        -  22 

Turner's  Sacred  History  -       -        -  23 

Poetry  and  the  Drama. 

Arnold's  Poems       .         -         -        -  3 

Aikins  (Dr.)  British  Poets      -        -  3 

Baillie's  (Joanna)  Poetical  Works  3 

Barter's  11  ad  of  Homer          -        -  3 

Bode's  Ballads  from  Herodotus     -  4 

Calvert's  Wife's  Manual         -        -  6 

Flowers  and  their  kindred  Thoughts  17 

Goldsmith's  Poems,  illustrated      -  8 

Kent's  Aletheia       -        -                 -  U 

Kippis's  Hymns      -        -        -        -  11 

L.  E.  L.'s  Poetical  Works       -        -  U 

Linwood's  Antliologia  Oxoniensis  -  1 1 

Macaulay's  Lays  of  Ancient  Rome  14 

Montgomery's  Poetical  Works       -  16 

"              Original  Hymns      -  16 

Moore's  Poetical  Works          -        -  16 

LallaRookh      -        -        -  16 

"        Irish  Melodies  -        -        -  16 

"        Songs  and  Ballads   -        -  16 

Shakspeare,  by  Bowdler         -        -  20 

"           Sentiments  &  Similes  10 

Southey's  Poetical  Works       -        -  21 

"          British  Poets  -        -        -  21 

Thomson's  Seasons,  illustrated      -  22 

trhocnton's  Zohrab         -         -        -  22 

Watts's  Lyrics  of  the  Heart  -        -  22 

Political    Economy    and 

Banfield's  Statistical  Companion  -  4 
Caird's  Letters  on  .Agriculture  -  5 
Francis  On  Life  Assurance  -       7 

Greg's    Essays    on    Political   and 

Social  Science      -        -        -        -       8 

Laing's  Notes  of  a  Traveller  -  11  &  24 

M'Culloch's  Geog.  Statist.  &c.  Diet.    14 

"  Dictionary  of  Commerce  14 

'*  London       -        -        -     24 

"  StatisticsofGt.  Britain    14 

Marcet's  Political  Economy  -        -     15 

Willich's  Popular  Tables        -       -     24 

The    Sciences   in    General 
and  Mathematics. 

Bourne's  Catechism  of  the   Steam 

Engine  ...         -        -  4 

'■      On  the  Screw  Propeller     -  4 

Brande's  Dictionary  of  Science,  &c.  4 

"  Lectures  nn  OrganicChemistry  4 

Cresy's  Civil  EiigineeiinB       -        -  6 

DelaBeche'sGeolouM  olCornwall,&c.  7 

"  Geological  Observer  -  7 

De  la  Rive's  Electricity  -        -  7 

Fariiday'uNon  Metallic  Elements  7 

Fullom's  Marvels  of  Science 
Ilerschel's  Outlines  of  Astronomy 
Holland's  Mental  Physiology 
JIumboldt's  Aspects  of  Nature 

"  Cosmos       -        .        - 

Hunt  On  Light 
Lardner's  Cabinet  Cvcloppedia 
Marcet's  (Mrs.)  Conversations 
Moscley'sEngineering&  Architecture 
Owen's  Lectures  on  Comp.  Anatomy 
Our  Coal  Fields  and  our  Coal  Pits 
Peschel's  Elements  of  Physics 
Phillips's  Fossils  of  Cornwall,  &c. 



*'        Guide  to  Geology    - 
Portlock's  Geology  of  Londonderry 
Smee's  Electro- Metallurgy     - 
Steam  Engine  (The) 
Tate  On  Strength  of  Materials       - 
Todd's  Tables  of  Circles 
Wilson's  Electric  Telegraph- 

Rural  Sports. 

Bakt  r's  Rifle  and  Hound  in  Ceylon 
Berkeley's     Reminiscences  - 
Blame's' Dictionary  of  Sports 
Cecil's  Stable  Practice    - 
"      Records  of  the  Chase  - 
"       Stud  Farm  -        -        -        - 
The  Cricket  Field   -        -        .        . 
Ephemera  On  Angling  -         ,        - 

"  Book  of  the  Salmon 
The  Hunting  Field 
Loudon's  Lady's  Country  Comp.  -  I 
Pocket  and  the  Stud 
Practical  Horsemanship 
Pulman's  Fly  Fishing  -  -  .  i 
Richardson's  Horsemanship  -  -  I 
St  John's  Sporting  Rambles  -  1 
Stable  Talk  and  Table  Talk  - 
Stonehenge  On  the  Greyhound 
The  Stud,  for  Practical'Purposes  ■ 

Veterinary  Medicine,  Sec 

Cecil's  Stable  Practice 

■'      Stud  Farm 
Hunting  Field  (The)     - 
Morton's  Veterinary  Pharmacy 
Pocket  and  the  Stud 
Practical  Horsemanship 
Richardson's  Horsemanship  -     I 

Stable  Talk  and  Table  Talk   • 
Stud  (The I 
Youatt's  1'he  Dog  - 
"        The  Horse 

Voyages  and  Travels. 

Baker's  RiHeand  Hound  in  Ceylon 
Barrow's  Continental  Tour  - 
Carlisle's  Turkey  and  Greece 
De  Custine's  Russia 
Eothen    ------ 

Ferguson's  Swiss  Travels 
Forester  and  Biddulph's  Norway  - 
GironiSre's  Philippines  - 
Hill's  Travels  in  Siberia 
Hope's  Brittany  and  the  Bible 

'*      Chase  in  Biittany 
Hoivitt's  Art  Student  in  Munich  - 
Hue's  Tartarv,  Thibet,  and  China 
Iluyhes's  Australian  Colonies 
Ilumbley's  Indian  Journal     - 
Humboldt's  Aspects  of  Nature 
Jameson's  Canada  -        -        -        - 

Jerrmann's  St.  Petersburg    - 
Laing's  Norway      -        -        -        - 

"        Notes  of  a  Traveller    11  & 
Macintosh  s  Turkey  and  Black  Sea 
Oldmixon's  Piccadilly  to  Pera 
Osborn's  Arctic  Journal 
Peel's  Nubian  Desert      - 
PfeifTer's  Voyage  round  the  World 
Power's  New  Zealand  Sketches     - 
Richardson's  Arctic  Boat  'Voyage 
Seaward '8  Narrative 
St.  John's  (H.)  Indian  Archipelago 
(J.  A.)  Isis        - 
"  "       Theie&  Back  again 

"         (Hon.F.)  Itambles 
Sutherlanil's  Arctic  Voyage  - 
Traveller's  Library         -         -    23  & 
Werne  s  African  Wanderings 

Works  of  Fiction. 

Arnol.l'sOakfie  d 
Lady  Willougtiliy's  Diary 
Macdonald's  Villa  Verocch 
Sir  Roger  de  Coverley     - 
Southey's  The  Doctor  &c. 





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V.  BOTH  EN,  TRACES  of  TRAVEL  from  the  EAST    2/6 

VI.    MACAULAY's  ESSAYS  on  ADDISON,  WALPOLE,  and  LORD  BACON   .. ..  2/G 

VII.     HUC's  TRAVELS  in  TAR TARY,  &c 2/6 














XX.     HOPE'S  BIBLE  in  BRITTANY  and  CHASE  in  BRirrANY   2/6 






and  his  SPEECHES  on  PARLIAMENTARY  REFORM  (1831-32)....  J    ^^^ 



XXIX.     DE  CUSTINE's  RUSSIA,  abridsed 2/6 


XXXI.     BODENSTEDT  and  WAGNER'S  SCHAMYL;  and  J  2/6 


XXXII.    LAING's  NOTES  of  a  TRAVELLER,  First  Series 2/6 





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2..  „  „  Lord  Olive. 

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5.. Mr.  Macaulay'9  Two  Essays  on  William    Pitt  and    the 
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8.. Mr.  Macaulay's  Essays  on  Ranke  and  Gladstone. 
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2.3. .  Brittany  and  the  Bible.     By  1.  Hope. 

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25.. Mr.  Macaulay's  Essay  on  Lord  Bacon. 

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46..Gironi6re*6  Philippine  Islands. 

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48.. Confessions  of  a  Working  Man.     By  Emile  Souvestre. 

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50.  .The  Love  Story  from  Southey's  Doctor. 

51 ..  An  Attic  Philosopher  in  Paris.     By  E.  Souvestre. 

52.. Mr.  Macaulay's  Speeches  on  Parliamentary  Reform. 

53.  .The  Russians  of  the  South.    By  Shirley  Brooks. 

51.. Indications  of  Instinct.     By  Dr.  Lindley  Kemp. 
fi — 56..Lanman'3  Adventures  in  the  Wilds  of  North  America. 
7-58  59..  De  Custine's  Russia. 

CO.  .Durrieu's  Morocco. 
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63.  .Schamyl,  the  Chieftain  of  the  Caucasus. 

61.. Russia  and  Turkey.     ByJ.  R.  M'Culloch,  Esq. 
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[^September,  1854. 



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